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In particle physics, a sfermion is the spin-0 superpartner particle (or sparticle) of its associated fermion. In supersymmetric extensions to the Standard Model (SM) each particle has a superpartner with spin that differs by 1/2. Fermions in the SM have spin-1/2 and therefore sfermions have spin 0.

In general the name sfermions is formed by prefixing an 's' to the name of its superpartner, denoting that it is a scalar particle with spin 0. For instance, the electron's superpartner is the selectron and the top quark's superpartner is the stop squark.

One corollary from supersymmetry is that sparticles have the same gauge numbers as their SM partners. This means that sparticle–particle pairs have the same color charge, weak isospin charge, and hypercharge (and consequently electric charge). Unbroken supersymmetry also implies that sparticle–particle pairs have the same mass. This is evidently not the case, since these sparticles would have already been detected. Thus, sparticles must have different masses from the particle partners and supersymmetry is said to be broken.

Fundamental sfermions[edit]


Squarks are the superpartners of quarks. These include the sup squark, sdown squark, scharm squark, sstrange squark, stop squark, and sbottom squark.

Squark Symbol Associated quark Symbol
First generation
Sup squark Up quark
Sdown squark Down quark
Second generation
Scharm squark Charm quark
Sstrange squark Strange quark
Third generation
Stop squark Top quark
Sbottom squark Bottom quark


Sleptons are the superpartners of leptons. These include the selectron, smuon, stau, and the sneutrinos.

Slepton Symbol Associated lepton Symbol
First generation
Selectron Electron
Selectron sneutrino Electron neutrino
Second generation
Smuon Muon
Smuon sneutrino Muon neutrino
Third generation
Stau Tau
Stau sneutrino Tau neutrino

See also[edit]