Seven hills of Rome
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The seven hills of Rome (Italian: Sette colli di Roma [ˈsɛtte ˈkɔlli di ˈroːma], Latin: Septem colles/ montes Romae) east of the river Tiber form the geographical heart of Rome, within the walls of the city.
The seven hills are:
- Aventine Hill (Latin, Aventinus; Italian, Aventino)
- Caelian Hill (Cælius, Celio)
- Capitoline Hill (Capitolinus, Campidoglio)
- Esquiline Hill (Esquilinus, Esquilino)
- Palatine Hill (Palatinus, Palatino)
- Quirinal Hill (Quirinalis, Quirinale)
- Viminal Hill (Viminalis, Viminale)
The Vatican Hill (Latin Collis Vaticanus) lying northwest of the Tiber, the Pincian Hill (Latin Mons Pincius), lying to the north, and the Janiculum Hill (Latin Ianiculum), lying to the west, are not counted among the traditional Seven Hills.
Tradition holds that Romulus founded the original city on the Palatine Hill on April 21st, 753 BCE, and that the seven hills were first occupied by small settlements that were not grouped nor recognized as a city called Rome. The seven hills' denizens began to participate in a series of religious games, which began to bond the groups. The city of Rome, thus, came into being as these separate settlements acted as a group, draining the marshy valleys between them and turning them into markets (fora in Latin). Later, in the early 4th century BCE, the Servian Walls were constructed to protect the seven hills.
In modern Rome, five of the seven hills, the Aventine, Caelian, Esquiline, Quirinal, and Viminal Hills, are now the sites of monuments, buildings, and parks. The Capitoline Hill is the location of Rome's city hall, and the Palatine Hill is part of to the main archaeological area.
Other cities with seven hills
Newton, Massachusetts and Constantinople are also said to have been built on seven hills, following the example of Rome: "The general features of Newton are not without interest. Seven principal elevations mark its siu-face, like the seven hills of ancient Rome, with the difference that the seven hills of Newton are much more distinct than the seven hills of Rome: Nonantum Hill, Waban Hill, Chestnut Hill, Bald Pate, Oak Hill, Institution Hill and Mount Ida." See also Seven hills of Istanbul.</Note>
- Other Roman hills
- Monte Mario
- Oppian Hill (Oppio)
- Velian Hill (Velia)
- Monte Testaccio, an artificial hill composed primarily of broken amphorae
- Janiculum Hill (Gianicolo)
- Heiken, Grant; Funiciello, Renato; de Rita, Donatella (Oct 24, 2013). "Chapter 11: Field Trips in and Around Rome". The Seven Hills of Rome: A Geological Tour of the Eternal City. Princeton University Press. p. 174. ISBN 9780691130385.
- Smith, S.F. (Jan 23, 2018). "Chapter 1: History of Newton". History of Newton, Massachusetts, Town and City, from its Earliest Settlement to the Present Time, 1630-1880,. The American Logotype Company. p. 13.