Sex and gender distinction
A person's sex is distinct from their gender, which can refer to either social roles based on the sex of the person (gender role) or personal identification of one's own gender based on an internal awareness (gender identity). In some circumstances, an individual's assigned sex and gender do not align, and the person may be transgender. In other cases, an individual may have sex characteristics that complicate sex assignment, and the person may be intersex.
In ordinary speech, sex and gender are often used interchangeably. Some languages, such as German or Finnish, have no separate words for sex and gender, and the distinction has to be made through context.
Theses days both physiologists and biologists agree that gender is distinct from sex. Sexologist John Money is often regarded as the first to introduce a terminological distinction between biological sex and gender role in 1955 although Madison Bentley had already in 1945 defined gender as the "socialized obverse of sex". Before this, it was virtually unknown to use the word gender to refer to anything but grammatical categories, although there are a small number of pre-1900 examples of gender being used as a synonym for sex.
Anisogamy, or the size differences of gametes (sex cells), is the defining feature of the two sexes. According to biologist Michael Majerus there is no other universal difference between males and females.
The term sex differences is typically applied to sexually dimorphic traits that are hypothesized to be evolved consequences of sexual selection. For example, the human "sex difference" in height is a consequence of sexual selection, while the "gender difference" typically seen in head hair length (women with longer hair) is not. Scientific research shows an individual's sex influences his or her behavior.
Sex is generally defined more broadly by psychologists. One of the (context dependant) guidelines used by the APA for example states that "[t]here are a number of indicators of biological sex, including sex chromosomes, gonads, internal reproductive organs, and external genitalia."
Merriam-Webster defines sex as "the sum of the structural, functional, and sometimes behavioral characteristics of organisms that distinguish males and females". They also note that "[d]octors can alter the physical characteristics of sex, but bodily sex does not determine gender."
Public health organizations
The World Health Organization (WHO) similarly states that "'sex' refers to the biological and physiological characteristics that define men and women" and that "'male' and 'female' are sex categories". According to the CDC people whose internal psychological experience differs from their assigned sex are transgender, transsexual, or non-binary.
Historian Thomas W. Laqueur suggests that from the Renaissance to the 18th century, there was a prevailing inclination among doctors towards the existence of only one biological sex (the one-sex theory, that women and men had the same fundamental reproductive structure). In some discourses, this view persisted into the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Laqueur asserts that even at its peak, the one-sex model was supported among highly educated Europeans but is not known to have been a popular view nor one entirely agreed upon by doctors who treated the general population.
Scholars such as Joan Cadden and Michael Stolberg have criticized Laqueur's theory. Stolberg provides evidence to suggest that significant two-sex understandings of anatomy existed before Laqueur claims, arguing that sexual dimorphism was accepted as early as the sixteenth century.:276 Joan Cadden has stated that 'one-sex' models of the body were already treated with scepticism in the ancient and medieval periods, and that Laqueur's periodisation of the shift from one-sex to two-sex was not as clear-cut as he made it out to be.
Sex and gender took center stage in America in the time of wars, when women had to work and men were at war.
In the Oxford English Dictionary, gender is defined as, "[i]n mod[ern] (esp[ecially] feminist) use, a euphemism for the sex of a human being, often intended to emphasize the social and cultural, as opposed to the biological, distinctions between the sexes", with the earliest example cited being from 1963. The American Heritage Dictionary (5th edition) states that gender may be defined by identity as "neither entirely female nor entirely male"; its Usage Note adds:
Some people maintain that the word sex should be reserved for reference to the biological aspects of being male or female or to sexual activity, and that the word gender should be used only to refer to sociocultural roles. ... In some situations this distinction avoids ambiguity, as in gender research, which is clear in a way that sex research is not. The distinction can be problematic, however. Linguistically, there isn't any real difference between gender bias and sex bias, and it may seem contrived to insist that sex is incorrect in this instance.
Public medical organizations
A working definition in use by the World Health Organization for its work is that "'[g]ender' refers to the socially constructed roles, behaviours, activities, and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men and women" and that "'masculine' and 'feminine' are gender categories." The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) used to use gender instead of sex when referring to physiological differences between male and female organisms. In 2011, they reversed their position on this and began using sex as the biological classification and gender as "a person's self representation as male or female, or how that person is responded to by social institutions based on the individual's gender presentation." Gender is also now commonly used even to refer to the physiology of non-human animals, without any implication of social gender roles.
GLAAD (formerly the Gay & Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation) makes a distinction between sex and gender. In their Media Reference Guide for transgender issues, they describe sex as "the classification of people as male or female" at birth, based on bodily characteristics such as chromosomes, hormones, internal reproductive organs, and genitalia, and gender identity as "a person's internal, deeply held sense of their gender".
Gender in the sense of social and behavioral distinctions, according to archaeological evidence, arose "at least by some 30,000 years ago". More evidence was found as of "26,000 years ago", at least at the archeological site Dolní Věstonice I and others, in what is now the Czech Republic. This is during the Upper Paleolithic time period.
