Shaishunaga dynasty

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Shaishunaga dynasty

413 BCE–345 BCE
Location of Shaishunaga dynasty
CapitalRajgir (primary)
Vaishali (secondary)
later Pataliputra
Common languagesSanskrit
Magadhi Prakrit
Other Prakrits
Religion
Hinduism
Buddhism
Jainism[1]
GovernmentMonarchy
• 413–395 BCE
Shishunaga
• 395–367 BCE
Kalashoka
• 367-355 BCE
Nandivardhana
• 355–345 BCE
Mahanandin
History 
• Established
413 BCE
• Disestablished
345 BCE
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Haryanka dynasty
Nanda Empire
Image of the Shaishunaga period.

The Shaishunaga dynasty (IAST: Śaiśunāga, literally "of Shishunaga") is believed to have been the third ruling dynasty of Magadha, an empire of ancient India. According to the Hindu Puranas, this dynasty was the second ruling dynasty of Magadha, succeeding Nagadashaka of the Haryanka dynasty.

Shishunaga, the founder of the dynasty, was initially an amatya or "minister" of the last Haryanka dynasty ruler Nāgadāsaka and ascended to the throne after a popular rebellion in c. 421 BCE.[2] The capital of this dynasty initially was Rajgir; but later shifted to Pataliputra, near the present day Patna, during the reign of Kakavarna. According to tradition, Kakavarna was succeeded by his ten sons.[3] This dynasty was succeeded by the Nanda Empire in c. 345 BCE.[4]

Establishment[edit]

According to Buddhist tradition, Shishunaga was amatya in Haryanka kingdom, who revolted and became the king.[5]

Rulers[edit]

Shishunaga[edit]

Shishunaga founded his dynasty in 413 BCE with its capital in Rajgir and later Pataliputra (both in what is now Bihar). Buddhist sources indicate that he had a secondary capital at Vaishali,[5] formerly the capital of Vajji, until it was conquered by Magadha. The Shaishunaga dynasty ruled one of the largest empires in the Indian subcontinent.Most important achievement of Shisunga was destruction of the pradyota dyanasty of Avanti.This brought to an end the hundred year old rivalry between Magadh and Avanti .From then Avanti became a part of Magadh rule

Kakavarna/Kalashoka[edit]

According to the Puranas, Shishunaga was succeeded by his son Kakavarna and according to the Sinhala chronicles by his son Kalashoka.[5] On the basis of the evidence of the Ashokavadana, Hermann Jacobi, Wilhelm Geiger and Ramakrishna Gopal Bhandarkar concluded that both are the same. During Shishunaga's reign, he was the governor of Varanasi. The two most significant events of his reign are the Second Buddhist council at Vaishali in 383 BC and the final transfer of the capital to Pataliputra.[5][6] According to the Harshacharita, he was killed by a dagger thrust into his throat in the vicinity of his capital.[7] According to Buddhist tradition, he had nine or ten sons, who were ousted by Ugrasena Nanda.[8]

Later rulers[edit]

According to tradition,[which?] ten sons of Kalashoka ruled simultaneously. The Mahabodhivamsa states their names as Bhadrasena, Korandavarna, Mangura, Sarvanjaha, Jalika, Ubhaka, Sanjaya, Koravya, Nandivardhana and Panchamaka. Only one of them is mentioned in the Puranic lists, Nandivardhana.[3]

The Puranas list Nandivardhana as the ninth Shaishunaga king and his son Mahanandin as the tenth and the last Shaishunaga king. Mahanandin was killed by his illegitimate son from a Shudra wife named Mahapadma.[9]

Coins during the Shaishunaga dynasty of Magadha.

Decline[edit]

According to Puranas, Shaishunagas were followed by Nanda Empire, which was established by Mahanandin's illegitimate son Mahapadma Nanda.[5]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Upinder Singh 2016, p. 273.
  2. ^ Raychaudhuri 1972, pp. 193,201.
  3. ^ a b Raychaudhuri 1972, p. 196.
  4. ^ Raychaudhuri 1972, p. 201.
  5. ^ a b c d e Upinder Singh 2016, p. 272.
  6. ^ Raychaudhuri 1972, pp. 195–196.
  7. ^ Mahajan 2007, p. 251.
  8. ^ Sastri 1988, p. 14.
  9. ^ Mookerji 1988, p. 10.

