Shadow of the Vampire
||This article consists almost entirely of a plot summary. It should be expanded to provide more balanced coverage that includes real-world context. (January 2016)|
|Shadow of the Vampire|
|Directed by||E. Elias Merhige|
|Produced by||Nicolas Cage
|Written by||Steven Katz|
John Aden Gillet
|Music by||Dan Jones|
|Edited by||Chris Wyatt|
|Distributed by||Lions Gate Films|
Shadow of the Vampire is a 2000 humorous metafiction horror film directed by E. Elias Merhige and written by Steven Katz, and starring John Malkovich and Willem Dafoe. The film is an imaginary account of the making of the classic vampire film Nosferatu, eine Symphonie des Grauens, directed by F. W. Murnau, in which the film crew begin to have disturbing suspicions about their lead actor. The film borrows the techniques of silent films, including the use of intertitles to explain elided action and iris lenses.
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In 1921, German director Frederich Wilhelm Murnau takes his cast and crew on-location in Czechoslovakia to shoot Nosferatu, an unauthorized version of Bram Stoker's novel Dracula. Murnau keeps his team in the dark about their schedule and the actor playing the vampire Count Orlok. It is left to the film's other main actor, Gustav von Wangenheim, to explain that the lead is an obscure German theater performer named Max Schreck, who is a character actor. To involve himself fully in his role, Schreck will only appear amongst the cast and crew in makeup, and will never break character.
After filming scenes in a studio with leading actress Greta Schroeder, who is displeased about leaving Berlin, Murnau's team travels to the remote inn where they will be staying and shooting further scenes. The landlady becomes distressed at Murnau removing crucifixes around the inn, and the cameraman, Wolfgang Muller, falls into a strange, hypnotic state. Gustav discovers a bottle of blood amongst the team's food supplies, and Murnau delivers a caged ferret to a cellar in the middle of the night.
One night, Murnau rushes his team up to an old Slovak castle for the first scene with the vampire. Schreck appears for the first time, and his appearance and behavior impress and disturb them. The film's producer, Albin Grau, suspects that Schreck is not a German theater actor, and is confused when Murnau tells him that he found Schreck in the castle. Soon after the completion of the scene, Wolf is found collapsed in a dark tunnel. Upon returning to the inn, the landlady appears frightened by his pale, weak appearance, and mutters "Nosferatu" while clutching at a rosary.
Whilst filming a dinner scene between Gustav and Count Orlok, Murnau startles Gustav, making him cut his finger with a bread knife. Schreck reacts wildly at the sight of the blood, and, urged on by Murnau, tries drinking from Gustav's wound. Suddenly the generator powering the lights fails. When the lights return, Schreck has pinned Wolf to the floor, apparently draining his blood. Albin orders filming ended for the night, and the crew rushes from the castle, leaving Schreck behind. Schreck examines the camera equipment, fascinated by footage of a sunrise.
Schreck is in fact an actual vampire, and Murnau has struck a deal with him in order to create the most realistic vampire film possible. He has been promised Greta as a prize for completing the film, but remains difficult and uncooperative until the entire production is at his mercy. With Wolf near death, Murnau is forced to bring in another cinematographer, Fritz Arno Wagner. During Murnau's absence, Albin and the film's scriptwriter, Henrik Galeen, share a drink by a campfire, when Schreck approaches them. They invite him to join them, and question Schreck, believing he is still in character. They ask him when he became a vampire; Schreck replies that he cannot remember. Albin and Galeen reply that Dracula would not reply so, then ask Schreck what he thought of the novel. Schreck points out Dracula's loneliness, and the flaw of Dracula remembering how to do everyday activities that he has not performed in centuries. Albin and Henrik suggest creating more vampires, but Schreck replies he is too old, and he seems to remember he could not anyway. When they ask how he became a vampire, Schreck starts to mention a tryst he had. A bat flies by and Schreck catches it, sucking its blood ecstatically. The others are impressed by what they assume is talented acting.
The production moves to Heligoland to film the final scenes, and Murnau, in a laudanum-induced stupor, admits Schreck's true nature to Albin and Fritz. The two realise that they are trapped, leaving them no choice but to complete the film and give Greta to the vampire if they wish to survive. Greta becomes hysterical after noticing Schreck casts no reflection. Murnau, Albin and Fritz drug her, and film the scene as Schreck feeds on Greta, resulting in her death. However, the laudanum in her blood puts Schreck to sleep. At dawn, the remaining three attempt to open a door and let in sunlight to destroy Schreck. However, Schreck previously cut the chain, having learned of their trickery. Schreck kills Fritz and Albin while Murnau continues filming. Henrik and the rest of the crew arrives in time to lift up the door and flood the set with sunlight, destroying Schreck while Murnau films his death.
