Sex doll

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
One of the first of the modern generation of realistic dolls.

A sex doll (also love doll, fuck doll or blowup doll) is a type of anthropomorphic sex toy in the size and shape of a sexual partner. The sex doll may consist of an entire body, or just a head, pelvis, or other body part (vagina, anus, mouth, penis, breasts) intended for sexual stimulation. The parts sometimes vibrate and may be moveable and interchangeable. Sex dolls exist in many forms, but are usually distinguished from sex robots, which are anthropomorphic creations designed to be able to engage in more complex interactions.[citation needed]


Some of the first sex dolls were created by French (dame de voyage) and Spanish (dama de viaje) sailors in the sixteenth century who would be isolated during long voyages.[1] These masturbatory dolls were often made of sewn cloth or old clothes and were a direct predecessor to today's sex dolls.[2][3] Later, the Dutch sold some of these dolls to Japanese people during the Rangaku period, and the term "Dutch wives" is still sometimes used in Japan to refer to sex dolls.[1][4]

One of the earliest recorded appearances of manufactured sex dolls dates to 1908, in Iwan Bloch's The Sexual Life of Our Time. Bloch wrote:

In this connection, we may refer to fornicatory acts affected with artificial imitations of the human body, or of individual parts of that body. There exist true Vaucansons in this province of pornographic technology, clever mechanics who, from rubber and other plastic materials, prepare entire male or female bodies, which, as hommes or dames de voyage, subserve fornicatory purposes. More especially are the genital organs represented in a manner true to nature. Even the secretion of Bartholin's glands is imitated, by means of a "pneumatic tube" filled with oil. Similarly, by means of fluid and suitable apparatus, the ejaculation of the semen is imitated. Such artificial human beings are actually offered for sale in the catalog of certain manufacturers of "Parisian rubber articles."[5]

In 1918, Austrian artist Oskar Kokoschka commissioned a life-sized doll of Alma Mahler (whom Kokoschka was in love with) to German puppet maker Hermine Moos, while he was in Dresden.[1] Although intended to simulate Alma and receive his affection, the "Alma doll" did not satisfy Kokoschka and he destroyed it during a party.[6]

German surrealist artist Hans Bellmer has been described as “the father figure of the modern sex doll” for his sex puppets in the 1930s whose more realistic models moved sex dolls further into the future.[2][1] Bellmer made three dolls, increasingly sophisticated in design, which also made waves in the international art community.[2][1]

A report that, as part of the Borghild Project, Nazi Germany made sex dolls for soldiers during World War II has not been verified by reliable sources and is now considered to be a hoax.[7] It is however said that the commercial sex doll has its origins in Germany, especially since the creation of the Bild Lilli doll in the 1950s, which was in turn the inspiration for creating the famous Barbie doll.[1][3]

The production of human simulacra to substitute for human sexual partners took several technological leaps forward in the late twentieth century. By the 1970s, vinyl, latex and silicone had become the materials most frequently used in the manufacture of sex dolls; silicone, in particular, allowed a greater degree of realism.[8]

A 1982 attempt to import a consignment of sex dolls into Britain had the unintended consequence of ending the law against importing "obscene or indecent" items that were not illegal to sell within the UK. Having had the dolls seized by Her Majesty's Customs and Excise officers, David Sullivan's Conegate Ltd. took the case all the way to the European Court of Justice, and won in 1987.[9] Britain was forced to lift its stringent import prohibitions dating from 1876 because for imports from within the European Community they constituted a barrier to free trade under the terms of the Treaty of Rome.

Shin Takagi, founder of the company Trottla, manufactures lifelike child sex dolls in the belief that doing so provides a safe and legal outlet for men expressing pedophilic desires.[10][11] This has been disputed by paraphilia researcher Dr. Peter J. Fagan, who argues that contact with the products would likely have a reinforcing effect, increasing the risk of pedophilic action being taken.[11] Since 2013, Australian officials have confiscated imported shipments of juvenile sex dolls legally classified as child exploitation material.[12] However, machine ethicists Michael Anderson and Susan Leigh Anderson point out that sales of sex dolls are not and have never been a commercially significant industry, and can never become anything like as corrupting a source of money as psychiatric medication have since deinstitutionalization made psychiatric medication sales profitable by doing away with the cost of keeping the patients in mental hospitals, as selling dolls that are kept by the patients for a long time can never reach the sale volumes of medicines that the patients take on a daily basis. Corruption by psychiatric medication sale money is argued by Michael Anderson and Susan Leigh Anderson to be a cause of psychiatry alleging reinforcement, as studies of pedophilia show no correlation between the age of the pedophiles and their degree of fixation onto children or preferred age of children (unlike drug addicts for whom higher doses and lower effects of the same doses correlate with higher ages of the narcomanes) and penile plethysmograph studies on community samples of men with guaranteed anonymity show that the prevalence of sexual attraction to prepubescent children is much lower in the population than sexual attraction to adolescents which does not support the theory of reinforcement towards lower ages.[13]