The historic meaning of gender, ultimately derived from Latin genus, was of "kind" or "variety". By the 20th century, this meaning was obsolete, and the only formal use of gender was in grammar. This changed in the early 1970s when the work of John Money, particularly the popular college textbook Man & Woman, Boy & Girl, was embraced by feminist theory. This meaning of gender is now prevalent in the social sciences, although in many other contexts, gender includes sex or replaces it. Gender was first only used in languages to describe the feminine and masculine words, up until around the 1960s.
Distinction in linguistics
Since the social sciences now distinguish between biologically defined sex and socially constructed gender, the term gender is now also sometimes used by linguists to refer to social gender as well as grammatical gender. Traditionally, however, a distinction has been made by linguists between sex and gender, where sex refers primarily to the attributes of real-world entities – the relevant extralinguistic attributes being, for instance, male, female, non-personal, and indeterminate sex – and grammatical gender refers to a category, such as masculine, feminine, and neuter (often based on sex, but not exclusively so in all languages), that determines the agreement between nouns of different genders and associated words, such as articles and adjectives.
A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language, for instance, states
By GENDER is meant a grammatical classification of nouns, pronouns, or other words in the noun phrase according to certain meaning-related distinctions, especially a distinction related to the sex of the referent.
Thus German, for instance, has three genders: masculine, feminine, and neuter. Nouns referring to people and animals of known sex are generally referred to by nouns with the equivalent gender. Thus Mann (meaning man) is masculine and is associated with a masculine definite article to give der Mann, while Frau (meaning woman) is feminine and is associated with a feminine definite article to give die Frau. However the words for inanimate objects are commonly masculine (e.g. der Tisch, the table) or feminine (die Armbanduhr, the watch), and grammatical gender can diverge from biological sex; for instance the feminine noun [die] Person refers to a person of either sex, and the neuter noun [das] Mädchen means "the girl".
In modern English, there is no true grammatical gender in this sense, though the differentiation, for instance, between the pronouns "he" and "she", which in English refers to a difference in sex (or social gender), is sometimes referred to as a gender distinction. A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language, for instance, refers to the semantically based "covert" gender (e.g. male and female, not masculine and feminine) of English nouns, as opposed to the "overt" gender of some English pronouns; this yields nine gender classes: male, female, dual, common, collective, higher male animal, higher female animal, lower animal, and inanimate, and these semantic gender classes affect the possible choices of pronoun for coreference to the real-life entity, e.g. who and he for brother but which and it or she for cow.
West and Zimmerman's "Doing Gender"
Used primarily in sociology and gender studies, "doing gender" is the socially constructed performance which takes place during routine human interactions, rather than as a set of essentialized qualities based on one's biological sex. The term first appeared in Candace West and Don Zimmerman’s article "Doing Gender", published in the peer-reviewed journal, Gender and Society. Originally written in 1977 but not published until 1987, "Doing Gender" is the most cited article published in Gender and Society.
West and Zimmerman state that to understand gender as activity, it is important to differentiate between sex, sex category, and gender.:127 They say that sex refers to the socially agreed upon specifications that establish one as male or female; sex is most often based on an individual's genitalia, or even their chromosomal typing before birth. They consider sex categories to be dichotomous, and that the person is placed in a sex category by exhibiting qualities exclusive to one category or the other. During most interactions, others situate a person's sex by identifying their sex category; however, they believe that a person's sex need not align with their sex category. West and Zimmerman maintain that the sex category is "established and sustained by the socially required identificatory displays that proclaim one’s membership in one or the other category".:127 Gender is the performance of attitudes and actions that are considered socially acceptable for one's sex category.:127
West and Zimmerman suggested that the interactional process of doing gender, combined with socially agreed upon gender expectations, holds individuals accountable for their gender performances. They also believe that while "doing gender" appropriately strengthens and promotes social structures based on the gender dichotomy, it inappropriately does not call into question these same social structures; only the individual actor is questioned. The concept of "doing gender" recognizes that gender both structures human interactions and is created through them.
Criticism of the "sex difference" versus "gender difference" distinction
The current distinction between the terms sex difference versus gender difference has been criticized as misleading and counterproductive. These terms suggest that the behavior of an individual can be partitioned into separate biological and cultural factors.[original research?] (However, behavioral differences between individuals can be statistically partitioned, as studied by behavioral genetics.) Instead, all behaviors are phenotypes—a complex interweaving of both nature and nurture.
Some psychologists have argued that the distinction between the terms "sex" and "gender" should be abandoned. The term "gender/sex" has been proposed, to emphasise the inseparability of biological, sociological, and cultural factors.
I cannot argue (in this book) that nature and nurture are inseparable and then... use different terms to refer to each class of variables. The ... biological manifestations of sex are confounded with psychosocial variables.... The use of different terms to label these two types of contributions to human existence seemed inappropriate in light of the biopsychosocial position I have taken.
She quotes Steven Pinker's summary of the problems with the terms sex and gender: "Part of it is a new prissiness—many people today are as squeamish about sexual dimorphism as the Victorians were about sex. But part of it is a limitation of the English language. The word 'sex' refers ambiguously to copulation and to sexual dimorphism..." Richard Lippa writes in Gender, Nature and Nurture that:
Some researchers have argued that the word sex should be used to refer to (biological differences), whereas the word gender should be used to refer to (cultural differences). However, it is not at all clear the degree to which the differences between males and females are due to biological factors versus learned and cultural factors. Furthermore, indiscriminate use of the word gender tends to obscure the distinction between two different topics: (a) differences between males and females, and (b) individual differences in maleness and femaleness that occur within each sex.
