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Shahabad district or Arrah district, headquartered at Arrah (now part of Bhojpur District) was a bhojpuri speaking districts in western Bihar, India making western border of Bihar with Uttar Pradesh. In year 1972, the district was subsequently bifurcated into two districts  namely Bhojpur and Rohtas. Later on Kaimur District was carved out from Rohtas in 1991 and Buxar District from Bhojpur in 1992. These districts are often considered to be part of Purvanchal along with Saran and Champaran regions from Bihar.
The districts in erstwhile Shahabad are as follows.
- Bhojpur District headquartered at Arrah
- Rohtas District headquartered at Sasaram
- Kaimur District headquartered at Bhabua
- Buxar District headquartered at Buxar
All four above districts falls under Patna Division along with Patna and Nalanda District.
- Kamla Persad-Bissessar, Seventh Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago
- Chacha Ramgoolam, First Prime Minister & Chief Minister of Mauritius
- Navin Ramgoolam, 3 times Prime Minister of Mauritius
- Sher Shah Suri, Founder of Sur Dynasty who had built Grand Trunk Road.
- Ustad Bismillah Khan, shehnai maestro & recipient of Bharat Ratna.
- Babu Jagjivan Ram, 4th Deputy PM & longest serving union minister of India
- Meira Kumar, retd. Indian Foreign Service (IFS) officer & 1st women Lok Sabha Speaker.
- Bhuvaneshwar Prasad Sinha, 6th Chief Justice of India
- Bisheshwar Prasad Singh, former Chief Justice of Bombay High Court.
- Anil Sinha, Indian Police Service (IPS) officer & current Director of CBI.
- Satyam Kumar, son of a poor farmer from Arrah, he cracked the IIT entrance exam at the youngest age of 12.
- Bindeshwari Dubey, 21st Chief Minister of Bihar & former Union Minister of India.
- Anant Sharma, former Union Minister & Governor of Punjab & West Bengal state.
- Prashant Kishor, political strategist who led the NDA to win the 2014 Elections.
- Vinay Pathak, famous bollywood actor
- Manoj Tiwari, Member of Parliament & one of the two Bhojpuri cinema superstar
- Vashishtha Narayan Singh, Indian mathematician & former NASA scientist.
- Veer Kunwar Singh, Indian freedom fighter who fought the British at the age of 80.
- "Buxar at a glance". Bihar Government. Retrieved January 14, 2012.
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