Shahrokh Shah

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Shahrokh Shah
شاهرخ
Shahrokh Afshar coin.jpg
Coin minted during the reign of Shahrokh Shah.
Shah of the Afsharid dynasty
Reign October 1748–January 1750
Predecessor Ebrahim Shah
Successor Suleiman II (Safavid pretender)
Shah of the Afsharid dynasty
Reign March 1750–1796
Predecessor Suleiman II
Successor Agha Mohammad Shah (Qajar conquest)
Born 21 March 1734
Mashhad
Died 1796 (aged 62)
Damghan
Spouse Goharshah Khanum
Issue Nader Mirza Afshar
Nasr Allah Mirza
Abbas Mirza Afshar
Qahraman mirza
Imam Quli Mirza
Yazdan Baksh Mirza
Reza Quli Mirza
Goharshad Begum
Shahzanan Begum
Gulrukh Begum
Zinat Shah Begum
Father Reza Qoli Mirza Afshar
Mother Fatimeh Sultan Begum
Religion Twelver Shia Islam

Shahrokh Mirza Afshar, better known by his dynastic name of Shahrokh Shah (Persian: شاهرخ‎‎: also spelled Shah Rokh) (c. 1734–1796), was a king of the Afsharid dynasty and a contemporary of the Zand kings.

Origin[edit]

Shahrokh Mirza was the son of Reza Qoli Mirza Afshar, who was the son of the powerful Iranian shah Nader Shah (r. 1736-1747), who had briefly carved what was arguably the most powerful empire at the time. Shahrokh's mother was the Safavid princess Fatimeh Sultan Begum, who was the daughter of the Safavid shah Sultan Husayn (r. 1694–1722), thus making Shahrokh part of the Safavid royal family.

Reign[edit]

Shahrokh was elected by the nobles following the assassination of Ebrahim Afshar in 1748. Shahrokh's son Nader Mirza Afshar, became the prince of Khorasan. Shahrokh made Mashhad the capital of his kingdom. He was a contemporary of Mirza Mohammad, who was the son of shah Suleiman I's daughter and a clergyman.[1] Encouraged by the nobles, he came to believe he was the true heir to the throne. Thus he captured and blinded Shahrokh capitalizing on the popular dissatisfaction with Shahrokh's rule, partly owing to the conduct of his Georgian favorite Rasul Beg, who scandalized Mashhad by making free with the harem of his master.[2] In 1749, during a struggle for power, the son of the Khan of Tabriz, Azad Khan Afghan, began a campaign for independence which removed the province of Azerbaijan from Iran, while in the west the Qajar tribe led by Mohammad Hassan Khan took over the region of Mazandaran.

In 1750, Soleyman II was captured and blinded by the followers of Shahrokh, subsequent to which Shahrokh was reinstated as Shah.

In 1760, when Karim Khan took control of Iran, he did not try to depose Shahrokh out of respect for Nader; however, the realm of Shahrokh was reduced to the province of Khorasan.

When the Qajar ruler Agha Mohammad Shah reached Mashhad, Shahrokh, along with a prominent mujtahid named Mirza Mahdi, went to the Qajar encampment. There they were warmly received by Agha Mohammad Shah's nephew Hossein Qoli Khan.[3] Shortly afterwards, Agha Mohammad Shah sent a force of 8,000 soldiers under Suleiman Khan Qajar, followed by Mirza Mahdi, to conquer Mashhad and affirm its citizens of the Shah's generosity. A day later, Agha Mohammad Shah, followed the customary of the famous Iranian shah Abbas I the Great, and entered Mashhad by foot as a pilgrim to the Imam Reza shrine, whilst being teary eyed and kissing the ground. His pilgrimage continued for 23 days, where he seemed to be unaware of the politics of the country.[3]

However, things quickly instantly changed after that—Agha Mohammad Shah ordered the digging up of Nader Shah's corpse, and had it sent to Tehran, where it was reburied alongside Karim Khan Zand's corpse. He then forced Shahrokh to give any riches that originally belonged to Nader Shah.[3] Shahrokh vowed that he did not possess any more of Nader Shah's riches. Agha Mohammad Shah, ruthless and revengeful, and with an desire for treasures, disbelieved him, and had him hurt severely to confess the hidden locations of the last gems that he had passed down to him from his grandfather—Shahrokh, however, refused to speak.[4] However, he eventually confessed the locations of the gems. Shahrokh was sent to Mazandaran with his family, but died at Damghan due to the injuries he had suffered by his torturers.

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://irane-man.tripod.com/NaderShah.html
  2. ^ Lang, David Marshall (1957), The Last Years of the Georgian Monarchy, 1658-1832, p. 148. Columbia University Press
  3. ^ a b c Hambly 1991, p. 130.
  4. ^ Axworthy 2009, p. 144.

Sources[edit]

Regnal titles
Preceded by
Ebrahim Shah Afshar
Shah of Persia (1st time)
1748–1749
Succeeded by
Suleiman II of Persia
Preceded by
Suleiman II of Persia
Shah of Persia (2nd time)
1750–1760
Succeeded by
Karim Khan Zand
Preceded by
Ebrahim Shah Afshar
Azerbaijan (as part of Persia)
1748–1749
Succeeded by
Azad Khan Afghan
Preceded by
Ebrahim Shah Afshar
Ruler of Mazandaran (as part of Persia)
1748–1749
Succeeded by
Mohammad Hasan Khan Qajar
Preceded by
Soleyman II Safavi
Ruler of Khorasan
1750–1796
Succeeded by
Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar