Jump to content

Shah Jalal Dargah

Coordinates: 24°54′09″N 91°52′00″E / 24.902592°N 91.866589°E / 24.902592; 91.866589
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Shah Jalal Dargah
শাহজালাল দরগা
Bara Gumbad mosque
Religion
AffiliationIslam
DistrictSylhet District
ProvinceSylhet Division
LeadershipHuzaifa Hussain Chowdhury (Imam)[1]
Sareqaum Fatehullah Al-Aman (Mutawalli)[2]
Year consecratedc. 1500
StatusActive
Location
LocationDargah Mahalla, Sylhet
CountryBangladesh
Shah Jalal Dargah is located in Bangladesh
Shah Jalal Dargah
Location in Bangladesh
Geographic coordinates24°54′09″N 91°52′00″E / 24.902592°N 91.866589°E / 24.902592; 91.866589
Architecture
StyleMughal

The Shah Jalal Dargah (Bengali: শাহজালাল দরগা) is the shrine and burial place of the 14th century Muslim saint Shah Jalal, located in Sylhet, Bangladesh. The site, known as a dargah, was originally constructed c. 1500, though many additions and alterations were made to its structures over the following centuries. It became a religious centre in the region, respected across multiple ruling administrations and greatly venerated among Bengalis, with local folklore and legends developing around it. The extensive surrounding compound serves several functions and includes four mosques, a religious school and a public cemetery among others. The Dargah is presently the largest and most visited religious site in Bangladesh.

Religious significance

[edit]

Shah Jalal was a Sufi saint traditionally accredited with the Muslim conquest of Sylhet as well as the propagation of Islam in the region.[3][4] Described by Syed Murtaza Ali as "the patron saint of Sylhet",[5] following his death in 1347, Shah Jalal's burial place in the city became an object of veneration.[6][7] Both Bengali Muslims and Hindus perform pilgrimages to the site to make offerings and prayers to the saint.[8][note 1] The annual urs, a Sufi death anniversary festival, attracts thousands of visitors, mainly from Bangladesh and neighbouring India.[10][11] The Dargah is presently the most visited shrine in Bangladesh,[12] with historian Syed Mahmudul Hasan calling it "the religious centre of Sylhet".[13]

History

[edit]

It is said that following the conquest, Shah Jalal settled on top of the hillock where the Dargah now sits with some of his companions. The Sultan of Lakhnauti, Shamsuddin Firuz Shah, requested the saint, as a reward, rule over the newly acquired Qasbah of Srihat (Sylhet). However, the latter refused to accept this offer and instead appointed Sikandar Khan Ghazi as the first wazir of the region. Firuz Shah, wanting to somehow reward Shah Jalal, then announced that he would honour the saint by making his residence tax-free. This exemption for the site has continued to the present-day.[14]

The original shrine was constructed by Khalis Khan during the reign of Sultan Alauddin Husain Shah of Bengal according to a 1505 inscription at the site,[13][15] though earlier religious buildings had previously existed there. Among these were a large mosque from the reign of Sultan Shamsuddin Yusuf Shah built by a dastur (minister) named Majlis Alam in 1472, as well as potential buried pre-Islamic ruins, though the latter remains unexcavated.[16][17][18] After the region came under Mughal rule, many of the governing Faujdars of Sylhet commissioned construction projects at the site, which included mosques and tombs. Though many have since disappeared, notable among what remains are a three-domed mosque by Bahram Khan, the surrounding wall of the Dargah by Lutfullah Shirazi and the Bara Gumbad mosque by Farhad Khan.[19][note 2] It was also under Farhad Khan's tenure that, in 1678, the current shrine was constructed.[21] No presently existing building dates from beyond the 17th century, with subsequent construction tending to only renovate the older structures.[22]

According to old records, when the courtiers of Delhi would visit the town, the Shaykh of the Dargah would ceremonially tie a pagri on their heads. The locals would not accept the high status of the courtiers until they paid their respects to Shah Jalal.[10] This was also a tradition among Sylhet's Muslim rulers who, as an act of reverence, visited the Dargah upon their first arrival at the city. Under the British this custom was continued by the Residents of Sylhet. Robert Lindsay, appointed to that role in 1779, gives the following account of his visit:[23][24]

