Shah Mir dynasty

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The Shah Mir Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty from the Indian subcontinent, which ruled the region of Kashmir.[1] During the rule of this dynasty from 1339 to 1561, Islam was firmly established in Kashmir. Shah Mir, under the title of Sultan Shamas-ud-Din founded the dynasty.

As listed in the Rajataranginis he was succeeded by Jamshed 1342–1344, Alau-ud-Din 1344–1355, Shahab-ud-Din 1355–1373, Qutub-ud-Din 1373–1389, Sikandar Butshikan the book-burner 1389–1413, Alishah 1413–1419, Zain-ul-Abdin 1420–1470, Haidershah 1470–1472, Hassanshah 1472–1484, Mohammadshah 1484–1486, Fatehshah 1486–1495 Mohammadshah 1495–1496, Fatehshah 1496–1497, Mohammadshah 1497–1509, Ibrahimshah (s/o Mohammadshah) 1509 Nazukshah (s/o Fatehshah) 1529 (one year), Mohammadshah 1530–1535.[2]

The reign of the Shah Mir Dynasty came to end in 1561, when Kashmir, like rest of the medieval Northern India was conquered by the Mughal Empire.

Origins[edit]

Shah Mir dynasty is located in Kashmir
Sringar
Sringar
Rajauri
Rajauri
Budhal
Budhal
Swat, Pakistan
Swat, Pakistan
Gilgit
Gilgit
Leh
Leh
Kashmir

The dynasty was established by Shah Mir, there are two theories regarding Shah Mir's origin. Historian A. Q. Rafiqi states that some Persian chronicles of Kashmir describe Shah Mir as a descendent of the rulers of Swat.[a] He thinks it more likely that he was a descedent of Turkish or Persian immigrants to Swat.[4] It has also been suggested that he belonged to a Sufi or Qadiri family.[5]

On the other hand, the 15th century Kashmiri historian Jonaraja, writing in the court of Shah Mir's descendant Budshah, states that Shah Mir came to Kashmir along with his tribe from the country of Panchagahvara (identified as the Panjgabbar valley between Rajouri and Budhal). He was said to belong to the family of an ancestor called Partha, who was described as a second Partha (an allusion to the Mahabharata hero Arjuna).[6][7] Some scholars state that the Panjgabbar valley was peopled by Khasas and so ascribe a Khasa ethnicity to Shah Mir.[8][9][10]

Most modern historians accept the Swati origins of Shah Mir.[5][11][12][13] Kashmiri scholar N. K. Zutshi, having critically examined the sources, reconciles the two versions by noting that the Persian chronicles mentions Swadgir rather than Swat, which he interprets as Swadgabar, meaning "suburbs of Gabar", which coincides with Jonaraja's description of Panchagahvara-Simani (on the borders of Panchagagvara).[14]

A. Q. Rafiqi states:

Shah Mir arrived in Kashmir in 1313 along with his family, during the reign of Suhadeva (1301–1320), whose service he entered. In subsequent years, through his tact and ability Shah Mir rose to prominence and became one of the most important personalities of his time.[15]

Shah Mir[edit]

Shah Mir worked to establish Islam in Kashmir and was aided by his descendant rulers, specially Sikandar Butshikan. He reigned for three years and five months from 1339–42. He was the ruler of Kashmir and the founder of the Shah Mir dynasty. He was followed by his two sons who became kings in succession.[16]

Jamshid[edit]

Sultan Shamsu'd-Din Shah was succeeded by his elder son Sultan Jamshid who ruled for a year and two months. In 1343, Sultan Jamshid suffered a defeat by his brother who ascended the throne as Sultan Alau'd-Din in 1347.[17]

Alau'd-Din[edit]

Sultan Alau'd-Din, two sons became kings in succession, Sultan Shihabu'd-Din and Sultan Qutbu'd-Din.[18]

Reign and successions[edit]

Precedence Name AD
1 Shamsu'd-Din Shah 1339
2 Jamshed 1342
3 Ala'u'din 1343
4 Shihu'd-Din 1354
5 Qutub'd-Din 1373
6 Sikander 1389
7 Ali Shah 1413
8 Zainu'l'Abadin 1420
9 Hasan Shah 1472
10 Muhammad Shah (i) 1484
11 Fateh Shah (i) 1486
12 Muhammad Shah (ii) 1493
13 Fateh Shah (ii) 1505
14 Muhammad Shah (iii) 1514
15 Fateh Shah (ii1) 1515
16 Muhammad Shah (iv) 1517
17 Ibrahim Shah (i) 1528
18 Nazuk Shah (i) 1529
19 Muhammad Shah (v) 1530
20 Shamsu'd-Din (ii) 1537
21 Ismail Shah (i) 1540
17 Nazuk Shah (ii) (i) 1540
18 Ibrahim Shah (i) 1552
19 Ismail Shah (ii) (v) 1555
20 Habib Shah 1557–1561