Sales of sex dolls increased significantly during the COVID-19 pandemic.[14]

Commercial forms[edit]

Cheaper sex dolls are inflatable, using air. These dolls, representing the lowest price range (less than US$75), are usually made of welded vinyl and bear only a passing resemblance to actual people. They have an artificial and typically crudely designed vagina or penis, but due to their affordability, many users are willing to overlook their shortcomings. They often burst at the seams after a few uses, although they are commonly given as gag gifts and therefore many may not be used at all. In Russia, for some years the Bubble Baba Challenge humorously featured participants river rafting on blowup dolls as a matter of entertainment but in 2013 the race was canceled on "health and safety" grounds.[15]

At the middle market price range ($100 to approximately $1,000), dolls are made of thicker vinyl or heavy latex without welded seams or a polyurethane and silicone mixture, typically surrounding a foam core. Most have plastic mannequin-style heads and styled wigs, plastic or glass eyes, and occasionally properly molded hands and feet. Some vinyl dolls can contain water-filled body areas such as the breasts or buttocks. Latex dolls were made in Hungary, China and France but only the French manufacturer Domax now remains in production.[citation needed]

The manufacturing process causes most latex dolls to be delivered with a fine coating of zinc oxide covering the skin, which is usually removed by the consumer by placing the doll under the shower. Otherwise, latex is an inert and non-toxic natural material; although a small percentage of users may discover a latex allergy.

The most expensive sex dolls (approximately $1,200 and up) are usually made from silicone (usually above $3,000 at 2016 prices) or thermoplastic elastomer known as TPE (below $3,000). Dolls made of either material can be very lifelike, with faces and bodies modeled on real people in some instances, with realistic skin material (similar to that used for movie special effects), and with realistic (or even real) hair. These dolls usually have an articulated PVC or metal skeleton with flexible joints that allow them to be positioned in a variety of positions for display and for sexual acts. Silicone or TPE dolls are much heavier than vinyl or latex inflatable ones (which consist mostly of air), but are roughly half the weight of a real human being of comparable size.

Because of their ability to be posed in different positions silicone dolls are popular with artists and photographers as models.[16][17]

In Japan, sex dolls are known as "Dutch wives" (ダッチワイフ, datchi waifu), which now refers to relatively inexpensive dolls. Their name originates from the term, possibly English, for the thick rattan or bamboo bolster, used to aid sleep in humid countries by keeping one's limbs lifted above sweaty sheets. Orient Industry is considered to be the leading manufacturer of high-end silicone dolls in Japan,[18] which started using another term "love dolls" (ラブドール, rabu dōru) around 1998 to distinguish their dolls from the image of inflatable dolls associated with the term "Dutch wife".[19] The term has stuck and is now used generally to refer to any high-end product. There is a business, Doru no Mori (Doll Forest) in Tokyo, that rents love dolls and rooms to male customers.[20][21] In March 2007 the Japanese daily Mainichi Shimbun newspaper reported that there are also rental businesses that bring the dolls to the customer's home, and that the specialist love-doll magazine i-doloid has a print-run of 10,000 copies per issue.[22]

The middle market and high-end market emerged in the USA around 1992. The market has grown for two main reasons. Firstly, the last twenty years have seen huge improvements over earlier types of sex dolls, and customers come to realize this through using the web. Secondly, the method of retail purchase has also improved, now showing customers what the actual doll, seams, hair, and even orifices look like.

