Shakkanakku

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Shakkanakku
Inscription on the statue of Ishtup-Ilum with the word "Shakkanakku" (red): "Ishtup-Ilum, Shakkanakku of Mari" (𒅖𒁾𒀭 𒄊𒀴 𒈠𒌷𒆠)
Inscription "Iddi-Ilum, shakkanakku of Mari", using the Sumerian: 𒄊𒀴, šagina, on the Statue of Iddi-Ilum.

In the Akkadian language Shakkanakku (Sumerian: 𒄊𒀴, GIR.NITA or šagina,[1] Akkadian: 𒇽𒃻𒃶𒅘𒆪), was a title designating a military governor.[2] Mari was ruled by a dynasty of hereditary Shakkanakkus which was originally set by the Akkadian Empire and gained independence following Akkad's collapse.[3] It is considered that the Shakkanakka gained some form of independence and came to be considered as "Kings" from the time of Apil-Kin.[4] A critical analysis of the Shakkanakku List of Mari has been published.[5]

The title is also known around the same time in Elam, where several "Shakkanakku (Military Governor) of the country of Elam" with typically Akkadian names ruled for the Akkadian kings.[6]

The title also existed in Qatna in the 14th century BC,[7] and Dilmun under the Kassites.[8]

Shakkanakkus under the Akkadians[edit]

Shakkanakkus, or Shagina military governors are known from the time of the Akkadian Empire. For example, Shar-kali-sharri had a military governor in Nippur taking charge of the construction of the temple of Enlil. One of his year names reads: "Year in which Szarkaliszarri appointed Puzur-Esztar the shagina (general)" to build the temple of Enlil "Year Szarkaliszarri appointed Puzur-Eshtar, the shagina, to build the temple of Enlil".[9][10]

Main Shakkanakkus of Mari[edit]

Several Shakkanakkus of Mari are known from archaeological artifacts:

List of Shakkanakku rulers of Mari[edit]

Main Shakkanakkus of Elam[edit]

The title is also known around the same time in Elam, as in the inscription of the "Table au Lion", Puzur-Inshushinak appears as "Puzur-Inshushin(ak) Ensi (Governor) of Susa, Shakkanakku (Military Governor) of the country of Elam" (𒅤𒊭𒀭𒈹𒂞 𒑐𒋼𒋛 𒈹𒂞𒆠 𒄊𒀴 𒈣𒋾 𒉏𒆠 kutik-inshushinak ensi shushiki skakkanakku mati NIMki).[6] A ruler with an Akkadian name, Ili-ishmani, at the time of Naram-Sin of Akkad or Shar-Kali-Sharri, also used the same title of "Skakkanakku of the country of Elam".[29][30][31] This suggest that Ili-ishmani was a vassal of the Akkadian Empire.[32]

List of the Shakkanakkus of Elam[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Sumerian Dictionary". oracc.iaas.upenn.edu.
  2. ^ Gwendolyn Leick (16 November 2009). Historical Dictionary of Mesopotamia. p. 113. ISBN 9780810863248.
  3. ^ Trevor Bryce (6 March 2014). Ancient Syria: A Three Thousand Year History. p. 18. ISBN 9780191002922.
  4. ^ Loisel, Anne-Caroline Rendu. "Ilum-Isar et Apil-Kin, deux nouvelles inscriptions de Mari/Tell Hariri". In L. Feliu / J. Llop / A. Millet Alba / J. Sanmartin (Ed), Time and History in the Ancient Near East, Proceedings of Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale 56, Barcelone, Juillet 2010, Pp.633-643: 650.
  5. ^ Philological Data for a Historical Chronology of Mesopotamia in the 3rd Millennium (PDF). pp. 26–27.
  6. ^ a b c Translation into French in Mémoires. Paris: P. Geuthner. 1899. p. 8.
  7. ^ Gromova 2007, p. 300.
  8. ^ L. Potter (5 January 2009). The Persian Gulf in History. p. 35. ISBN 9780230618459.
  9. ^ Douglas Frayne, Sargonic and Gutian periods, RIME E2.1.5, p.184
  10. ^ Hamblin, William J. (2006). Warfare in the Ancient Near East to 1600 BC: Holy Warriors at the Dawn of History. Routledge. p. 109. ISBN 978-1-134-52062-6.
  11. ^ Leick 2002, p. 152.
  12. ^ a b c d e f Oliva 2008, p. 86.
  13. ^ Leick 2002, p. 81.
  14. ^ Leick 2002, p. 18.
  15. ^ Michalowski 1995, p. 187.
  16. ^ Leick 2002, p. 76.
  17. ^ Leick 2002, p. 78.
  18. ^ Leick 2002, p. 168.
  19. ^ a b c Oliva 2008, p. 91.
  20. ^ Oliva 2008, p. 92.
  21. ^ Leick 2002, p. 67.
  22. ^ Frayne 1990, p. 594.
  23. ^ Frayne 1990, p. 596.
  24. ^ Frayne 1990, p. 597.
  25. ^ Oliva 2008, p. 87.
  26. ^ Frayne 1990, p. 598.
  27. ^ Frayne 1990, p. 599.
  28. ^ Frayne 1990, p. 600.
  29. ^ "CDLI-Archival View". cdli.ucla.edu.
  30. ^ Álvarez-Mon, Javier (2020). The Art of Elam CA. 4200–525 BC. Routledge. p. 216. ISBN 978-1-000-03485-1.
  31. ^ "Site officiel du musée du Louvre". cartelfr.louvre.fr.
  32. ^ Potts, D. T. (2016). The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge University Press. p. 100. ISBN 978-1-107-09469-7.
  33. ^ Álvarez-Mon, Javier (2020). The Art of Elam CA. 4200–525 BC. Routledge. p. 209. ISBN 978-1-000-03485-1.
  34. ^ Álvarez-Mon, Javier (2020). The Art of Elam CA. 4200–525 BC. Routledge. p. 216. ISBN 978-1-000-03485-1.
  35. ^ Potts, D. T. (2016). The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge University Press. p. 100. ISBN 978-1-107-09469-7.

Sources[edit]