It has been suggested that more useful distinctions to make would be whether a behavioral difference between the sexes is first due to an evolved adaptation, then, if so, whether the adaptation is sexually dimorphic (different) or sexually monomorphic (the same in both sexes). The term sex difference could then be re-defined as between-sex differences that are manifestations of a sexually dimorphic adaptation (which is how many scientists use the term), while the term gender difference could be re-defined as due to differential socialization between the sexes of a monomorphic adaptation or byproduct. For example, greater male propensity toward physical aggression and risk taking would be termed a "sex difference;" the generally longer head hair length of females would be termed a "gender difference".
Transgender and genderqueer
Transgender people experience a mismatch between their gender identity or gender expression, and their assigned sex. Transgender people are sometimes called transsexual if they desire medical assistance to transition from one sex to another.
Transgender is also an umbrella term: in addition to including people whose gender identity is the opposite of their assigned sex (trans men and trans women), it may include people who are not exclusively masculine or feminine (e.g. people who are genderqueer, non-binary, bigender, pangender, genderfluid, or agender). Other definitions of transgender also include people who belong to a third gender, or conceptualize transgender people as a third gender. Infrequently, the term transgender is defined very broadly to include cross-dressers.
This section relies largely or entirely upon a single source. (June 2021)
According to the Intersex Society of North America, "nature doesn't decide where the category of 'male' ends and the category of 'intersex' begins, or where the category of 'intersex' ends and the category of 'female' begins. Humans decide. Humans (today, typically doctors) decide how small a penis has to be, or how unusual a combination of parts has to be, before it counts as intersex."
Many feminists consider sex to only be a matter of biology and something that is not about social or cultural construction. For example, Lynda Birke, a feminist biologist, states that "'biology' is not seen as something which might change." However, the sex/gender distinction, also known as the Standard Model of Sex/Gender,[original research?] is criticized by feminists who believe that there is undue emphasis placed on sex being a biological aspect, something that is fixed, natural, unchanging, and consisting of a male/female dichotomy. They believe the distinction fails to recognize anything outside the strictly male/female dichotomy and that it creates a barrier between those that fit as 'usual' and those that are 'unusual'.[who?][original research?] In Anne Fausto-Sterling’s Sexing the Body she addresses the birth of children who are intersex. In this case, the standard model (sex/gender distinction) is seen as incorrect with regard to its notion that there are only two sexes, male and female. This is because "complete maleness and complete femaleness represent the extreme ends of a spectrum of possible body types." In other words, Fausto-Sterling argues that sex is a continuum.
Rather than viewing sex as a biological construct, there are feminists who view both sex and gender as a social construct.[who?] Fausto-Sterling believes that sex is socially constructed because nature does not decide on who is seen as a male or female physically. Rather, doctors decide what seems to be a "natural" sex for the inhabitants of society. In addition, the gender, behavior, actions, and appearance of males/females is also seen as socially constructed because codes of femininity and masculinity are chosen and deemed fit by society for societal usage.
Some feminist philosophers maintain that gender is totally undetermined by sex. See, for example, The Dialectic of Sex: The Case for Feminist Revolution, a widely influential feminist text.
Mari Mikkola has put forward the "Trait/Norm Covariance Model" as a suggested replacement for the sex/gender distinction. Arguing that the sex/gender distinction, as formulated in contemporary feminism, implies that "doing away with gender should be feminism's political goal", the model divides by descriptive traits and evaluative norms, rather than by sex and gender. In this model, the term "descriptive traits" includes physical and anatomical traits, roles, and self-conceptions. So for example, "sex traits" (such as having ovaries) and "gender traits" (such as wearing make-up) are both subsumed under the category of descriptive traits, whereas "being feminine" is taken as an evaluative norm. Evaluative norms reflect how descriptive traits are evaluated by external observers, and certain descriptive traits may covary with certain evaluative norms. So for example the trait "having long hair" covaries strongly with feminine norms in some cultures, and less so in others.
Some feminists go further and argue that neither sex nor gender are strictly binary concepts. Judith Lorber, for instance, has stated that many conventional indicators of sex are not sufficient to demarcate male from female. For example, not all women lactate, while some men do. Similarly, Suzanne Kessler, in a 1990 survey of medical specialists in pediatric intersexuality, found out that when a child was born with XY chromosomes but ambiguous genitalia, its sex was often determined according to the size of its penis. Thus, even if the sex/gender distinction holds, Lorber and Kessler suggest that the dichotomies of female/male and masculine/feminine are not themselves exhaustive. Lorber writes, "My perspective goes beyond accepted feminist views that gender is a cultural overlay that modifies physiological sex differences ... I am arguing that bodies differ in many ways physiologically, but they are completely transformed by social practices to fit into the salient categories of a society, the most pervasive of which are 'female' and 'male' and 'women' and 'men.'"