In China the market has mushroomed on account of the demographic effects of the one-child policy and accordingly numerous new Chinese manufacturers have appeared in recent years.[23]

Non-standard forms[edit]

In Japan one can purchase inflatable or stuffed love pillows or dakimakura that can be fitted with a cover printed with a life-size picture of a porn star or anime character. Other less common novelty love dolls include overweight, intersex, and alien dolls, which are usable for pleasure but also tend to be given as gag gifts.[citation needed]

Some companies manufacture cloth sex dolls using the same technology that is used to create plush toys. With widespread cultural use of the internet amongst younger generations, numerous forums exist for amateurs who create their own sex dolls from fabric or other materials. There are even mailing lists for discussing techniques and experiences with MLDs (material love dolls)[citation needed].

Some inflatable sex dolls are made in the form of animals, most notably sheep and cows. These dolls are more of a joke gift or party novelty and are often not suitable for sexual use.[citation needed]

New materials and technologies[edit]

Silicone dolls were at first made from tin-cure silicone but platinum technology has better longevity, less prone to tears and compression marks. For this reason, the "RealDoll" manufacturer reported switching from the tin to the platinum material in June 2009[24] and all other manufacturers have followed suit.[citation needed]

Since 2012 or so, a thermoplastic elastomer alternative known as TPE has come into common use particularly by Chinese manufacturers which have enabled realistic dolls to be made which are cheaper than those composed of the high quality expensive platinum cure silicone.[citation needed]

CybOrgasMatrix dolls used an elastic gel, which they claimed to be superior to silicone in elasticity, shape memory, and durability. Both this company and the company "First Androids" once offered pelvic thruster motor, audio capability, and heated orifices, though these options are no longer available. Several modern doll manufacturers now offer the last option on their silicone dolls, with the addition of an internal heating system.[citation needed]

Foam dolls have now become available from EX Doll and SeeDree dolls, in hope of making Sex Dolls a lighter weight. Cloud Climax reports that they can be as low as 9 kg, whilst being a life-sized doll and that the heads are silicone for realism.[citation needed]

Ethical Considerations Surrounding the Emergence of Sex Dolls and Robots[edit]

Scholarly Debates over Sex Dolls and Robots[edit]

The emergence of sex dolls and robots has raised ethical concerns and sparked debates among scholars. Some argue that they promote sexist objectification and should not be developed or used at all. Others suggest that, if designed ethically, sex robots can have positive effects on individual and social well-being. This would involve safeguarding advanced sentient robots with robocentric ethics and obtaining explicit consent for sexual interaction. Despite these considerations, ethical questions surrounding robot prostitution remain unresolved and continue to fuel debate. [25]

Legal restrictions and issues[edit]


In 2019, the Israeli media reported on an incident where a European sex dolls company created a sex doll that is based on the Israeli model, Yael Cohen Aris, without her permission.[26] In 2020, the same story was further investigated and reported by Playboy,[27] and was mentioned in relation to Deepfake.[citation needed]

The importation of sex dolls for men has been banned in Botswana according to Section 178 of the Botswana Penal Code. The law further abolishes the right to "possess, lend, trade-in, export, import, and or exhibit obscene objects or any objects tending to corrupt morals in Botswana", which includes sex dolls.[28]


As prostitution is legalized and regulated, there are no legal restrictions concerning sex dolls in Austria and numerous brothels are offering sex dolls for clients. Although sex dolls originally started appearing in Austria around 1980, they gained popularity in 2017 when a brothel started offering sex doll services to clients.[29] This can be attributed to the fact that the dolls have become more realistic in recent years.[citation needed]

In addition to being able to have intercourse with the sex doll, some places allow clients to purchase sex dolls for themselves. One of the biggest laufhauses in Vienna offers sex in the laufhaus with dolls alongside real women.[citation needed]

According to brothel owners who offer sex dolls, the dolls are being properly cleaned after every session. Unprotected sex with sex dolls is also allowed, but it is not advised as there is no guarantee that the dolls are being cleaned after each client.[30]

South Korea[edit]

In 2018, the South Korean Supreme Court ruled to legalize the sale of sex dolls. The issue still remains controversial in the country.[31]


In China, it is not illegal to buy and use sex dolls. In the past year, sex doll experience halls have appeared in many cities in China.[32]

United States[edit]

Sex dolls that look like children have been banned from Florida, Kentucky, and Tennessee.[33]

United Kingdom[edit]

Sex dolls that look like children are illegal to import and carry up to 7 years[34] in prison under several acts, one of which is an 1876 customs importation act on Obscene articles.[35] However, the law is not directly specific on what constitutes a child doll and as such all sex dolls are technically illegal until decided otherwise by a border agent upon importation and inspection, the only guidelines known by vendors is to ensure the doll is taller than 140cms and this can be observed on UK sites since you'll not find dolls below this height, other factors affecting the outcome of a case will likely be breast size and the subjective opinion on the age of the face.