I was now told that it was customary for the new resident to pay his respects to the shrine of the tutelar saint, Shaw Juloll. Pilgrims of the Islam faith flock to this shrine from every part of India, and I afterwards found that the fanatics attending the tomb were not a little dangerous. It was not my business to combat religious prejudices, and I therefore went in state, as others had gone before me, left my shoes on the threshold, and deposited on the tomb five gold mohurs as an offering. Being thus purified, I returned to my dwelling, and received the homage of my subjects.

Prince Firuz, a son of the Mughal emperor Shah Alam II, visited the dargah in 1850. The dargah was also visited by the Nizam of Hyderabad's minister.[10]: 100 

Layout and structures

[edit]
Shah Jalal's open-roofed grave
View of shrine from graveyard.

Located on a low hillock (known as the Dargah Tila) in the Dargah Mahalla neighbourhood of north Sylhet,[8][25] the mausoleum complex is the largest religious compound in Bangladesh.[12] The main entrance, known as the Dargah Gate,[4] opens into a large plaza, ahead of which lies a section dedicated to services for women. Shah Jalal's burial place itself lies in the centre of the compound and is reached via a flight of stairs to the right of this section, though only men are permitted to enter.[12][21] The steps terminate at a broad flat platform, in front of which is the Bara Gumbad mosque, through which visitors pass to access the tomb.[17][26] The latter is masonry constructed and open-roofed, with its four corners marked by large tapering pillars which support a cloth canopy, with the grave itself being considered notable for its unusually large size.[26][27][28] The burial places of some of Shah Jalal's companions, such as Shahzada Ali, Haji Yusuf, Haji Khalil and Haji Daria, as well as his Chilla Khana, are located nearby.[29][30][note 3] The saint's talwars, Quran, robes, wooden kharam, deerskin-prayer rug, copper plates and Arabic-enscribed bowls and cups are also preserved.[33][10][34]

As well as containing a madrasa and a khanqah,[4][35] on the opposite side of the plaza to the tomb is a large Langar Khana (kitchen) to serve the many poor who visit the Dargah and originally made to be a shelter for visitors. This is now closed due to environmental reasons and so there is a small hut built to its east which serves this purpose. Located in the Langar Khana are three brass degs (cauldrons), the largest being 5 feet in height. Each of these cauldrons can simultaneously cook 7 cows and 7 maunds of rice. On their edges are Persian inscriptions that mentions that they were made by Shaykh Abu Sa'id ibn Muhammad Zafar ibn Yar Muhammad of Jahangirnagar and sent by Murad Bakhsh to the Dargah in Ramadan 1106 AH (April/May 1695 CE).[11][10][4][30] An extensive graveyard occupies the area behind the tomb, with it being a popular desire among Muslims to be buried near Shah Jalal's remains, though the lots are very expensive.[8] Also present are a Jalsa-house, established during the Mughal period, and an elevated domed clock-tower to its south.[11][10][36] To the tomb's west, at the foot of the hillock, is a natural well named Chashma which stands within a spacious brick enclosure. According to legend, Shah Jalal himself ordered its digging,[10][34] and its sacred water, which is drunk by visiting pilgrims, is the same as that of the Zamzam Well in Mecca.[4][26][37]

Legends also exist regarding the catfish and great snakeheads (known as gozar) that inhabit the shrine's tank reservoir, which are commonly fed by visitors. They are said to be the defeated soldiers of Gour Govinda, cursed by Shah Jalal to be eternally reborn in this form.[4][34] Alternatively, they have also been claimed to be descendants of fish which had been bred by the saint. In December 2003, an unidentified group poisoned and killed over 700 of the fish. In response, the following month, 24 gozar were brought from the shrine of Shah Jalal's companion, Shah Mustafa, in the neighbouring Moulvibazar District and released into the Dargah reservoir. Presently, the population has once more risen to the hundreds.[34] Local folklore further states that the Blue Rock Pigeons seen in and around the Dargah (known as Jalali Kabutar or 'Jalal's pigeons') are descended from a pair gifted to the saint by Nizamuddin Auliya.[38][39]