Moreover, Lorber has alleged that there exists more diversity within the individual categories of sex and gender—female/male and feminine/masculine, respectively—than between them. Hence, her fundamental claim is that both sex and gender are social constructions, rather than natural kinds.
A comparable view has been advanced by Linda Zerilli, who writes regarding Monique Wittig, that she is "critical of the sex/gender dichotomy in much feminist theory because such a dichotomy leaves unquestioned the belief that there is a 'core of nature which resists examination, a relationship excluded from the social in the analysis—a relationship whose characteristic is ineluctability in culture, as well as in nature, and which is the heterosexual relationship.'" Judith Butler also criticizes the sex/gender distinction. Discussing sex as biological fact causes sex to appear natural and politically neutral. However, she argues that "the ostensibly natural facts of sex [are] discursively produced in the service of other political and social interests." Butler concludes, "If the immutable character of sex is contested, perhaps this construct called 'sex' is as culturally constructed as gender; indeed, perhaps it was always already gender, with the consequence that the distinction between sex and gender turns out to be no distinction at all."
Institutional and governmental use
Governments, corporations, and organizations have varying recognition of, and approaches to the distinction between sex and gender.
The United States Census Bureau performs a census of the U.S. population every ten years. The questionnaire asks one question about sex, phrased as "What is person 1's sex?" and provides two checkboxes for the response, labeled "Male" and "Female". An explanatory page explains this question, using the term sex: as "We ask one question about a person’s sex to better understand demographic characteristics." The U.S. Census has had a question about sex on the census since the 1790 census. The U.S. Census recognizes the difference between the terms sex and gender, the fact they are often confused or used interchangeably, and may differ across cultures and time, and explains that what the census attempts to measure, is "the sex composition of the population". 
The Australian government provides guidelines on sex and gender to the public based on legislation passed in 2013. The guidelines recognize that "individuals may identify as a gender other than the sex they were assigned at birth, or may not identify as exclusively male or female". The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) gathers data about the population broken down in various ways, including by sex and gender. They require precise formulations of these terms, and go into some detail about sex recorded at birth, possible changes in sex assignment later in life, the meaning of gender and how it differs from sex. ABS recognizes the popular confusion among the two terms, and provide descriptions of how to phrase surveys so as to elicit accurate responses for the purposes of the data they collect.
The government of the state of Western Australia recognizes a clear distinction between sex and gender providing a nuanced definition of each, including complications involved in sex beyond just sex assigned at birth, and the socially constructed nature of gender, including possible non-binary aspects.
United Kingdom government
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June 2021)
The United Kingdom Office for National Statistics (ONS) describes definitions provided by the UK government that make clear distinctions between the "biological aspects" aspects of sex, "generally male or female", and "assigned at birth", while describing gender as a "social construction relating to behaviours and attributes based on labels of masculinity and femininity".
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June 2021)
The World Health Organization's defines gender as "socially constructed", and sex as characteristics that are "biologically determined", drawing a distinction between the sex categories of male and female, and the genders "girls and boys who grow into men and women".
Mental health associations
The American Psychiatric Association (APA) in their Guide for Working With Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Patients (TGNC Guide) has guidance for psychiatrists about gender, sex, and orientation. The TGNC defines gender as comprising two components, that of gender identity and gender expression. They define sex in biological terms, as "anatomical, hormonal, or genetic", and mentions birth assignment of sex based on external genital appearance.
- Prince, Virginia. 2005. "Sex vs. Gender." International Journal of Transgenderism. 8(4).
- Neil R., Carlson (2010). Psychology: The science of behavior. Fourth Canadian edition. Pearson. pp. 140–141. ISBN 978-0205702862.
- "WHO | Gender and Genetics". WHO. Retrieved 2020-07-31.
- "Sex & Gender | Office of Research on Women's Health". orwh.od.nih.gov. Retrieved 2020-07-31.
- Udry, J. Richard (November 1994). "The Nature of Gender" (PDF). Demography. 31 (4): 561–573. doi:10.2307/2061790. JSTOR 2061790. PMID 7890091. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-12-11.
- Haig, David (April 2004). "The Inexorable Rise of Gender and the Decline of Sex: Social Change in Academic Titles, 1945–2001" (PDF). Archives of Sexual Behavior. 33 (2): 87–96. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.359.9143. doi:10.1023/B:ASEB.0000014323.56281.0d. PMID 15146141. S2CID 7005542. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2011.
- Paludi, Michele Antoinette (2008). The Psychology of Women at Work: Challenges and Solutions for Our Female Workforce. ABC-CLIO. p. 153. ISBN 978-0-275-99677-2.
- MONEY J. Hermaphroditism, gender and precocity in hyperadrenocorticism: psychologic findings. Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp. 1955 Jun;96(6):253-64. PMID 14378807.
- Bentley, Madison (April 1945). "Sanity and Hazard in Childhood". The American Journal of Psychology. 58 (2): 212. doi:10.2307/1417846. ISSN 0002-9556.
- Horley, James; Clarke, Jan (2016-07-11). Experience, Meaning, and Identity in Sexuality: A Psychosocial Theory of Sexual Stability and Change. Springer. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-137-40096-3.
