Shahmaran (Persian: شاهماران Şahmaran, lit. 'Shah (king) of the Snakes'; Kurdish: Şahmaran/Şamaran, Turkish: Şahmeran, Tatar: Şahmara or Zilant, Зилант or Aq Yılan, Chuvash: Вĕреçĕлен, lit. 'Fire snake', ਸੱਪ ਦੇ ਸ਼ਾਹ Punjabi; Sapa dē Shaha',), is a mythical creature, half woman and half snake, found with different variations in the folklore of Iran, Anatolia, Iraq, and of the Kurds.
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In Turkey, Shahmaran is believed to live in the Mediterranean town of Tarsus and a similar legend is told in the Mardin region. In this region her legend is commonly evoked, with her image still depicted in embroidery, fabrics, and jewelry.
Many of the versions of the story of Shahmaran are found in fictional books including the J.C. Mardrus translation of Arabian Night Tales as the story of "Jemlia - the Sultan of Underground" and The Ring of Shah Maran, A Story from the Mountains of Turkey.[better source needed] The 1944 fairy tale book called The Ring of Shah Maran, A Story from the Mountains of Kurdistan by Raphael Emmanuel tells the folk story of a boy that shares bread with animals and earns the respect of Shahmaran.
Mythological dragons, serpents, and snakes
- Illuyanka – serpentine dragon from Hittite mythology
- Nāga – half-human half-snake being, found in Hindu mythology and Buddhist mythology.
- Verechelen – mythical creature between a dragon and a snake, often depicted with multiple heads, originating from Volga Bulgaria.
- Zahhak – an evil serpent creature, originating in Persian mythology and folklore.
- Zilant – mythical creature between a dragon and a wyvern, originating in Kazan.
- Russell, James R. (1987). Zoroastrianism in Armenia. Harvard University Press. p. 422. ISBN 978-0674968509.
(...) called Šahmaran (NP. šāh-i mārān 'king of the snakes' (...)
- Mardrus, Joseph Charles (1992). 7. pp. 68–131. Missing or empty
- Emmanuel, Raphael (1944). The Ring of Shah Maran: A Story from the Mountains of Kurdistan. Danville, Illinois: Interstate Printers and Publishers.
- "Sevdaliza's Painful 'Shahmaran' Visual Is A Silent Liberation For Voices Of The Oppressed". BET.com. Retrieved 2019-08-20.
- Adrianov, Boris V.; Mantellini, Simone (2013). Ancient Irrigation Systems of the Aral Sea Area: Ancient Irrigation Systems. Oxbow Books. p. 35. ISBN 9781782971672.
- Wight Beale, Thomas; Lamberg-Karlovsky, C. C. (2004). Excavations at Tepe Yahya, Iran, 1967-1975, Volume I: The Early Periods. American School of Prehistoric Research Bulletins 38. Peabody Museum Press. ISBN 978-0873655415.
- Murray, J. (1837). "A General Statement of the Labours and Proceedings of the Expedition to Euphrates, Under the Command of Colonel Chesney". The Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London. 7: 420 – via Google Books.
- "Snake Castle restored to welcome visitors". DailySabah. 2018-05-17. Retrieved 2019-08-20.
- "Tarsus Belediyesi - Turistik Yerler". www.tarsus.bel.tr (in Turkish). Retrieved 2019-08-21.