In Myanmar, it was highly public criticized on October 22, 2022, when people paid obeisance to China-made two silicone sex dolls as the two goddesses Thurathadi and Thiri Devi at the Shwedagon Pagoda. The dolls are owned by an alchemist named Inn Weizzamo. He bought the dolls from China for US$2,400 each, and worshiped them by dressing in royal clothes. On the same day, he was arrested for allegedly causing harm to Buddhism.[36]

The sayadaw Min Thunya (Buddhist University) says that "the act of worshiping two silicone sex dolls in the form of two noble goddesses is an insult to the religion. It's really shameful."[36]

Sex robots[edit]

In June 2006, Henrik Christensen of the European Robotics Research Network told the UK's Sunday Times that "people are going to be having sex with robots within five years."[37]

Reacting to the ongoing development of "sex robots" or "sexbots",[38] in September 2015, Kathleen Richardson of De Montfort University and Erik Billing of the University of Skövde created the Campaign Against Sex Robots, calling for a ban on the creation of anthropomorphic sex robots.[39][40][41][42] They argue that the introduction of such devices would be socially harmful, and demeaning to women and children.[40]

State of research[edit]

Compared to pornography for which thousands, and compared to sex robots for which dozens of scientific studies are available, sex dolls, their use and effects have been relatively little researched so far.[43] This is not surprising because sex dolls are a subtype of sex toys, and sex toys as material sexual objects are fairly under-researched in general.[citation needed]

Nevertheless, a systematic review from the year 2020 was able to identify 29 published academic studies on sex dolls.[44] These sex doll studies deal with the following five research questions:

  1. What are appropriate theoretical conceptualizations of sex dolls?
  2. How are sex dolls represented in art and media?
  3. What empirical findings on the use and effect of sex dolls are available through interviews, surveys or analyses of sex doll online forums?
  4. What therapeutic uses and effects of sex dolls are documented in clinical case studies?
  5. Should there be a legal regulation of child sex dolls, and if yes, why and how?

Overall, the current state of research shows that sex doll owners (so far, the majority are men) and their uses are diverse and that sex dolls can be associated with negative and positive effects.[44] Likewise, the available empirical studies with sex doll owners indicate that they do not only regard and treat their dolls as “sex” dolls, but sometimes also as “love” dolls or social companions.[45][46][47][48] A clinical case study explained how living with a doll helped a divorced man to overcome relationship trauma and get ready to approach real women again.[49] Psychological theories that can explain the human-doll relationship are, among others,[44] the theory of transitional objects[50] or the theory of parasocial interactions and relationships usually applied to media personas.[51]

In popular culture[edit]

In the BBC programme Desert Island Discs, aired since 1942 with little interruption, guests were also permitted to bring either a book or a "luxury" in addition to musical recordings. Several chose life-size dolls: Oliver Reed, Ronnie Scott (who settled instead for a saxophone), and Duncan Carse.[52]

