Shamkhal (title)

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Shamkhal is the title for the rulers of Kumukh in Dagestan during the 8th-17th centuries. In 1642 the Kazikumukh Shamkhalate broke up into several independent states. Afterwards Shamkhal moved his capital from Kazi-Kumukh to Tarki, where he formed Shamkhalate of Tarki.[1]

According to historians Barthold V. V. and M. A. Polievktov, the title "shamkhal" comes from the name of the ruler Shakhbal appointed by Arabs in Kumukh.[2] According to the history, Darbandnamah, a brother of caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik, named Moslim, commander of the Muslim forces in Dagestan, capturing Kumukh appointed Shakhbal as its governor.[3] In Tarih-Dagistan, the name shamkhal refers to the name of the first appointee of Arabs in Kumukh, in the mountainous Dagestan.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Karny, Yoav. Highlanders:A Journey to the Caucasus in Quest of Memory. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2000.
  2. ^ Полиевктов М. А. Из истории северокавказских феодалов ХVII века. «Сб. статей академику Н. Я. Марру». — М. — Л. 1935. С. 746.
  3. ^ Дербенд-наме. с. 90—91, 101, 103.