Mosques

[edit]

A total of four mosques currently exist around the Dargah,[17] with the Bara Gumbad being the biggest of these as well as the largest structure in the compound in general.[21][27] Constructed in 1677 by Farhad Khan, its original purpose is uncertain, though historian Ahmad Hasan Dani suggested that it may have been intended as a tomb.[22] Its single dome rests on an octagonal drum and is topped with a pinnacle and surrounded by corner towers, also octagonal, though the latter are stunted due to their tops having disappeared. The structure has three framed entrances on its eastern side, with the middle being the largest, and a small niche between them. The parapet is of a blended Mughal and Bengali style and the interior is simple, though the underside of the dome is decorated.[30]

To the south of the Bara Gumbad is Bahram Khan's three-domed structure, commissioned in 1744, which serves as the primary mosque of the compound.[27][37] Each of its domes has tall finials and rest on crenelated drums. Like the Bara Gumbad, its eastern side has three arched doors, the middle also larger, as well as a modern veranda. The mosque was damaged during the 1897 Assam earthquake, requiring repairs by the Magistrate of Sylhet, John Willes.[22][19] A smaller mosque stands on the western side of Shah Jalal's grave and forms a part of the enclosure. Three-domed and likely originally also constructed by Farhad Khan, it was rebuilt in the same design and style in the late-18th century by the then Collector of Sylhet.[27][30] A fourth mosque, erected by Abdullah Shirazi, lies on the eastern bank of the tank reservoir.[19][40]

Notable burials

[edit]
The grave of M.A.G. Osmani, located in the Dargah cemetery.
[edit]

Notes

[edit]
  1. ^ Writer Bipin Chandra Pal reported that Sadhus honoured the site due to a view that Shah Jalal was an incarnation of Mahadev.[9]
  2. ^ According to an extant Persian inscription, Shirazi also built a small mosque during his term as Faujdar.[20]
  3. ^ The descendants of Haji Yusuf subsequently served as Mutawalli (custodians) of the shrine.[31] Thomas William Beale, in his 1881 An Oriental Biographical Dictionary, also mentioned that the Dargah had a large number of attendants to minister it.[32]