The fictional narrator in the Italian writer Tommaso Landolfi's comic short story "Gogol's Wife" describes several visits to the subject of his biography, Nikolai Gogol. At that renowned 19th century Russian writer's residence, the future biographer finds Gogol, referred to throughout as Nikolai Vassilevitch (his personal name and patronymic), with a life-size, anatomically correct blow-up doll. In later visits, the doll is described with more and more human attributes, bringing the story ever more into the realm of fantastic fiction.[53]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f Ferguson, Anthony. The Sex Doll: A History. McFarland, 2010. p. 9–23. ISBN 978-0-7864-4794-7
  2. ^ a b c A History of Sex Dolls 29 January 2019. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  3. ^ a b A (Straight, Male) History of Sex Dolls The Atlantic. 6 August 2014. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  4. ^ 9 Insane Facts About Sex Dolls, Cosmopolitan
  5. ^ Bloch, Iwan (2015) [1910]. The Sexual Life of Our Time in its Relations to Modern Civilization. p. 660. ISBN 978-1-4510-0357-4.
  6. ^ "ALMA : History". Retrieved 4 December 2019.
  7. ^ "Nazi sex doll story: das ist bogus - Boing Boing". Archived from the original on 2011-09-03. Retrieved 2011-09-03.
  8. ^ , Ferguson, Anthony. The Sex Doll: A History. McFarland, 2010. p 31. ISBN 978-0-7864-4794-7
  9. ^ Conegate v Commissioners of Customs and Excise (No 121/85) Queen's Bench (1987) 254.
  10. ^ Esposito, Brad (April 15, 2016). "These Child Sex Dolls Will Not Be Allowed Into Australia". BuzzFeed. Archived from the original on May 28, 2017. Takagi believes the sex dolls can help aid paedophiles in Australia by stopping them from acting on their desires.
  11. ^ a b Morin, Roc (January 11, 2016). "Can Child Dolls Keep Pedophiles from Offending?". The Atlantic. Retrieved May 27, 2017.
  12. ^ Donelly, Beau (August 14, 2016). "'I am an artist': Man who makes child sex dolls for paedophiles". Sydney Morning Herald.
  13. ^ Michael Anderson, Susan Leigh Anderson (March 29, 2018). "Machine Ethics"
  14. ^ Butler, Gavin (August 11, 2020). "COVID-19 Lockdowns Have Led to a Huge Spike in Sex Doll Sales". Vice Media.
  15. ^ "Home page". The Bubble Baba Challenge.
  16. ^ "Interview with Stacy Leigh". Acclaim Mag. Archived from the original on 2014-06-15. Retrieved 2014-06-15.
  17. ^ "Home page". Doll Story (French outlet of Japanese dolls). Archived from the original on 2008-04-12. These silicone dolls are sold to passionate clients, but also to sculptors, painters and even photographers Links to examples of photographic work.
  18. ^ Takatsuki Yasushi (2008). 南極1号伝説 ダッチワイフからラブドールまで 特殊用途愛玩人形の戦後史 [The Legend of Antarctica No. 1, from Dutch Wives to Love Dolls: The Postwar History of Special-Purpose Dolls]. Basilico. ISBN 978-4862380937.
  19. ^ "1998". オリエント工業の歴史 (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 2013-02-16. Retrieved 2013-01-04.
  20. ^ "Tokyo Times blog". 17 December 2004.
  21. ^ Japanorama, BBC Three, Season 3 Episode 2, first aired 26 March 2007
  22. ^ "Blow up love-doll business puts boom into boom-boom". Mainichi Shimbun. 6 March 2006. Archived from the original on May 11, 2008.
  23. ^ Jiang, Quanbao (September 18, 2012). "The predicament of bare branches' sexuality". Electronic Journal of Human Sexuality. Institute for Advanced Study of Human Sexuality. 15.
  24. ^ Guys and Dolls Retrieved 22 February 2019. Archived 21 October 2019 at the Wayback Machine
  25. ^ "Effects of Sex Dolls and Robots and the Healthy Collection Practices". SexySexDoll. 2023-02-27.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  26. ^ Disturbing: Israeli model found a [ sex doll] that is based on her
  27. ^ A Sex Doll Stole My Identity
  28. ^ Ngwira, Robert (5 February 2018). "Sex dolls banned in Botswana". Face of Malawi. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
  29. ^ "Brothel in Vienna started using Sex Dolls". August 25, 2017.
  30. ^ "Sex doll brothels becoming more popular". Brothels in Vienna. November 22, 2019.
  31. ^ "Are 'real dolls' more than a toy?: Debate over lifelike sex objects stirs controversy". Korea JoongAng Daily. 23 February 2020. Retrieved 2020-02-27.
