Shö language

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Shö
Native to Burma, Bangladesh
Ethnicity Daai Chin
Native speakers
(50,000 cited 1983–2011)[1]
plus an unknown number of Shendu
Language codes
ISO 639-3 Variously:
cnb – Chinbon Chin
csh – Asho Chin
cbl – Bualkhaw Chin
shl – Shendu
Glottolog bual1235  Bualkhaw Chin[2]
chin1478  Chinbon Chin[3]
asho1236  Asho Chin[4]
shen1247  Shendu[5]

Shö is a Kukish dialect cluster of Burma and Bangladesh. There are perhaps four distinct dialects, Asho (Khyang), Bualkhaw, Chinbon, and Shendu.

Mayin and Longpaw are not mutually intelligible, but have been subsumed under the ISO code for Chinbon because Mayin-Longpaw speakers generally understand Chinbon.[6] Minkya is similarly included because most Minkya speakers understand Mayin.[7]

Geographical distribution[edit]

Chinbon is spoken in the following townships of Myanmar (Ethnologue).

Asho is spoken in Ayeyarwady Region, Bago Region, and Magway Region, and Rakhine State, Myanmar.

VanBik (2009:38)[8] lists the following Asho dialects.

  • Settu (spoken from Sittwe to Thandwe — mostly Sittwe to Ann)
  • Laitu (spoken in Sedouttaya Township)
  • Awttu (spoken in Mindon Township)
  • Kowntu (spoken in Ngaphe, Minhla, Minbu)
  • Kaitu (spoken in Pegu, Mandalay, Magway, etc.)
  • Lauku (spoken in Nyetone, Kyauk Phyu, Ann)

Bualkhaw is spoken in Bualkhua, Phaizawl, and Khuang villages, located north of Falam town in Falam township, Chin State, Myanmar.

Shendu is spoken in Mizoram, India.

Phonology[edit]

Asho dialect (K’Chò) has 28 consonants and seven vowels.

Consonants
Bilabial Labio-dental Inter-dental Alveolar Post-Alveolar Velar Glottal
V1 stops p pʰ t tʰ k kʰ ʔ
Ingressives ɓ ɗ
V1 Fricatives ʃ x h
Vd Fricatives v ʒ ɣ
V1 Affricates kx
Vd Affricates d ʒ k ɣ
Nasals m m̥ n (n̥) ŋ ŋ̊
Lateral l ɬ
Clusters pl pʰl
Vowels
Front Center Back
Close i, iː ɨ, ɨː u, uː
Mid e, eː ə, əː ɔ, ɔː
Open a, aː

Diphthongs: əi, ai, ui, ɔi

Morphology[edit]

Similar to other Kukish languages, many Asho verbs have two distinct stems. This stem alternation is a Proto-Kukish feature, which has been retained to different degrees in different Kukish languages.[9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Chinbon Chin at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Asho Chin at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Bualkhaw Chin at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Shendu at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Bualkhaw Chin". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Chinbon Chin". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  4. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Asho Chin". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  5. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Shendu". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  6. ^ [1]
  7. ^ [2]
  8. ^ VanBik, Kenneth. 2009. Proto-Kuki-Chin: A Reconstructed Ancestor of the Kuki-Chin Languages. STEDT Monograph 8. ISBN 0-944613-47-0.
  9. ^ http://ic.payap.ac.th/graduate/linguistics/theses/Kee_Shein_Mang_Thesis.pdf