Sources[edit]

  • Mookerji, Radha Kumud (1988) [first published in 1966], Chandragupta Maurya and his times (4th ed.), Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0433-3
  • Singh, Upinder (2016), A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century, Pearson PLC, ISBN 978-81-317-1677-9
  • Raychaudhuri, H.C. (1972), Political History of Ancient India, Calcutta: University of Calcutta
  • Sastri, K. A. Nilakanta, ed. (1988) [1967], Age of the Nandas and Mauryas (Second ed.), Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0465-4
  • Mahajan, V.D. (2007) [1960], Ancient India, New Delhi: S. Chand, ISBN 978-81-219-0887-0
Preceded by
Haryanka dynasty (Magadha)

Pradyota dynasty (Avanti)

Shaishunaga Dynasty
413–345 BCE
Succeeded by
Nanda Dynasty
Timeline and
cultural period
Northwestern India
(Punjab-Sapta Sindhu)
Indo-Gangetic Plain Central India Southern India
Upper Gangetic Plain
(Ganga-Yamuna doab)
Middle Gangetic Plain Lower Gangetic Plain
IRON AGE
Culture Late Vedic Period Late Vedic Period
(Srauta culture)[a]
Painted Grey Ware culture
Late Vedic Period
(Shramanic culture)[b]
Northern Black Polished Ware
Pre-history
 6th century BCE Gandhara Kuru-Panchala Magadha Adivasi (tribes) Assaka
Culture Persian-Greek influences "Second Urbanisation"
Rise of Shramana movements
Jainism - Buddhism - Ājīvika - Yoga
Pre-history
 5th century BCE (Persian conquests) Shaishunaga dynasty Adivasi (tribes) Assaka
 4th century BCE (Greek conquests) Nanda empire
HISTORICAL AGE
Culture Spread of Buddhism Pre-history
 3rd century BCE Maurya Empire Satavahana dynasty
Sangam period
(300 BCE – 200 CE)
Early Cholas
Early Pandyan Kingdom
Cheras
Culture Preclassical Hinduism[c] - "Hindu Synthesis"[d] (ca. 200 BC - 300 CE)[e][f]
Epics - Puranas - Ramayana - Mahabharata - Bhagavad Gita - Brahma Sutras - Smarta Tradition
Mahayana Buddhism
 2nd century BCE Indo-Greek Kingdom Shunga Empire
Maha-Meghavahana Dynasty
Satavahana dynasty
Sangam period
(300 BCE – 200 CE)
Early Cholas
Early Pandyan Kingdom
Cheras
 1st century BCE
 1st century CE

Indo-Scythians
Indo-Parthians

Kuninda Kingdom
 2nd century Kushan Empire
 3rd century Kushano-Sasanian Kingdom Kushan Empire Western Satraps Kamarupa kingdom Adivasi (tribes)
Culture "Golden Age of Hinduism"(ca. CE 320-650)[g]
Puranas
Co-existence of Hinduism and Buddhism
 4th century Kidarites Gupta Empire
Varman dynasty
Andhra Ikshvakus
Kalabhra dynasty
Kadamba Dynasty
Western Ganga Dynasty
 5th century Hephthalite Empire Alchon Huns Vishnukundina
Kalabhra dynasty
 6th century Nezak Huns
Kabul Shahi
Maitraka Adivasi (tribes) Vishnukundina
Badami Chalukyas
Kalabhra dynasty
Culture Late-Classical Hinduism (ca. CE 650-1100)[h]
Advaita Vedanta - Tantra
Decline of Buddhism in India
 7th century Indo-Sassanids Vakataka dynasty
Empire of Harsha
Mlechchha dynasty Adivasi (tribes) Badami Chalukyas
Eastern Chalukyas
Pandyan Kingdom (Revival)
Pallava
 8th century Kabul Shahi Pala Empire Eastern Chalukyas
Pandyan Kingdom
Kalachuri
 9th century Gurjara-Pratihara Rashtrakuta dynasty
Eastern Chalukyas
Pandyan Kingdom
Medieval Cholas
Chera Perumals of Makkotai
10th century Ghaznavids Pala dynasty
Kamboja-Pala dynasty
Kalyani Chalukyas
Eastern Chalukyas
Medieval Cholas
Chera Perumals of Makkotai
Rashtrakuta
References and sources for table

References

  1. ^ Samuel
  2. ^ Samuel
  3. ^ Michaels (2004) p.39
  4. ^ Hiltebeitel (2002)
  5. ^ Michaels (2004) p.39
  6. ^ Hiltebeitel (2002)
  7. ^ Michaels (2004) p.40
  8. ^ Michaels (2004) p.41

Sources