Sexual anhedonia

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Sexual anhedonia, also known as pleasure dissociative orgasmic disorder, is a condition in which an individual cannot feel pleasure from an orgasm. It is thought to be a variant of hypoactive sexual desire disorder.

Overview[edit]

Normally, a human being is able to feel pleasure from an orgasm. Upon reaching a climax, chemicals are released in the brain and motor signals are activated that will cause quick cycles of muscle contraction in the corresponding areas of both males and females. Sometimes, these signals can cause other involuntary muscle contractions such as body movements and vocalization. Finally, during orgasm, upward neural signals go to the cerebral cortex and feelings of intense pleasure are experienced. People who have this disorder are aware of reaching an orgasm, as they can feel the physical effects of it, but they experience very limited or no sort of pleasure.[1]

Causes[edit]

It is thought that people who suffer from this disorder, suffer from a dysfunction in the release of the chemical dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, the brain's primary reward center. This part of the brain is thought to play a role in pleasurable activities, including laughter, addiction, and music. Additionally, it is thought that depression, drug addiction, high levels of prolactin, low testosterone, and uses of certain medications might play a role in inhibiting dopamine. A spinal cord injury or chronic fatigue syndrome might also occasionally cause this disorder.[2] Age may also be a cause of this disorder.[3]

A sudden-onset sexual anhedonia can also be a symptom of sensory neuropathy, which is most commonly the result of pyridoxine toxicity[4] (e.g., from large doses of vitamin B6 supplements). In this case, the sexual dysfunction promptly resolves spontaneously once the B6 supplementation is stopped.

Increased serum prolactin (PRL)[5] concentration in patients brains from psychiatric medicine can also affect sexuality.[6] Psychiatric medicine is known to cause the brain to form more dopamine receptors for the dopamine blocking effect. The normal amount of dopamine released during sex is insufficient to stimulate the larger number of dopamine receptors.[7] [8][9]

Treatment[edit]

As sexual anhedonia is the source of considerable dissatisfaction among its sufferers, several treatment methods have been devised to help patients cope. Exploration of psychological factors is one method, which includes exploring past trauma, abuse, and prohibitions in the cultural and religious history of the person. Sex therapy might also be used as a way of helping a sufferer realign and examine his or her expectations of an orgasm. Contributing medical causes must also be ruled out and medications might have to be switched when appropriate. Additionally, blood testing might help determine levels of hormones and other things in the bloodstream that might inhibit pleasure. This condition can also be treated with drugs that increase dopamine, such as oxytocin, along with other drugs. In general, it is recommended that a combination of psychological and physiological treatments should be used to treat the disorder.[10]

Other drugs which may be helpful in the treatment of this condition include dopamine agonists, oxytocin, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, and alpha-2 receptor blockers like yohimbine.[11]

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Csoka AB, Bahrick A, Mehtonen OP (Jan 2008). "Persistent sexual dysfunction after discontinuation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors". J Sex Med. 5 (1): 227–33. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2007.00630.x. PMID 18173768. 
  • Courtois F, Charvier K, Leriche A, Vézina JG, Côté I, Raymond D, Jacquemin G, Fournier C, Bélanger M (Oct 2008). "Perceived physiological and orgasmic sensations at ejaculation in spinal cord injured men". J Sex Med. 5 (10): 2419–30. 
  • Soler JM, Previnaire JG, Plante P, Denys P, Chartier-Kastler E (Dec 2008). "Midodrine improves orgasm in spinal cord-injured men: the effects of autonomic stimulation". J Sex Med. 5 (12): 2935–41. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2008.00844.x. 
  • Ishak WW, Berman DS, Peters A (Apr 2008). "Male anorgasmia treated with oxytocin". J Sex Med. 5 (4): 1022–4. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2007.00691.x. 

References[edit]

  1. ^ Perelman, Michael A. (2011). "Anhedonia/PDOD: Overview". The Institute For Sexual Medicine. Retrieved 14 February 2011. 
  2. ^ Perelman, Michael A. (2011). "Anhedonia/PDOD: Causes". The Institute For Sexual Medicine. Retrieved 14 February 2011. 
  3. ^ Comprehensive Textbook of Sexual Medicine By Kar, page 18
  4. ^ http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJM198308253090801
  5. ^ "The Effects of Novel and Newly Approved Antipsychotics on Serum Prolactin Levels: A Comprehensive Review" Authors J. Peuskens, L. Pani, J. Detraux, and M. De Hert. PMCID: PMC4022988. Year 2014.
  6. ^ "Impact of neuroleptic-induced hyperprolactinemia on sexual dysfunction in male schizophrenic patients" Authors Konarzewska , Szulc A, Popławska R, Galińska B, Juchnowicz D..PMID:18567406 . Year 2008.
  7. ^ "Pharmacological Treatment of College Students with Psychological Problems" authors Leighton Whitaker, Stewart Cooper. July 10, 2014
  8. ^ Tupala, E; Haapalinna, A; Viitamaa, T; Männistö, PT; Saano, V (1999). "Effects of repeated low dose administration and withdrawal of haloperidol on sexual behaviour of male rats". Pharmacology & toxicology. 84 (6): 292–5. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0773.1999.tb01497.x. PMID 10401732. 
  9. ^ "Neuroleptics and sexual dysfunction in man. Neuroendocrine aspects" pmid=29337 . 1978. Martin-Du Pan volume=122 issue=2 pages=285–313 journal=Schweizer Archiv für Neurologie, Neurochirurgie und Psychiatrie = Archives suisses de neurologie, neurochirurgie et de psychiatrie.
  10. ^ Perelman, Michael A. (2011). "Anhedonia/PDOD: Treatment". The Institute For Sexual Medicine. Retrieved 14 February 2011. 
  11. ^ Goldstein, Irwin. "Orgasmic Anhedonia/ PDOD: Treatment". The Institute for Sexual Medicine. Retrieved 15 July 2014. 

http://www.sexualmed.org/index.cfm/sexual-health-issues/for-women/orgasmic-anhedonia-pleasure-dissociative-orgasmic-disorder-pdod/treatment/