References

[edit]
  1. ^ সাবেক এমপি ড. সৈয়দ মকবুল হোসেনের সুস্থতা কামনায় দোয়া. sylhetview24 (in Bengali). 2020-06-26. Retrieved 2020-09-24.
  2. ^ "শাহজালাল (রহ.) মাজারে ওরশ শনিবার শুরু". Kaler Kantho (in Bengali). 2017-08-09. Retrieved 2020-09-27.
  3. ^ Chanda, Ramaprasad (1936). Ramananda Chatterjee (ed.). Hinduism and the Untouchables. The Modern Review. Vol. 59. Calcutta: Prabasi Press Private, Limited. p. 101.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Knight, Lisa I. (2014). Contradictory Lives: Baul Women in India and Bangladesh. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-19-939684-9.
  5. ^ Ali, Syed Murtaza (1954). S. Moinul Haq (ed.). "A chronology of Muslim Faujdars of Sylhet". Proceedings of the Pakistan History Conference. Karachi: Pakistan Historical Society.: 275.
  6. ^ Abdul Karim (2012). "Shah Jalal (R)". In Islam, Sirajul; Miah, Sajahan; Khanam, Mahfuza; Ahmed, Sabbir (eds.). Banglapedia: the National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Online ed.). Dhaka, Bangladesh: Banglapedia Trust, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. ISBN 984-32-0576-6. OCLC 52727562. OL 30677644M. Retrieved 19 July 2024.
  7. ^ Ali, Syed Murtaza (1971). Saints of East Pakistan. Oxford University Press, Pakistan Branch. p. 29.
  8. ^ a b c Rizvi, S. N. H. (1970). East Pakistan District Gazetteers: Sylhet. East Pakistan Government Press. p. 94.
  9. ^ Bhattacharya, Binay (2007). India's Freedom Movement: Legacy of Bipin Chandra Pal. Bipin Chandra Pal Memorial Trust [by] Deep & Deep Publications. p. 55. ISBN 978-81-7629-974-9.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Choudhury, Achyut Charan (1910). "Second chapter- Dervish Shahjalal". Srihatter Itibritta: Purbangsho (in Bengali). Kolkata: Shriupendranath Pal Choudhury.
  11. ^ a b c Siddiqi, Azhar ad-Din (Sep 2002). "ষষ্ঠ পরিচ্ছেদ". শ্রীহট্টে ইসলাম জ্যোতি. Dhaka: উত্স প্রকাশন. p. 41.
  12. ^ a b c Raj, Selva J.; Harman, William P. (2012). Dealing with Deities: The Ritual Vow in South Asia. Albany: State University of New York Press. p. 90. ISBN 978-0-7914-8200-1.
  13. ^ a b Hasan, Syed Mahmudul (1988). Islamic Heritage of Bangladesh: Tombs and Shrines. Bangladesh Quarterly. Department of Films & Publications, Government of Bangladesh. p. 38.
  14. ^ Kamal, Syed Mustafa (2011). সিলেট বিভাগের ভৌগোলিক ঐতিহাসিক রুপরেখা (in Bengali). Sylhet: Sheikh Faruq Ahmad, Palash Seba Trust. p. 30.
  15. ^ Abdul Karim (1959). Social History Of The Muslims In Bengal (Down to A.D. 1538). Dacca: The Asiatic Society of Pakistan. p. 56.
  16. ^ Karim, Abdul (1999). "Advent of Islam and Hazrat Shah Jalal (R)". In Sharif Uddin Ahmed (ed.). Sylhet: History and Heritage. Sylhet: Bangladesh Itihas Samiti. p. 132. ISBN 978-984-31-0478-6.
  17. ^ a b c Hasan, Sayed Mahmudul (1970). A Guide to Ancient Monuments of East Pakistan. Dacca: Society for Pakistan Studies. p. 159.
  18. ^ Ali (1954, p. 276)
  19. ^ a b c d e Hasan, Sayed Mahmudul (1987). Muslim Monuments of Bangladesh. Islamic Foundation Bangladesh. p. 247.
  20. ^ Shumon, Jobrul Alom (2015-08-25). "ইতিহাস ঐতিহ্যে আমাদের সিলেট-পর্ব ০৫" [The tradition and history of our Sylhet – Part 03]. SBDNews24.com (in Bengali). Retrieved 2019-05-11.
  21. ^ a b c Rizvi (1970, p. 110)
  22. ^ a b c Dani, Ahmad Hasan; Prasad, Munshi Shyam (1961). Muslim Architecture in Bengal. Dhaka: Asiatic Society of Pakistan. p. 239.
  23. ^ Ali (1971, p. 31)
  24. ^ Lindsay Crawford, Alexander William (1858). Lives of the Lindsays: or, a Memoir of the Houses of Crawford and Balcarres. Vol. III (2nd ed.). London: John Murray. p. 168.