  32. ^ "China's sex doll experience hall is popular all over the country". Acesexdoll.
  33. ^ Ogles, Jacob (2020-09-10). "Lauren Book endorses Vern Buchanan legislation to ban childlike sex dolls". Florida Politics - Campaigns & Elections. Lobbying & Government. Retrieved 2020-09-14.
  34. ^ "The Obscure Law Governing Importation of a Childlike Sex Doll". VHS Fletchers Solicitors. 2018-11-27. Retrieved 2022-09-02.
  35. ^ "Sex Dolls - Childlike | The Crown Prosecution Service". Retrieved 2022-09-02.
  36. ^ a b "လိင်ဖျော်ဖြေရေး အရုပ်မများကို မယ်တော်၂ပါးအသွင် အသက်သွင်းကိုးကွယ်မှု လုပ်ရပ်သည် သာသနာကို စော်ကားခြင်းဖြစ်ဟု ဝေဖန်မိန့်ကြား". Mizzima Myanmar News and Insight. Retrieved 2022-10-23.
  37. ^ Habershon, Ed; Woods, Richard (2006-06-18). "No sex please, robot, just clean the floor — Times Online". The Times. London. Retrieved 2010-05-23.
  38. ^ Gurley, George. "Is This the Dawn of the Sexbots? (NSFW)" Vanity Fair (May 2015)
  39. ^ "Campaign launched against 'harmful' sex robots". CNBC. 15 September 2015.
  40. ^ a b "Intelligent machines: Call for a ban on robots designed as sex toys". BBC News. 14 September 2015.
  41. ^ "Campaign Against Sex Robots calls for ban on human-robot sex (Wired UK)". Wired UK.
  42. ^ Justin Wm. Moyer (15 September 2015). "Having sex with robots is really, really bad, Campaign Against Sex Robots says". Washington Post.
  43. ^ Döring, Nicola; Pöschl, Sandra (2018). "Sex toys, sex dolls, sex robots: our under-researched bed-fellows". Sexologies. 27 (3): e51–e55. doi:10.1016/j.sexol.2018.05.009. S2CID 150027875.
  44. ^ a b c Döring, Nicola; Mohseni, M. Rohangis; Walter, Roberto (2020). "Design, use, and effects of sex dolls and sex robots: scoping review". Journal of Medical Internet Research. 22 (7): e18551. doi:10.2196/18551. PMC 7426804. PMID 32729841.
  45. ^ Blizard, Deborah (2018). Cheok, Adrian David; Levy, David (eds.). "The next evolution: the constitutive human-doll relationship as companion species". Love and Sex with Robots. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing. 10715: 114–127. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-76369-9_9. ISBN 978-3-319-76369-9.
  46. ^ Su, Norman Makoto; Lazar, Amanda; Bardzell, Jeffrey; Bardzell, Shaowen (2019). "Of dolls and men: anticipating sexual intimacy with robots". ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction. 26 (3): 13:1–13:35. doi:10.1145/3301422. ISSN 1073-0516.
  47. ^ Valverde, Sarah (2012). "The modern sex doll-owner: a descriptive analysis". Master's Theses. doi:10.15368/theses.2012.165.
  48. ^ Dolan, Eric W. (2022-10-02). "Researchers "astonished" by the number of individuals who consider sex dolls to be their ideal romantic partner". PsyPost. Retrieved 2022-11-10.
  49. ^ Knafo, Danielle (2015). "Guys and dolls: relational life in the technological era". Psychoanalytic Dialogues. 25 (4): 481–502. doi:10.1080/10481885.2015.1055174. ISSN 1048-1885. S2CID 142801437.
  50. ^ Winnicott, Donald (1953). "Transitional objects and transitional phenomena; a study of the first not-me possession". International Journal of Psychoanalysis. 34 (2): 89–97. PMID 13061115.
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  52. ^ Carter, Miranda (9 June 2022). "My Castaway This Week". London Review of Books. 44 (11): 11. Retrieved 21 June 2022.
  53. ^ Landolfi, Tommaso (January 17, 1963). Gogol's Wife: & Other Stories. Norfolk, Connecticut: New Directions. ISBN 9780811200806. OCLC 345302. Retrieved 21 June 2022.


  • Alexandre, Elisabeth. Des Poupées et des hommes — enquete sur l'amour Artif. (2005). ISBN 2-84271-252-8 (Book is in French - 'Dolls and Men — Investigation into Artificial Love').
  • Dorfman, Elana. Still Lovers (2005). ISBN 0-9766708-1-X. (Female art/fashion photographer photographs men and their dolls).
  • Guys and Dolls: Art, Science, Fashion, and relationships. Royal Pavilion, Libraries, and Museums. (2005). (102-page catalog of a major exhibition at Brighton Museum and Art Gallery, England).
  • Moya, Cynthia Ann. (2006) "Artificial Vaginas and Sex Dolls: An Erotological Investigation." Dissertation, San Francisco, CA: Institute for Advanced Study of Human Sexuality. Available in hardcopy Archived 2012-12-08 at or CD-ROM Archived 2012-12-09 at

External links[edit]