The Seven Species (Hebrew: שבעת המינים, Shiv'at HaMinim) are seven agricultural products - two grains and five fruits - which are listed in the Hebrew Bible as being special products of the Land of Israel.
Many references to these basic foods can be found in Bible. The Mishna states that only first fruits of the Seven Species could be brought to the Temple in Jerusalem as offerings. Wheat fields, vineyards and olive groves are still a salient feature of the Israeli landscape today. Figs, olives, pomegranates and dates are common ingredients in the cuisine of Israel.
The ancient Israelites cultivated both wheat and barley. These two grains are mentioned first in the biblical list of the Seven Species of the land of Israel and their importance as food in ancient Israelite cuisine is also seen in the celebration of the barley harvest at the festival of Shavuot and of the wheat harvest at the festival of Sukkot.
A hardy cereal that has coarse bristles coming from the ears. It is widely cultivated, mainly for use in brewing and stockfeed.
Figs were cultivated throughout the Land of Israel and fresh or dried figs were part of the daily diet. A common way of preparing dried figs was to chop them and press them into a cake. Figs are frequently mentioned in the Bible (for example, 1 Samuel 25:18, 1 Samuel 30:12 and 1 Chronicles 12:41).
Pomegranates were usually eaten fresh, although occasionally they were used to make juice or wine, or sun-dried for use when the fresh fruit was out of season. They probably played a minor part in Israelite cuisine, but were symbolically important, as adornments on the hem of the robe of the high priest and the Temple pillars, and embossed on coinage.
The olive was a major element in the seven species. Olive oil was used not only for food and for cooking, but also for lighting, sacrificial offerings, ointment, and anointment for priestly or royal office.
Dates were eaten fresh or dried, but were used mostly boiled into thick, long-lasting syrup called “date honey” (dvash temarim) for use as a sweetener. The honey in the Biblical reference of “a land flowing with milk and honey” (for example, Exodus 3:8) is date honey.
While in Jewish law dates are under the category of the seven species, bee honey may have been the type of honey that is referred to in the Torah. By the time the Talmud was written honey bees were extinct in Israel, and dates were used in place of honey, the excavation of Tel Rehov shows that beekeeping was practiced in Israel in the early Iron Age 3000 years ago during the time of king David.
Several accounts in Torah also indicate that bee honey existed in ancient Israel; in the Book of Judges Samson takes honey from a bee hive that he finds in the carcass of a lion (Judges 14:8–9, see also Samson's riddle).
The size of various measurements are tied to the specific amounts and sizes of Halachic objects. For example, the minimum width of Tefillin straps is known by Law given to Moses at Sinai to be the size of a grain of barley. Alike, other fruits are used for measuring. Talmud scholars use the verse of Seven Species as a hint for all the measures using fruit sizes.
The seven species are traditionally eaten on Tu Bishvat, the Jewish "New Year for Trees", on Sukkot, the "Festival of Booths", and on Shavuot, the "Festival of Weeks". In halakha (Jewish law), they are considered more important than other fruits, and a special berakhah (blessing) is recited after eating them. Additionally, the blessing prior to eating them precedes those of other food items, except for bread. The seven species are all important ingredients in Israeli cuisine today.
Deuteronomy 8:8 is prominently inscribed (in the Latin Vulgate translation: Terram Frumenti Hordei, ac Vinarum, in qua Ficus et Malogranata et Oliveta Nascuntur, Terram Olei ac Mellis) on the dome of California Tower at Balboa Park in San Diego, California, referring to the species' importance in California agriculture.
- Cooper 1993, pp. 4–9.
- "The Seven Species". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved January 22, 2016.
- Zisling, Yael. "The biblical seven species". Gems in Israel. Archived from the original on 16 February 2015. Retrieved 22 January 2016.
- Macdonald 2008, pp. 19–21.
- Marks 2010, p. 237.
- Marks 2010, p. 196.
- Macdonald 2008, pp. 28–31.
- Marks 2010, pp. 479–480.
- Macdonald 2008, pp. 23–24.
- Marks 2010, pp. 153–154.
- Ancient bees found in Israel hailed from Turkey By Thomas H. Maugh II, Los Angeles Times (June 8, 2010)
- Cooper, John (1993). Eat and Be Satisfied: A Social History of Jewish Food. New Jersey: Jason Aronson Inc. ISBN 0-87668-316-2.
- Marks, Gil (2010). Encyclopedia of Jewish Food. Hoboken, New Jersey: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 0470391308. ISBN 9780470391303.
- Macdonald, Nathan (November 17, 2008). What Did the Ancient Israelites Eat?. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. ISBN 0-8028-6298-5. ISBN 978-0802862983.
- Anonymous; Suval, Yeshaya (Illustrator) (July 2, 2012). The Seven Species Coloring Book. Lakewood, New Jersey, U.S.A.: OK Playtime. ISBN 1560623780. ISBN 9781560623786.
- Kagan, Israel Meir; Feldman, Aharon; Orenstein, Aviel (Translator) (1989). Mishnah berurah: The Classic Commentary to Shulchan Aruch Orach chayim, Comprising the Laws of Daily Jewish Conduct Hardcover – Large Print. Mishnah Berurah. 2C (Hebrew-English ed.). Jerusalem Spring Valley, NY: Pisgah Foundation P. Feldheim, sole distributors. p. 183. ISBN 0873065026. ISBN 978-0873065023.