Seven chieftains of the Magyars
The Seven chieftains of the Magyars (or Hungarians) were the leaders of the seven tribes of the Hungarians at the time of their arrival in the Carpathian Basin in AD 895. Constantine VII, emperor of the Byzantine Empire names the seven tribes in his De Administrando Imperio, a list that can be verified with names of Hungarian settlements. The names of the chieftains, however, are not precisely known, as the chronicles include contradictory lists, some of which have been found to be false.
Constantine VII does not give the names of the chieftains of the Hungarian tribes, but describes some aspects of the leadership.
According to Anonymus
- Álmos, father of Árpád
- Előd, father of Szabolcs
- Ond, father of Ete
- Kend (Kond, Kund), father of Korcán (Kurszán) and Kaplon
- Tas, father of Lél (Lehel)
- Tétény (Töhötöm), father of Horka
Most probably all persons on this list were real and significant personalities, but the list, as that of the seven chieftains who started the conquest of the Carpathian Basin, is certainly false. Constantine VII names Tas as a grandson of Árpád. The relations of the early Hungarian leaders are subject of debate between historians.
According to Simon of Kéza
Hungarian chronicler Simon of Kéza names seven captains who led seven tribes:
- Árpád, son of Álmos, who was the son of Előd, who was the son of Ügyek
- Künd, father of Kusid and Kupian
- Vérbulcsú ("Blood-Bulcsú"), whose name's origin is that "his father was killed by Germans in the battle of Krimhild", and for revenge, "he drank the blood of some, like wine".
This list, having more legendary elements, is even less credible than that of Anonymus: only Árpád and Szabolcs match the time of the conquest.
In Budapest, Hungary, the Heroes' Square, better known as Hősök tere, has a representation of the different chieftains at the base of the column. At the base of the column is a group of seven mounted figures representing the Magyar chieftains who led the Hungarian people into the Carpathian basin. In the front is Árpád, considered the founder of the Hungarian nation. Behind him are the chieftains Előd, Ond, Kond, Tas, Huba, and Töhötöm (Tétény). Little survives in the historical record about these individuals and both their costumes and their horses are considered to be more fanciful than historically accurate.
Statues of the Seven Chieftains on the Hősök tere (Heroes' Square) in Budapest, Hungary
Árpád leading the other chieftains
Árpád's left profile