|Shaddam IV Corrino|
|First appearance||Dune (1965)|
|Last appearance||The Winds of Dune (2009)|
|Created by||Frank Herbert|
Shaddam IV of House Corrino is a fictional character in the Dune universe created by Frank Herbert. He is Padishah Emperor of the Known Universe in Herbert's 1965 novel Dune. Shaddam's accession to the throne is chronicled in the Prelude to Dune prequel trilogy (1999–2001) by Brian Herbert and Kevin J. Anderson, and he later appears in the prequel series Heroes of Dune (2008–2009).
Born in year 10,134 A.G. (After Guild), Shaddam is the son of Elrood IX and the 81st member of House Corrino to occupy the Golden Lion Throne. Shaddam's closest friend is the assassin Count Hasimir Fenring, a cousin and childhood companion. Shaddam has five daughters—the Princesses Irulan, Chalice, Wensicia, Josifa, and Rugi—and no legal sons. His wife Anirul, a Bene Gesserit of Hidden Rank, died in 10,176 A.G.
Shaddam is described as "red-haired" by his daughter Irulan via epigraph in Dune, and noted to be 72 years old yet looking no older than 35. He is portrayed by José Ferrer in the 1984 David Lynch film adaptation Dune, and by Giancarlo Giannini in the 2000 Dune miniseries. In the 1984 film, Shaddam is said to be over 200 years old, as the Guild representatives remind him of the importance of the spice melange, which extends life.
During the events of the original novel Dune, Shaddam grants Duke Leto Atreides temporary control of the harsh desert planet Arrakis, the only known source of the all-important spice. Though outwardly this seems like an opportunity for great wealth and power for House Atreides, Leto recognizes it as a trap; Shaddam has become threatened by Leto's rising popularity, and somehow intends to diminish or destroy him. Avoiding an overt attack, Shaddam instead uses the centuries-old feud between House Atreides and House Harkonnen to disguise his assault, enlisting the brilliant and power-hungry Baron Vladimir Harkonnen in his plan to trap and eliminate the Atreides. Shaddam's own power is secured by his fierce and seemingly unstoppable Sardaukar army; the Baron's ambush on Leto and his forces is bolstered by Sardaukar troops disguised as Harkonnens, and the Atreides are crushed. Leto is killed, but his Bene Gesserit concubine Lady Jessica and son Paul Atreides escape into the desert. They find sanctuary with a tribe of the planet's native Fremen.
Paul rises to power among the Fremen, whom he finds to be fierce fighters whose skills and numbers are underestimated by the Harkonnens. As the Fremen guerrilla "Muad'Dib", Paul soon manages to lead the Fremen in a widespread challenge to the Harkonnens' control of Arrakis. With the spice trade threatened, Shaddam arrives on Arrakis with his court and an escort of Sardaukar, intending to quickly end the disruption. However the Fremen, enhanced by Paul's training in Bene Gesserit martial arts, attack and manage to handily defeat the attendant Sardaukar forces. Making clear his ability and willingness to completely destroy all spice production should his terms not be met, Paul demands that Shaddam step down from the Imperial throne and install Paul in his place, with Irulan as Paul's consort. Shaddam has no choice but to concede, as an end to the spice supply would paralyze civilization across the entire universe. In 10,196 Shaddam is effectively exiled to his ancestral planet of Salusa Secundus, now a wasteland, prison planet, and training ground for the Sardaukar. According to Appendix IV: The Almanak en-Ashraf (Selected Excerpts of the Noble Houses) in Dune, Shaddam IV dies in 10,202 A.G. after 68 years of life.
Prelude to Dune
In the Prelude to Dune prequel trilogy (1999–2001), Shaddam is eager to succeed his father Elrood as Padishah Emperor, but despite his advanced age Elrood shows no signs of ill health. Shaddam finally tasks his longtime friend and minion Fenring to administer Elrood with an undetectable, slow-acting poison. Elrood finally dies in 10,156 A.G.; Shaddam had previously been complicit in the murder of his elder brother, the Crown Prince Fafnir, and had secretly administered contraceptives to his own mother, Habla, so she could not conceive another son to rival him. Shaddam secures his throne by paying the Spacing Guild with a supply of the spice and by arranging his own marriage to a Bene Gesserit. This union with the Lady Anirul Sadow-Tonkin results in five daughters, but no sons.
Shaddam is portrayed by José Ferrer in the 1984 David Lynch film adaptation Dune, and by Giancarlo Giannini in the 2000 Dune miniseries. Giannini also dubbed himself in the Italian version of the miniseries.
- Rossignol, Benoît. "Figures de l'historien dans le cycle de Dune de Frank Herbert". Publication Cycnos (in French). Retrieved 2019-06-14.
- DiTommaso, Lorenzo (1992). "History and Historical Effect in Frank Herbert's "Dune"". Science Fiction Studies. 19 (3): 311–325. ISSN 0091-7729. JSTOR 4240179.
- DiTommaso, Lorenzo (2007-01-01). "The Articulation of Imperial Decadence and Decline in Epic Science Fiction". Extrapolation. 48 (2): 267–291. doi:10.3828/extr.2007.48.2.5. ISSN 0014-5483.
- Herbert, Frank (1965). "Appendix IV: The Almanak en-Ashraf (Selected Excerpts of the Noble Houses): SHADDAM IV". Dune.
SHADDAM IV (10,134–10,202): The Padishah Emperor, 81st of his line (House Corrino) to occupy the Golden Lion Throne, reigned from 10,156 (date his father, Elrood IX, succumbed to chaumurky) until replaced by the 10,196 Regency set up in the name of his eldest daughter, Irulan. His reign is noted chiefly for the Arrakis Revolt, blamed by many historians on Shaddam IV's dalliance with Court functions and the pomp of office. The ranks of Bursegs were doubled in the first sixteen years of his reign. Appropriations for Sardaukar training went down steadily in the final thirty years before the Arrakis Revolt. He had five daughters (Irulan, Chalice, Wensicia, Josifa, and Rugi) and no legal sons. Four of the daughters accompanied him into retirement. His wife, Anirul, a Bene Gesserit of Hidden Rank, died in 10,176.
- Shaddam's birthdate is "revised" to 10,119 A.G. in the Prelude to Dune series (1999–2001) with the note that "In the appendix to Dune, there were typographical errors in respect to the birthdates of Shaddam Corrino IV and Count Hasimir Fenring, as evidenced by conflicting ages shown in the text of the novel."
- Herbert, Frank (1965). "Appendix IV: The Almanak en-Ashraf (Selected Excerpts of the Noble Houses): COUNT HASIMIR FENRING". Dune.
- Maslin, Janet (December 14, 1984). "Movie Review: Dune (1984)". The New York Times. Retrieved March 15, 2010.
- Dagan, Carmel (November 29, 2000). "Frank Herbert's Dune". Variety. Retrieved February 20, 2019.
- Genna, Antonio (January 2007). "Zona cinema - Sceneggiati e miniserie TV - Dune". Il mondo dei doppiatori (in Italian). Retrieved June 18, 2019.
- Asher-Perrin, Emmet (May 9, 2017). "Syfy's Dune Miniseries is the Most Okay Adaptation of the Book to Date". Tor.com. Retrieved February 20, 2019.