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Tell Harmal
Shaduppum is located in Iraq
Shown within Iraq
LocationBaghdad, Baghdad Governorate, Iraq
Coordinates33°18′34.1388″N 44°28′01.4340″E / 33.309483000°N 44.467065000°E / 33.309483000; 44.467065000Coordinates: 33°18′34.1388″N 44°28′01.4340″E / 33.309483000°N 44.467065000°E / 33.309483000; 44.467065000
Site notes
Excavation dates1945–1963, 1997–1998
ArchaeologistsTaha Baqir, P. Miglus, L. Hussein

Shaduppum (modern Tell Harmal) is an archaeological site in Baghdad Governorate (Iraq). Nowadays, it lies within the borders of modern Baghdad.

History of archaeological research[edit]

Terracotta lion from Tell Harmal, Iraq Museum
Clay tablet, mathematical, geometric-algebraic, similar to the Euclidean geometry. From Tell Harmal, Iraq. 2003-1595 BCE. Iraq Museum

The site, 150 meters in diameter and 5 meters high, was excavated by Iraqi archaeologist Taha Baqir of the Department of Antiquities and Heritage from 1945 to 1963, discovering about 2000 tablets. Stories about Creation, the flood, The epic of Gilgamesh, and other were inscribed on some of the tablets [1][2][3] In 1997 and 1998, the site was worked by a team from Baghdad University and the German Archaeological Institute led by Peter Miglus and Laith Hussein.[4][5] Many other illegally excavated tablets have found their way into various institutions.

Occupation history[edit]

Not much is known outside the Old Babylonian times, though clearly the location was occupied from at least the Akkadian period through the Old Babylonian period, when it was part of the kingdom of Eshnunna in the Diyala River area. It was an administrative center for the kingdom and its name means "the treasury."

The site featured a large trapezoidal wall and a temple to the goddess Nisaba and the god Khani. Among the tablets from Tell Harmal are two of the epic of Gilgamesh and two with parts of the Laws of Eshnunna as well as some important mathematical tablets.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Taha Baqir, Excavations at Tell Harmal II: Tell Harmal, A Preliminary Report, Sumer 2, pp. 22-30, 1946
  2. ^ Taha Baqir, Excavations at Harmal, Sumer 4, pp 137-39, 1948
  3. ^ Taha Baqir, Tell Harmal, The Republic of Iraq Directorate of Antiquities, 1959
  4. ^ Laith M. Hussein and Peter A. Miglus, Tell Harmal. Die Frühjahrskampagne 1997, Baghdader Mitteilungen, vol. 29, pp 35-46, 1998
  5. ^ Laith M. Hussein and Peter A. Miglus, Tall Harmal. Die Herbstkampagne 1998, Baghdader Mitteilungen, vol. 30, pp 101-113, 1999

Further reading[edit]

  • Maria de J. Ellis, Old Babylonian Economic Texts and Letters from Tell Harmal, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 43–69, 1972
  • Gwendolyn Leick, Francis J. Kirk, A Dictionary of Ancient Near Eastern Architecture, Routledge, 1988, ISBN 0-415-00240-0
  • Maria deJ. Ellis, The Division of Property at Tell Harmal, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 133–153, 1974
  • Lamia al-Gailani Werr, A Note on the Seal Impression IM 52599 from Tell Harmal, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 62–64, 1978
  • Maria deJ. Ellis, An Old Babylonian Adoption Contract from Tell Harmal, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 130–151, 1975
  • T. Baqir, An important mathematical problem text from Tell Harmal, Sumer, vol. 6, pp. 39–54, 1950
  • T. Baqir, Another important mathematical text from Tell Harmal, Sumer, vol. 6, pp. 130–148, 1950
  • A. Goetze, A mathematical compendium from Tell Harmal, Sumer, vol. 7, pp. 126–155, 1951
  • T Baqir Some more mathematical texts from Tell Harmal, Sumer, vol. 7, pp. 28–45, 1951

External links[edit]