- Udry, J. Richard (November 1994). "The Nature of Gender". Demography. 31 (4): 561–573. doi:10.2307/2061790. JSTOR 2061790. PMID 7890091.
- Aldous, Joan (1967). International bibliography of research in marriage and the family: 1965-1972. University of Minnesota Press. pp. 1–508. ISBN 978-1-4529-1037-6. OCLC 421999249.
- Haig, David (April 2004). "The Inexorable Rise of Gender and the Decline of Sex: Social Change in Academic Titles, 1945–2001" (PDF). Archives of Sexual Behavior. 33 (2): 87–96. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.359.9143. doi:10.1023/B:ASEB.0000014323.56281.0d. PMID 15146141. S2CID 7005542. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 June 2012.
- Money, John (September 1994). "The Concept of gender identity disorder in childhood and adolescence after 39 years". Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy. 20 (3): 163–177. doi:10.1080/00926239408403428. ISSN 0092-623X.
- Daly, M. & Wilson, M. (1983). Sex, evolution and behavior. Monterey: Brooks Cole
- Fromhage, Lutz; Jennions, Michael D. (2016-08-18). "Coevolution of parental investment and sexually selected traits drives sex-role divergence". Nature Communications. 7 (1): 12517. doi:10.1038/ncomms12517. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 4992156. PMID 27535478.
- Whitfield, John (2004-06-15). "Everything You Always Wanted to Know about Sexes". PLOS Biology. 2 (6): e183. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0020183. ISSN 1545-7885. PMC 423151. PMID 15208728.
One thing biologists do agree on is that males and females count as different sexes. And they also agree that the main difference between the two is gamete size: males make lots of small gametes—sperm in animals, pollen in plants—and females produce a few big eggs.
- Beukeboom, Leo W.; Perrin, Nicolas (2014). The Evolution of Sex Determination. Oxford University Press. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-19-965714-8.
- Majerus, M. E. N. (2003). Sex Wars: Genes, Bacteria, and Biased Sex Ratios. Princeton University Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-691-00981-0.
- Kumar R, Meena M, Swapnil P (2019). "Anisogamy". In Vonk J, Shackelford T (eds.). Encyclopedia of Animal Cognition and Behavior. Cham: Springer International Publishing. pp. 1–5. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-47829-6_340-1. ISBN 978-3-319-47829-6. Archived from the original on 4 November 2020.
Anisogamy can be defined as a mode of sexual reproduction in which fusing gametes, formed by participating parents, are dissimilar in size.
- Fusco G, Minelli A (2019-10-10). The Biology of Reproduction. Cambridge University Press. pp. 111–113. ISBN 978-1-108-49985-9. Archived from the original on 1 April 2021. Retrieved 29 March 2021.
- Breed, Michael D.; Moore, Janice (2015-05-16). "Mating Systems". Animal Behavior. Academic Press. pp. 360–365. ISBN 978-0-12-801683-1.
- Royle, Nick J.; Smiseth, Per T.; Kölliker, Mathias (2012-08-09). Kokko, Hanna; Jennions, Michael (eds.). The Evolution of Parental Care. Oxford University Press. p. 103. ISBN 978-0-19-969257-6.
The answer is that there is an agreement by convention: individuals producing the smaller of the two gamete types-sperm or pollen- are males, and those producing larger gametes-eggs or ovules- are females.
- Dawkins, Richard (1989). "9 Battle of the Sexes". The Selfish Gene. Oxford University Press. p. 141. ISBN 978-0-19-286092-7. OCLC 895773595.
However, there is one fundamental feature of the sexes which can be used to label males as males, and females as females, throughout animals and plants. This is that the sex cells or 'gametes' of males are much smaller and more numerous than the gametes of females. This is true whether we are dealing with animals or plants. One group of individuals has large sex cells, and it is convenient to use the word female for them. The other group, which it is convenient to call male, has small sex cells. The difference is especially pronounced in reptiles and in birds, where a single egg cell is big enough and nutritious enough to feed a developing baby for several weeks. Even in humans, where the egg is microscopic, it is still many times larger than the sperm. As we shall see, it is possible to interpret all the other differences between the sexes as stemming from this one basic difference.
- Mealey, L. (2000). Sex differences. NY: Academic Press.
- Geary, D. C. (2009) Male, Female: The Evolution of Human Sex Differences. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association
- Haier, Richard J, Rex E Jung, and others, 'The Neuroanatomy of General Intelligence: Sex Matters', in NeuroImage, vol. 25 (2005): 320–327. 
- "Sex differences in the brain's serotonin system". Physorg.com. Archived from the original on 2011-08-17. Retrieved 2013-04-24.
- "Emotional Wiring Different in Men and Women". LiveScience. 2006-04-19. Archived from the original on 2011-08-17. Retrieved 2013-04-24.
- Frederikse ME; Lu A; Aylward E; Barta P; Pearlson G (December 1999). "Sex differences in the inferior parietal lobule". Cerebral Cortex. 9 (8): 896–901. doi:10.1093/cercor/9.8.896. PMID 10601007.