Murnau completes the filming and calmly states "I think we have it."
- John Malkovich as Frederich Wilhelm Murnau, the director of Nosferatu
- Willem Dafoe as Max Schreck, who plays Count Orlok
- Udo Kier as Albin Grau, occultist; the producer, art director, and costume designer
- Cary Elwes as Fritz Arno Wagner, the cinematographer
- Catherine McCormack as Greta Schroeder, who plays Ellen Hutter/Mina Harker
- Eddie Izzard as Gustav von Wangenheim, who plays Thomas Hutter/Jonathan Harker
- John Aden Gillet as Henrik Galeen, the screenwriter
- Nicholas Elliott as Paul
- Ronan Vibert as Wolfgang Muller
- Sophie Langevin as Elke
- Myriam Muller as Maria
The film depicts several of the major characters as being killed by the vampire; however, historically these individuals continued to live long lives after the film's production. Fritz Wagner and Albin Grau, who are shown having their necks snapped by Count Orlok, lived to the 1950s and 70s respectively. Greta Schroeder, who also did not actually die, continued to have a successful film career until the 1950s. Of all the characters, Murnau himself died the soonest after the production of Nosferatu, killed in a car crash in California in 1931. The film's depiction of Murnau as ruthless and dictatorial is also wrong, he was known as a genius director with rare sensivity.
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The film's working title was Burned to Light, but the director E. Elias Merhige decided to change the name of the film when Willem Dafoe asked, "Who's Ed?"; the actor thought the title was Burn Ed to Light.
The film was produced by Nicolas Cage's Saturn Films. Members of the online community "The HollyWood Stock Exchange" were able to donate a small sum towards the film's production, in exchange for listing their name on the DVD release of the film as "Virtual producers".
Of the film's cast, three actors had previously appeared in vampire films: Kier played Count Dracula in Blood for Dracula (1974) and Dragonetti in Blade (1998) while Elwes played Arthur Holmwood in Bram Stoker's Dracula (1992) and Dafoe as 2nd Phone Booth Youth in The Hunger (1983).
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Critical reaction to Shadow of the Vampire has been mostly positive with Dafoe's performance as a silent era actor receiving particular praise. It holds a Rotten Tomatoes rating of 81%. Roger Ebert gave the film 3½ stars out of 4, writing that "director E. Elias Merhige and his writer, Steven Katz, do two things at the same time. They make a vampire movie of their own, and they tell a backstage story about the measures that a director will take to realize his vision", and that Dafoe "embodies the Schreck of Nosferatu so uncannily that when real scenes from the silent classic are slipped into the frame, we don't notice a difference." Ebert later awarded the film his Special Jury Prize on his list of "The Best 10 Movies of 2000", writing of Dafoe's "astonishing performance" and of the film, "Avoiding the pitfall of irony; it plays the material straight, which is truly scary."
Shadow of the Vampire won several awards:
- the Prix Tournage
- the Saturn Award
- the Gran Angular Award
- the International Fantasy Film Award
- the President Award
- the Golden Satellite Award
- the Independent Spirit Award
- the LAFCA Award for Willem Dafoe
- the Bram Stoker Award for Steven Katz
- Vampire film
- "Flicker", an episode of American Horror Story: Hotel in which F. W. Murnau was actually a vampire while filming Nosferatu.
- "SHADOW OF THE VAMPIRE (15)". British Board of Film Classification. July 31, 2000. Retrieved October 19, 2014.
- "Shadow of a Vampire Box Office Data". The Numbers. Nash Information Services. Retrieved October 8, 2011.
- Dread Central's Best Horror Films of the Decade
- Bonus features on Shadow of the Vampire DVD - Interview with E. Elias Merhige.
- Maslin, Janet (6 June 1997). "Con Air (1997) Signs and Symbols on a Thrill Ride". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 July 2015.
- Canby, Vincent (17 August 1990). "Wild At Heart (1990) Review/Film; In the Eerie Cosmos Of David Lynch, Reality Is Reeling". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 July 2015.
- Shadow of the Vampire Movie Reviews, Pictures - Rotten Tomatoes
- Shadow Of The Vampire :: rogerebert.com :: Reviews
- The Best 10 Movies of 2000 :: rogerebert.com :: News & comment
- Shadow of the Vampire at the Internet Movie Database
- Shadow of the Vampire at Box Office Mojo
- Shadow of the Vampire at Rotten Tomatoes
- Shadow of the Vampire at Metacritic
- Learn about the real F.W. Murnau, Max Schreck and the silent film Nosferatu, featured in Shadow of the Vampire