|Location||Baghdad, Baghdad Governorate, Iraq|
|Excavation dates||1945–1963, 1997–1998|
|Archaeologists||Taha Baqir, P. Miglus, L. Hussein|
History of archaeological research
The site was excavated by Iraqi archaeologist Taha Baqir of the Department of Antiquities and Heritage from 1945 to 1963, discovering about 2000 tablets. In 1997 and 1998, the site was worked by a team from Baghdad University and the German Archaeological Institute led by Peter Miglus and Laith Hussein. Many other illegally excavated tablets have found their way into various institutions.
Not much is known outside the Old Babylonian times, though clearly the location was occupied from at least the Akkadian period through the Old Babylonian period, when it was part of the kingdom of Eshnunna in the Diyala River area. It was an administrative center for the kingdom and its name means "the treasury."
The site featured a large trapezoidal wall and a temple to the goddess Nisaba and the god Khani. Among the tablets from Tell Harmal are two of the epic of Gilgamesh and two with parts of the Laws of Eshnunna as well as some important mathematical tablets.
- Cities of the ancient Near East
- 1 Chronicles 7:12 ; "The sons of Ir were Shuppim and Huppim. .., "
- Taha Baqir, Excavations at Tell Harmal II: Tell Harmal, A Preliminary Report, Sumer 2, pp. 22-30, 1946
- Taha Baqir, Excavations at Harmal, Sumer 4, pp 137-39, 1948
- Taha Baqir, Tell Harmal, The Republic of Iraq Directorate of Antiquities, 1959
- Laith M. Hussein and Peter A. Miglus, Tell Harmal. Die Frühjahrskampagne 1997, Baghdader Mitteilungen, vol. 29, pp 35-46, 1998
- Laith M. Hussein and Peter A. Miglus, Tall Harmal. Die Herbstkampagne 1998, Baghdader Mitteilungen, vol. 30, pp 101-113, 1999
- Maria de J. Ellis, Old Babylonian Economic Texts and Letters from Tell Harmal, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 43–69, 1972
- Gwendolyn Leick, Francis J. Kirk, A Dictionary of Ancient Near Eastern Architecture, Routledge, 1988, ISBN 0-415-00240-0
- Maria deJ. Ellis, The Division of Property at Tell Harmal, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 133–153, 1974
- Lamia al-Gailani Werr, A Note on the Seal Impression IM 52599 from Tell Harmal, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 62–64, 1978
- Maria deJ. Ellis, An Old Babylonian Adoption Contract from Tell Harmal, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 130–151, 1975
- T. Baqir, An important mathematical problem text from Tell Harmal, Sumer, vol. 6, pp. 39–54, 1950
- T. Baqir, Another important mathematical text from Tell Harmal, Sumer, vol. 6, pp. 130–148, 1950
- A. Goetze, A mathematical compendium from Tell Harmal, Sumer, vol. 7, pp. 126–155, 1951
- T Baqir Some more mathematical texts from Tell Harmal, Sumer, vol. 7, pp. 28–45, 1951