- Women Have Greater Density of Neurons in Posterior Temporal Cortex /Sandra Wittelson / Journal of Neuroscience #15 (1995).
- Hegarty, Peter; Sarter, Emma (2021-03-25). "The Social Psychology of Sex and Gender". Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Psychology. doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780190236557.001.0001/acrefore-9780190236557-e-513. Retrieved 2021-07-18.
- www.apa.org (PDF) https://www.apa.org/pi/lgbt/resources/sexuality-definitions.pdf. Retrieved 2021-07-18. Missing or empty
- "sex, n.1 : Oxford English Dictionary". www.oed.com. Retrieved 2021-07-18.
- "Definition of SEX". www.merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
- What do we mean by "sex" and "gender"? (World Health Organization (WHO > Programmes and Projects > Gender, Women and Health)) Archived 2014-09-08 at the Wayback Machine, as accessed Aug. 24, 2010 (no author or date & boldfacing omitted).
- "Terminology | Adolescent and School Health". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). December 18, 2019. Archived from the original on May 7, 2020. Retrieved May 23, 2020.
- Lacqueur, Thomas Walter, Making Sex: Body and Gender From the Greeks to Freud (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard Univ. Press, 1st Harvard Univ. Press pbk. ed. [5th printing?] 1992 (ISBN 0-674-54355-6), © 1990), p. 134 (author prof. history Univ. Calif., Berkeley).
- Laqueur, Thomas, Making Sex, op. cit., p.  (italics added).
- Laqueur, Thomas, Making Sex, op. cit., pp. 150–151.
- Laqueur, Thomas, Making Sex, op. cit., pp. 68 & 135.
- Michael Stolberg. 2003. "A Woman Down to her Bones. The Anatomy of Sexual Difference in the Sixteenth and Early Seventeenth Centuries." Isis, 94: 274-299.
- Joan Cadden. 1993. Meanings of Sex Difference in the Middle Ages: Medicine, Science, and Culture. Cambridge University Press.
- Lindsey, Linda. L (1997). Gender Roles: A Sociological Perspective. New Jersey: Upper Saddie River. pp. 365–435. ISBN 978-0135336212.
- Oxford English Dictionary (2d ed. (online) 1989), as accessed Aug. 22, 2010, gender, noun, sense 3b.
- "Gender". Archived from the original on 2016-07-04. Retrieved 2021-06-05.The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (Boston, Mass.: Houghton Mifflin, 5th ed. 2015, gender, sense 2b and Usage Note
- "Guideline for the Study and Evaluation of Gender Differences in the Clinical Evaluation of Drugs". hhs.gov. Archived from the original on 13 September 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
- "Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff Evaluation of Sex Differences in Medical Device Clinical Studies". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. December 19, 2011. Archived from the original on August 9, 2014. Retrieved August 3, 2014.
- Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation. ‘’GLAAD Media Reference Guide, 8th Edition. Transgender Glossary of Terms” Archived 2012-06-03 at WebCite, ‘’GLAAD’’, USA, May 2010. Retrieved on 2021-07-11.
- Adovasio, J. M., Olga Soffer, & Jake Page, The Invisible Sex: Uncovering the True Roles of Women in Prehistory (Smithsonian Books & Collins (HarperCollinsPublishers), 1st Smithsonian Books ed. 2007 (ISBN 978-0-06-117091-1)), p. .
- Adovasio, J. M., et al., The Invisible Sex, op. cit., p. 170 & see pp. 185–186.
- Adovasio, J. M., et al., The Invisible Sex, op. cit., p. .
- Richard, penny & Jessica Munna (2003). Gender, power and privilege in modern Europe. Pearson/ Longman. p. 221.
- Mikkola, Mari (2017), "Feminist Perspectives on Sex and Gender", in Zalta, Edward N. (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2017 ed.), Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, retrieved 2018-10-07
- Huddleston, Rodney; Pullum, Geoffrey (2002). The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 484–486. ISBN 978-0-521-43146-0.
- Fowler, Henry Watson (2015). Butterfield, Jeremy (ed.). Fowler's Dictionary of Modern English Usage (4th ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-966135-0.
- Quirk, Randolph; Greenbaum, Sidney; Leech, Geoffrey; Svartvik, Jan (1985). A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. Harlow: Longman. pp. 314–316. ISBN 978-0-582-51734-9.
- West, Candace; Zimmerman, Don H. (June 1987). "Doing gender". Gender & Society. 1 (2): 125–151. doi:10.1177/0891243287001002002. JSTOR 189945. S2CID 220519301. Pdf. Archived 2015-12-25 at the Wayback Machine
- Jurik, Nancy C.; Siemsen, Cynthia (February 2009). "Doing gender as canon or agenda: A symposium on West and Zimmerman". Gender & Society. 23 (1): 72–75. doi:10.1177/0891243208326677. JSTOR 20676750. S2CID 144468830.
- West, Candace; Zimmerman, Don H. (February 2009). "Accounting for doing gender". Gender & Society. 23 (1): 112–122. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.455.3546. doi:10.1177/0891243208326529. JSTOR 20676758. S2CID 146342542.
