|Classification and external resources|
Sever's Disease, otherwise known as calcaneal apophysitis is an inflammation of the growth plate in the heel of growing children, typically adolescents. The condition presents as pain in the heel and is caused by repetitive stress to the heel and is thus particularly common in active children. It usually resolves when the bone has completed growth or activity is lessened.
It is named for James Warren Sever (1878–1964), an American Orthopedic doctor, who characterized it in 1912. Dr Sever had "The Principles of Orthopaedic Surgery" published in 1940 by The Macmillan Company.
The most prominent symptom of Sever's disease is heel pain which is usually aggravated by physical activity such as walking, running or jumping. The pain is localised to the posterior and plantar side of the heel over the calcaneal apophysis. Sometimes, the pain may be so severe that it may cause limping and interfere with physical performance in sports. External appearance of the heel is almost always normal, and signs of local disease such as edema, erythema (redness) are absent. The main diagnostic tool is pain on medial- lateral compression of the calcaneus in the area of growth plate, so called squeeze test. Foot radiographs are usually normal. Therefore, the diagnosis of Sever's disease is primarily clinical.
Sever’s disease is directly related to overuse of the bone and tendons in the heel. This can come from playing sports or anything that involves a lot of heel movement. It can be associated with starting a new sport, or the start of a new season. Children who are going through adolescence are also at risk of getting it because the heel bone grows quicker than the leg. Too much weight bearing on the heel can also cause it, as can excessive traction since the bones and tendons are still developing. It occurs more commonly in children who over-pronate, and involves both heels in more than half of patients.
Treatment may consist of one or more of the following:
- Elevating the heel
- Stretching hamstring and calf muscles 2–3 times daily
- Using R.I.C.E. (Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation)
- Foot orthotics
- Physical therapy
- Icing daily (morning)
- Heating therapy
- Open back shoe are best and avoid high heel shoes
The Strickland Protocol has shown a positive response in patients with a mean return to sport in less than 3 weeks. Further research into the anatomical and biomechanical responses of this protocol are currently being undertaken by the authors. The study was presented at the European College of Sports Science - 13th Congress Proceedings Estoril,Portugal, July 9–12, 2008. Clinical study - Electronic Version ISSN 1536-7290
Sever’s disease is self-recovering, meaning that it will go away on its own when the foot is used less or when the bone is through growing. The condition is not expected to create any long-term disability, and expected to subside in 2–8 weeks. Some orthopedic surgeons will put the affected foot in a cast to immobilize it.
While symptoms can resolve quickly, they can recur. Sever's disease is more common in boys than girls; the average age of symptom onset is nine to eleven years.
- Maintain good flexibility through stretching exercises
- Avoid excessive running on hard surfaces
- Use quality, well-fitting shoes with firm support and a shock-absorbent sole
- "Sever disease - definition of Sever disease in the Medical dictionary - by the Free Online Medical Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia". Medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com. Retrieved 2014-04-29.
- Kose, Ozkan (2010). "Do we really need radiographic assessment for the diagnosis of non-specific heel pain (calcaneal apophysitis) in children?". Skeletal Radiology. 39 (4): 359–361. doi:10.1007/s00256-009-0774-y.
- "Sever's Disease". Kidshealth.org. Retrieved 2014-04-29.
- Hendrix CL (2005). "Calcaneal apophysitis (Sever disease)". Clinics in podiatric medicine and surgery. 22 (1): 55–62, vi. doi:10.1016/j.cpm.2004.08.011. PMID 15555843.
- Madden CC, Mellion MB (1996). "Sever's disease and other causes of heel pain in adolescents". American Family Physician. 54 (6): 1995–2000. PMID 8900359.
- Strickland JM, Coleman NJ, Brunswic M, Kocken R (2008). "Osgood-Schlatter's Disease: An active approach using massage and stretching". Presentation at the European Congress of Sports Science Conference. appendix1.
- Micheli LJ, Ireland ML (1987). "Prevention and management of calcaneal apophysitis in children: an overuse syndrome". J Pediatr Orthop. 7 (1): 34–8. doi:10.1097/01241398-198701000-00007. PMID 3793908.
- Bailey, Christopher; Cannon, Mary (May 2014). "Sever Disease (Calcaneal Apophysitis)". The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. 114 (05): 411. doi:10.7556/jaoa.2014.081.
- Foot Physicians - Pediatric Heel Pain