[19]

Note: Muhammad Shah had five separate reigns from 1484 to 1537.[20]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The chronicles include those of Tahir, Haidar Malik, Rafiu'd Din Ahmad and Muhammad A'azam.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sharma, R. S. (1992), A Comprehensive History of India, Orient Longmans, p. 628, ISBN 978-81-7007-121-1 
  2. ^ Rājānaka Jonarāja, Jogesh Chandra Dutt, Shyam Lal Sadhu Medieval Kashmir – being a reprint of the Rajataranginis 1993 Volume 3 – Page 330/Page 331 Jamshed 1342–1344 3. Alau-ud-Din 1344–1355 4. Shahab-ud-Din 1355–1373 5. Qutub-ud-Din 1373–1389 6. Sikandar 1389–1413 7. Alishah 1413–1419 8. Zain-ul-Abdin 1420–1470 9. Haidershah 1470–1472 10. Hassanshah 1472–1484 11. Mohammadshah Apr.1484-Oct.1486, .....12. Fatehshah 1486–1495 13. Mohammadshah 1495–1496 14. Fatehshah 1496–1497 15. Mohammadshah 1497–1509 16. Ibrahimshah (s/o Mohammadshah) 1509 17. Nazukshah (s/o Fatehshah) 1529 (one year) 18. Mohammadshah 1530–1535 .
  3. ^ Gull, Surayia (2003), Mir Saiyid Ali Hamadani And Kubraviya Sufi Order In Kashmir, Kanikshka Publishers, Distributors, p. 3, ISBN 978-81-7391-581-9 
  4. ^ Baloch & Rafiq 1998, pp. 311-312.
  5. ^ a b Schimmel 1980, p. 44.
  6. ^ Sharma, R. S. (1992), A Comprehensive History of India, Orient Longmans, p. 628, ISBN 978-81-7007-121-1, Jonaraja records two events of Suhadeva's reign (1301-20), which were of far-reaching importance and virtually changed the course of the history of Kashmir. The first was the arrival of Shah Mir in 1313. He was a Muslim condottiere from the border of Panchagahvara, an area situated to the south of the Divasar pargana in the valley of river Ans, a tributary of the Chenab. 
  7. ^ Zutshi, N. K. (1976), Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin of Kashmir: an age of enlightenment, Nupur Prakashan, pp. 6–7 
  8. ^ Wani, Nizam-ud-Din (1987), Muslim rule in Kashmir, 1554 A.D. to 1586 A.D., Jay Kay Book House, p. 29, Shamir was a Khasa by birth and descended from the chiefs of Panchagahvara. 
  9. ^ Saxena, Savitri (1995), Geographical Survey of the Purāṇas: The Purāṇas, a Geographical Survey, Nag Publishers, pp. 360–361, ISBN 978-81-7081-333-0, In the Rajatarangini, the rulers of Rajapuri (modern Rajauri) are called the lord of Khasas and their troops as Khasas. They occupied the valleys of Ans river, now called Panjagabhar (Pancagahvara of Srivara IV 213). 
  10. ^ Zutshi, N. K. (1976), Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin of Kashmir: an age of enlightenment, Nupur Prakashan, p. 7, "This area in which Panchagahvara was situated is mentioned as having been the place of habitation of the Khasa tribe. Shah Mir was, therefore, a Khasa by birth. This conclusion is further strengthened by references to the part of the Khasas increasingly played in the politics of Kashmir with which their connections became intimate after the occupation of Kashmir. 
  11. ^ Wink 2004, p. 140"The first Muslim dynasty of Kashmir was founded in 1324 by Shah Mìrzà, who was probably an Afghan warrior from Swat or a Qarauna Turk, possibly even a Tibetan..."
  12. ^ Gupta, Jyoti Bhusan Das (6 December 2012), Jammu and Kashmir, Springer, pp. 19–, ISBN 978-94-011-9231-6 
  13. ^ Snedden, Christopher (2015), Understanding Kashmir and Kashmiris, Oxford University Press, pp. 28–, ISBN 978-1-84904-342-7 
  14. ^ Zutshi, N. K. (1976), Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin of Kashmir: an age of enlightenment, Nupur Prakashan, p. 7 
  15. ^ Baloch & Rafiq 1998, p. 312.
  16. ^ Baharistan-i-Shahi – Chapter 3 – EARLY SHAHMIRS
  17. ^ Baharistan-i-Shahi – Chapter 3 – EARLY SHAHMIRS
  18. ^ Baharistan-i-Shahi – Chapter 3 – EARLY SHAHMIRS
  19. ^ Hasan, Mohibbul (2005) [1959]. Kashmir Under the Sultans (Reprinted ed.). Delhi: Aakar Books. p. 325. ISBN 978-81-87879-49-7. Retrieved 2013-01-17. 
  20. ^ http://coinindia.com/galleries-kashmirsultans.html

External links[edit]