Greater part of the rayon is mountainous. The Caspian Sea is located in 12 km from Shabran city. The rayon borders upon Quba, Khachmaz, Shamakhi and Siazan Rayons. Forests occupy 27000 ha in mountainous territories and plains near the Caspian Sea and they are of great importance with its climatic and natural resources for the rayon. The Shabran and Davachi Rivers flow through the rayon’s territory, and the Valvalachay and Gilgilchay Rivers flow in northern and southern borders directly to the Caspian Sea. Samur-Davachi lowland has an altitude of -28 m below the world ocean level.
Shabran Rayon is located in the north-east of Greater Caucasus. The rayon is located near Greater Caucasus Range. There are also mud volcanoes in the territory of the rayon. Breeds of the Cretaceous, Paleogene and Neogene periods spread in mountainous parts, but breeds of Anthropogenic period spread in low-lying parts. The territory is rich of oil, gas, gravel, sand, clay and other natural resources. Medicinal mineral waters, “Galaalty” sanatorium, high-temperature Khaltan springs are broadly used by the population.
Climate in low-lands and low-mountainous parts is warm and subtropical, but in mountainous is mild cold. Summer of rayon is dry, amount of annual precipitation is not more than 300-600 mm. Brown mountainous-forest, mountainous-chestnut, light-chestnut soils spread in mountainous, but alkaline, grey, brown and other soils spread in low-lying parts. There are sandstones on the seashore. Vegetation cover consists of bush tangles, rare forest meadows, semi-deserts covered with glades or semi-deserts covered both with glades and saline. The rayon is rich for its fauna and birds of various species. 
Savachi Rayon was formed on August 8, 1930. But in 1963, it was eliminated and included into Absheron Rayon, but in 1965, the rayon was re-established again. In 1992, new Siazan Rayon was formed on the basis of Davachi Rayon by the order of the National Assembly of Azerbaijan, which included part of Davachi Rayon’s territory. In 2010, Davachi Rayon was renamed to Shabran rayon.