Sewing Machine Combination
The Sewing Machine Combination or the Sewing Machine Trust was the first patent pool in US history. It was formed by the "Albany Agreement" of 24 October 1856 and lasted until its last patent expired in 1877. It existed for the purpose of reducing the licensing and litigation overhead being imposed by the patent thicket known as the Sewing machine war.
Of the nine patents pooled, three were particularly crucial: the lockstitch, the four-motion feed, and the combination of a vertical needle with horizontal sewing surface. In addition to its four member companies, dozens of other companies licensed its patents, for which they paid royalties and submitted annual production reports.
Twenty years after the Combination expired, only two companies remained in business.
- Lampe, R., Moser, P. "Do Patent Pools Encourage Innovation? Evidence from the 19th-Century Sewing Machine Industry" (2009)
- "1846 Howe Jr.'s Sewing Machine Patent Model". National Museum of American History. Retrieved 2016-01-13.
- Depew, Chauncey Mitchell (1895-01-01). One Hundred Years of American Commerce. D.O. Haynes.
- "The "Sewing-Machine Combination"" (PDF). Retrieved 13 January 2016.
- "How Singer Won the Sewing Machine War". Smithsonian. Retrieved 2016-01-13.
- Johnson's New Universal Cyclopaedia, volume S-Z page 210, retrieved 2010-08-09 from https://books.google.com/books?id=KmYMAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA208&dq=new+universal+cyclopaedia+volume+6