Shakshouka or shakshuka (Arabic: شكشوكة, Hebrew: שַׁקְשׁוּקָה) is a dish of eggs poached in a sauce of tomatoes, chili peppers, and onions, often spiced with cumin. In its present egg and vegetable-based form it is of Libyan , Egyptian, Tunisian, Algerian and Moroccan origin, and is now popular among many ethnic groups of the Middle East and North-Africa.
Shakshouka means "a mixture" in Egyptian Arabic, Tunisian Arabic and Libyan Arabic . Some believe that it was first known as chakchouka, a Berber word meaning a vegetable ragout, Another belief is that it hails from the Yemen where it is served with a dollop of zhoug, a fiery, green paste that brings tears to the eyes. Also "shakshek" means "to shake", in both Egyptian Arabic and Tunisian Arabic, Berber and Hebrew, giving a possible Punic origin to the name of the dish.
Chakchouk is also a very common surname in Tunisia.
Shakshouka is a staple of Libyan, Egyptian, Tunisian, Algerian, Moroccan, cuisines, traditionally served in a cast iron pan or tajine as in Morocco with bread to mop up the sauce. It is also popular in Israel, where it was introduced by Libyan Jews and Tunisian Jews, tens of thousands of whom immigrated to Israel during the 1950s.
According to food writer Claudia Roden, Tunisian cooks added artichoke hearts, potatoes and broad beans to the dish. Because eggs are the main ingredient, it is often on breakfast menus, but in Israel, it is also a popular evening meal. It has been said to challenge hummus and falafel as a national favourite, especially in the winter. According to some food historians, the dish was invented in the Ottoman Empire, spreading throughout the Middle East and Spain, where it is often served with spicy sausage. Another belief is that it hails from Yemen, where it is served with zhug, a hot green paste. Some versions include salty cheeses but traditional recipes are very basic, consisting merely of crushed tomatoes, hot peppers, garlic, salt, paprika, olive oil and poached eggs.
Shakshouka is similar to the Turkish dish menemen. Turkish cuisine has another dish with a similar name, spelled şakşuka, which is more like a ratatouille. Shakshouka is also similar to Spanish pisto manchego, a traditional La Mancha dish from southeast Spain, sometimes also accompanied by a fried egg.
- Berber cuisine
- Cuisine of the Sephardic Jews
- Middle Eastern cuisine
- North African cuisine
- Cuisine of Israel
- List of African dishes
- List of stews
- Roden, Claudia (2000). The New Book of Middle Eastern Food - Revised Edition. Knopf. p. 168. ISBN 0-375-40506-2.
- International Inner Wheel Sfax, Nos recettes de tous les jours et jours de fêtes, p115.
- Josephs, Bernard (October 8, 2009). "Shakshuka: Israel's hottest breakfast dish". The Jewish Chronicle.
- Gur, Janna (2008). The Book of New Israeli Food: A Culinary Journey. Schocken. pp. 80–82. ISBN 0-8052-1224-8.
- Chakchouk, Family Name (2013-01-24). "Myheritage Tunisian Surname 737.974 documents". Myheritage.
- Holy Grill food truck is a taste of Israel in downtown LA
- Clifford-smith, Stephanie (June 7, 2011). "Three of a kind: Shakshouka". Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 2011-08-27.
- Abitbol, David (October 28, 2004). "The REAL Shakshuka". Jewlicious.
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