  25. ^ Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Akter, Salma (2009). "Spiritual Tourism Development in Bangladesh: An Overview". Dhaka University Journal of Business Studies. XXX (I). Dhaka: Registrar, University of Dhaka: 233.
  26. ^ a b c Dani & Prasad (1961, p. 240)
  27. ^ a b c d Ali (1971, p. 30)
  28. ^ Karim, Abdul (1985). Social History of the Muslims in Bengal (Down to A.D. 1538). Chittagong: Baitush Sharaf Islamic Research Institute. p. 133.
  29. ^ a b c d e f Population Census of Bangladesh, 1974: District census report: Sylhet. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, Statistics Division, Ministry of Planning, Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. 1974. p. 32.
  30. ^ a b c d Rizvi (1970, p. 111)
  31. ^ Ismail, Muhammad (2010). Hagiology of Sufi Saints and the Spread of Islam in South Asia. Jnanada Prakashan. p. 163. ISBN 978-81-7139-375-6.
  32. ^ Beale, Thomas William (1894). "Shah Jalal". In Keene, Henry George (ed.). An oriental biographical dictionary, founded on materials collected by the late Thomas William Beale. London: W. H. Allen & Co. p. 364.
  33. ^ Khandakar, Sabrina (2014). "Islamic Tourism: exploring a new form of sacred journey in Bangladesh" (PDF). Manarat International University Studies. 3 (1). Dhaka: Manarat International University: 128. ISSN 1815-6754.
  34. ^ a b c d "সিলেট জেলা তথ্য বাতায়ন". Archived from the original on 23 Aug 2011.
  35. ^ Raj & Harman (2012, p. 103)
  36. ^ "District census report". Population Census of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, Statistics Division, Ministry of Planning. 1974. p. 16 and 32.
  37. ^ a b Aminuddin, M. (1969). Hazrat Shah Jalal of Sylhet. The Pakistan Review. Vol. 17. Ferozsons Limited. p. 41.
  38. ^ Khan, Muhammad Mojlum (2013). The Muslim Heritage of Bengal: The Lives, Thoughts and Achievements of Great Muslim Scholars, Writers and Reformers of Bangladesh and West Bengal. Markfield: Kube Publishing Limited. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-84774-062-5.
  39. ^ Gadgil, Madhav (1985). Jeffrey A. McNeely; David C. Pitt (eds.). "Social restraints of resource utilization: the Indian experience". Culture and Conservation: The Human Dimension in Environmental Planning. New York: Croom Helm: 143. ISBN 978-0-7099-3533-9.
  40. ^ Rizvi (1970, p. 70)
  41. ^ Hasan (1987, p. 246)
  42. ^ Aziz, Md . Abdul (1999). Sharif Uddin Ahmed (ed.). "Bongobir Osmani: Portrait of a Leader". Sylhet: History and Heritage. Sylhet: Bangladesh Itihas Samiti: 819. ISBN 978-984-31-0478-6.
  43. ^ Rahman, Hifzur (2003-10-31). "The Graveyard of Salman Shah". The Daily Star. Retrieved 2020-09-24.
  44. ^ হুমায়ুন রশীদ চৌধুরীর মৃত্যুবার্ষিকীতে শ্রদ্ধা নিবেদন. Bangladesh Pratidin (in Bengali). 2019-07-10. Retrieved 2020-09-25.
  45. ^ ওয়াদুদ, মো. আ. (2018-07-26). সত্যসন্ধানী গবেষক অধ্যাপক মুহম্মদ আসাদ্দর আলী. Sunamganjer Khobor (in Bengali). Retrieved 2020-10-10.
  46. ^ "Farid Gazi buried at Sylhet". bdnews24.com. 2010-11-20. Retrieved 2020-09-25.
  47. ^ আশরাফ আলীর মৃত্যুতে সিলেট মহানগর আ'লীগের শোক. Banglanews24.com (in Bengali). 23 January 2015.
  48. ^ স্ত্রীকে দাফনের প্রস্তুতির সময় সাবেক এমপি গুলজারের ইন্তেকাল. Bangladesh Pratidin (in Bengali). 26 November 2019. Retrieved 27 November 2019.
  49. ^ "Ex-CJ Mahmudul Amin dies". Daily Observer. 2019-12-22. Retrieved 2019-12-22.
  50. ^ সাবেক হুইপ আসপিয়া'র দাফন সম্পন্ন. SylhetToday24 (in Bengali). 16 September 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2023.
  51. ^ "সাবেক তত্ত্বাবধায়ক সরকারের উপদেষ্টা ইমাম উদ্দীন আহমদ চৌধুরীর ইন্তেকাল". Manab Zamin (in Bengali). Archived from the original on 24 October 2023. Retrieved 29 October 2023.