- Francis, D., & Kaufer, D. (2011). Beyond Nature vs. Nurture Archived 2014-01-04 at the Wayback Machine. The Scientist. October 1, 2011
- D., Yoder, Janice (2003). Women and gender : transforming psychology. Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-099585-1. OCLC 49936153.
- Hyde, Janet Shibley; Bigler, Rebecca S.; Joel, Daphna; Tate, Charlotte Chucky; van Anders, Sari M. (February 2019). "The future of sex and gender in psychology: Five challenges to the gender binary". American Psychologist. 74 (2): 171–193. doi:10.1037/amp0000307. ISSN 1935-990X.
- van Anders, Sari M. (2015-03-14). "Beyond Sexual Orientation: Integrating Gender/Sex and Diverse Sexualities via Sexual Configurations Theory". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 44 (5): 1177–1213. doi:10.1007/s10508-015-0490-8. ISSN 0004-0002.
- Halpern, D. (2012). Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities (4th Ed.). NY: Psychology Press. p. 35 - 36.
- Lippa, R. (2005). Gender, Nature and Nurture. NJ: LEA, p 3-4.
- "Standards of evidence for designed sex differences" (PDF). ucsb.edu. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
- Bourke CH; Harrell CS; Neigh GN (August 2012). "Stress-induced sex differences: adaptations mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor". Hormones and Behavior. 62 (3): 210–8. doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2012.02.024. PMC 3384757. PMID 22426413.
- Mills, M.E. (2011). "Sex Difference vs. Gender Difference? Oh, I'm So Confused!" Psychology Today.
- Terry Altilio, Shirley Otis-Green (2011). Oxford Textbook of Palliative Social Work. Oxford University Press. p. 380. ISBN 978-0199838271. Archived from the original on April 12, 2016. Retrieved April 12, 2016.
Transgender is an umbrella term for people whose gender identity and/or gender expression differs from the sex they were assigned at birth (Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation [GLAAD], 2007).CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- Craig J. Forsyth, Heith Copes (2014). Encyclopedia of Social Deviance. Sage Publications. p. 740. ISBN 978-1483364698. Archived from the original on April 14, 2016. Retrieved April 12, 2016.
Transgender is an umbrella term for people whose gender identities, gender expressions, and/or behaviors are different from those culturally associated with the sex to which they were assigned at birth.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- Marla Berg-Weger (2016). Social Work and Social Welfare: An Invitation. Routledge. p. 229. ISBN 978-1317592020. Archived from the original on April 12, 2016. Retrieved April 12, 2016.
Transgender: An umbrella term that describes people whose gender identity or gender expression differs from expectations associated with the sex assigned to them at birth.
- Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation. "GLAAD Media Reference Guide – Transgender glossary of terms" Archived 2012-06-03 at WebCite, "GLAAD", USA, May 2010. Retrieved on 2011-02-24. "An umbrella term for people whose gender identity and/or gender expression differs from what is typically associated with the sex they were assigned at birth."
- B Bilodeau, Beyond the gender binary: A case study of two transgender students at a Midwestern research university, in the Journal of Gay & Lesbian Issues in Education (2005): "Yet Jordan and Nick represent a segment of transgender communities that have largely been overlooked in transgender and student development research – individuals who express a non-binary construction of gender[.]"
- Susan Stryker, Stephen Whittle, The Transgender Studies Reader (ISBN 1-135-39884-4), page 666: "The authors note that, increasingly, in social science literature, the term “third gender” is being replaced by or conflated with the newer term “transgender.”
- Joan C. Chrisler, Donald R. McCreary, Handbook of Gender Research in Psychology, volume 1 (2010, ISBN 1-4419-1465-X), page 486: "Transgender is a broad term characterized by a challenge of traditional gender roles and gender identity[. …] For example, some cultures classify transgender individuals as a third gender, thereby treating this phenomenon as normative."
- Sari L. Reisner, Kerith Conron, Matthew J. Mimiaga, Sebastien Haneuse, et al, Comparing in-person and online survey respondents in the US National Transgender Discrimination Survey: implications for transgender health research, in LGBT Health, June 2014, 1(2): 98-106. doi:10.1089/lgbt.2013.0018: "Transgender was defined broadly to cover those who transition from one gender to another as well as those who may not choose to socially, medically, or legally fully transition, including cross-dressers, people who consider themselves to be genderqueer, androgynous, and ..."
- ISNA."Frequently Asked Questions." Intersex Society of North America 1993-2008. "Intersex Society of North America | A world free of shame, secrecy, and unwanted genital surgery | Intersex Society of North America". Archived from the original on 2016-05-19. Retrieved 2010-12-04.
- Birke, Lynda (2001). "In Pursuit of Difference: Scientific Studies of Women and Men," Muriel Lederman and Ingrid Bartsch eds., The Gender and Science Reader, New York: Routledge. p. 320.
- Fausto-Sterling, Anne "Of Gender and Genitals" from Sexing the body: gender politics and the construction of sexuality New York, NY: Basic Books, 2000, [Chapter 3, pp. 44-77].
