Severo Fernández

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Severo Fernández Alonso Caballero
SEVERO FERNÁNDEZ ALONSO CABALLERO.jpg
President of Bolivia
In office
19 August 1896 – 12 April 1899
Vice President Rafael Peña de Flores (1896–1899)
Jenaro Sanjinés Calderón (1896–1899)
Preceded by Mariano Baptista
Succeeded by José Manuel Pando
Personal details
Born (1849-08-15)15 August 1849
Sucre
Died 12 August 1925(1925-08-12) (aged 75)
Potosí
Nationality Bolivian

Severo Fernández Alonso Caballero (15 August 1849, Sucre – 12 August 1925) was President of Bolivia from 1896 to 1899. He is best remembered as the last president of the 15-year period of Conservative Party hegemony (1884–99).

Political career[edit]

Presidency[edit]

Like his predecessor, Mariano Baptista, Fernández was a more conciliatory and legalist[clarification needed] breed of Conservative. He presided over the collapse of Conservative Party rule and its loss of power in the aftermath of the 1899 Civil War against the Liberal Party. A disgruntled Liberal Party had become increasingly frustrated during the many years of Conservative dominance, often attained by electoral fraud. After 1894, led by the combative José Manuel Pando, a former military hero in the War of the Pacific, the Liberals' calls for anti-government rebellions became more strident, but they were always neutralized by a loyal military establishment.

All of this changed radically with the emergence of a new, and very polarizing, wedge issue: the simmering displeasure in the cities of Sucre and Potosi, dating back to the days of President Andrés de Santa Cruz (1829–39), regarding the de facto takeover by the city of La Paz as the seat of the Bolivian government. The regional conflict also had much to do with the emergence of a new tin-mining elite based in La Paz and Oruro, to the detriment of the old silver-mining establishment based in Sucre and Potosi, as symbolized by Conservative leaders such as Arce and Pacheco (both silver tycoons). To add fuel to the fire, the Liberals called for a federal decentralization of power, thus garnering further support from outlying regions of the country.

Civil War (often called the "Federal Revolution") exploded when Chuquisaca and Potosi parliamentarians in Sucre passed a "Law of Confinement," which ordered the President to reside in Sucre and issue decrees from there, rather than from La Paz. For their part, La Paz-Oruro-Cochabamba lawmakers associated with Pando's Liberal Party introduced a motion calling for the official transfer of the seat of Government to La Paz, legalizing what had in fact been customary practice for decades. When this motion was prevented from being voted on by the Conservatives, the Liberal congressmen left Sucre and established themselves permanently in La Paz. At this point President Fernández himself led an army to La Paz, in order to "restore order." The ensuing bloodbath culminated in the crushing defeat of the Conservatives at the hands of General Pando, who emerged triumphant from the Battle of the Second Crucero, even taking President Fernández prisoner.

Subsequently, Fernández was allowed to go into exile in Chile, but returned to Bolivia in his declining years, where he died in August 1925, a few days before his 76th birthday.

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
José Manuel del Carpio
Foreign Minister of Bolivia
1892
Succeeded by
Emeterio Cano y Benavente
Preceded by
Serapio Reyes Ortiz
Vice President of Bolivia
1892–1896
Succeeded by
Jenaro Sanjinés Calderón
Rafael Peña de Flores
Preceded by
Mariano Baptista
President of Bolivia
1896–1899
Succeeded by
José Manuel Pando
Preceded by
Abdón Saavedra Mallea
Foreign Minister of Bolivia
1922
Succeeded by
David Alvéstegui Laredo