- Benewick, Robert and Green, Philip, Shulamith Firestone 1945–, The Routledge dictionary of twentieth-century political thinkers (2nd Edition), Routledge, 1998, pp. 84-86. ISBN 0-415-09623-5
- Mikkola, Mari (2010-11-12), "Ontological Commitments, Sex and Gender", Feminist Metaphysics, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, pp. 67–83, ISBN 978-90-481-3782-4, retrieved 2021-07-20
- Jenkins, Katharine (2018-04-01). "The Wrong of Injustice, by Mari Mikkola". Mind. 127 (506): 618–627. doi:10.1093/mind/fzx041. ISSN 0026-4423.
- Chen, Hsiang-Yun (2021-01-19). "On the Amelioration of "Women"". Philosophia. doi:10.1007/s11406-020-00308-0. ISSN 1574-9274.
- Bogardus, Tomas (2020-07-01). "Evaluating Arguments for the Sex/Gender Distinction". Philosophia. 48 (3): 873–892. doi:10.1007/s11406-019-00157-6. ISSN 1574-9274.
- Lorber, Judith (1993). "Believing is Seeing: Biology as Ideology" Archived 2013-01-24 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 8 May 2013.
- Kessler, Suzanne (1990). "The Medical Construction of Gender: Case Management of Intersexed Infants". Signs, Vol. 16, No. 1: 3-26.
- Zerilli, Linda M. G., The Trojan Horse of Universalism: Language As a 'War Machine' in the Writings of Monique Wittig, in Robbins, Bruce, ed., The Phantom Public Sphere (Minneapolis, Minn.: Univ. of Minn. Press, 1993 (ISBN 0-8166-2124-1)), pp. 153–154 (n. 35 (citing Wittig, Monique, The Straight Mind, in Feminist Issues, vol. 1, no. 1, Summer, 1980, p. 107) omitted) (author asst. prof., poli. sci. dep't, Rutgers Univ., & ed. teaches, Eng. dep't, Rutgers Univ., & coeditor, Social Text) (em-dash surrounded by half-spaces in original).
- Butler, Judith (1999). Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge. pp. 9–11.
- U.S. Census Bureau (2016-11-14). "Why We Ask About...Sex | American Community Survey | US Census Bureau". U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved 7 May 2021.
- U.S. Census Bureau (2020-09-11). "About Age and Sex". U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved 7 May 2021.
- Attorney-General's Department (22 September 2020). "Australian Government Guidelines on the Recognition of Sex and Gender | Attorney-General's Department". Attorney-General's Department. Commonwealth of Australia 2021. Retrieved 7 May 2021.
The guidelines recognise that individuals may identify as a gender other than the sex they were assigned at birth, or may not identify as exclusively male or female, and that this should be reflected in records held by the government.
- Australian Government Department of Health (20 April 2009). "Department of Health | 5.1 Sex and gender as determinants of health". Department of Health. Retrieved 7 May 2021.
The word `gender' is used to define those characteristics of women and men that are socially constructed, while `sex' refers to those that are biologically determined. People are born female or male but learn to be girls and boys who grow into women and men. This learned behaviour makes up gender identity and determines gender roles.
- Australian Human Rights Commission (1 July 2011). "Section 3 - A note on terminology - Addressing sexual orientation and sex and/or gender identity discrimination: Consultation Report (2011) | Australian Human Rights Commission". Sydney: Australian Human Rights Commission 2017. Retrieved 7 May 2021.
Sex: The term 'sex' refers to a person’s biological characteristics. A person's sex is usually described as being male or female. Some people may not be exclusively male or female (the term 'intersex' is explained below). Some people identify as neither male nor female. Gender: The term 'gender' refers to the way in which a person indentifies or expresses their masculine or feminine characteristics. Gender is generally understood as a social and cultural construction. A person's gender identity or gender expression is not always exclusively male or female and may or may not correspond to their sex.
- Australian Bureau of Statistics (14 January 2021). "Standard for Sex, Gender, Variations of Sex Characteristics and Sexual Orientation Variables, 2020 | Australian Bureau of Statistics". ABS. ABS. Retrieved 7 May 2021.
- Department of Health WA. "Sex and Gender | Get the Facts". Department of Health WA. Government of Western Australia. Archived from the original on 2021-03-16. Retrieved 7 May 2021.
- Office for National Statistics (21 February 2019). "What is the difference between sex and gender? - Office for National Statistics". Office for National Statistics. Newport, South Wales: ONS. Retrieved 7 May 2021.
- WHO Regional Office for Europe (8 May 2021). "WHO/Europe | Gender: definitions". WHO/Europe. World Health Organization. Retrieved 7 May 2021.
Gender is used to describe the characteristics of women and men that are socially constructed, while sex refers to those that are biologically determined. People are born female or male, but learn to be girls and boys who grow into women and men. This learned behaviour makes up gender identity and determines gender roles.
- Yarbrough, Eric; Kidd, Jeremy; Parekh, Ranna (November 2017). "A Guide for Working With Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Patients". APA. Retrieved 7 May 2021.
- Yarbrough, Eric; Kidd, Jeremy; Parekh, Ranna (November 2017). "Definitions of Gender, Sex, and Sexual Orientation and Pronoun Usage". APA. Retrieved 7 May 2021.