Profile of the Type 093
|Builders:||China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation Bohai Shipyard, Huludao|
|Operators:||People's Liberation Army Navy|
|Preceded by:||Type 091|
|Succeeded by:||Type 095|
|Type:||nuclear-powered attack submarine|
|Displacement:||7,000 tonnes (submerged)|
|Propulsion:||Pressurized water nuclear reactor|
The Type 093 (Chinese: 09-III型核潜艇; Chinese designation: 09-III; NATO reporting name: Shang-class) is a class of second generation nuclear-powered attack submarines deployed by the Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy Submarine Force. The improved Type 093G (reported as Type 093A by Western analysts) is longer than the Type 093. The 093G is now confirmed having a vertical launching system (VLS) for YJ-18 supersonic anti-ship missiles, and anti-ship variants of the CJ-10 cruise missile.
Global Security.org reports that development of the Type 093 began in the early 1980s. However, Admiral Liu Huaqing wrote in his memoirs that development began in 1994 following President Jiang Zemin's continued support for nuclear submarine development after the launch of the final Type 091 in 1990. Erickson and Goldstein suggest that the Yinhe incident in 1993, and continued tensions with Taiwan, also drove Jiang Zemin´s support of the program.
Two Type 093s were launched in 2002 and 2003 respectively.
In 2013, it was understood that four improved Type 093s were at various stages of construction, including one which had already been launched in 2012. In December 2014, Chinese media reported that two Type 093Gs may have been completed. In May 2015, Chinese media reported three Type 093Gs were completed and awaiting delivery.
The Type 093 is estimated to be roughly 7,000 t displacement when submerged, 110 metres (360 ft) long with a beam of 11 metres (36 ft). Commercial imagery suggests the Type 093G is longer. The sonar suite includes H/SQC-207 flank-mounted sonar. The boat may also use a seven-blade asymmetric propeller.
The powerplant is speculated to be two pressurized water reactors. In 2002, Chinese sources said the Type 093 was powered by a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor, but the immaturity of the technology makes this unlikely.
The Type 093 is armed with six torpedo tubes; reports conflict on whether these are 553 mm or 650 mm tubes. The Type 093 has been said to be armed with the YJ-12 or YJ-82 anti-ship missiles. Anti-ship cruise missiles may also be future options.
Chinese sources say the Type 093G includes a vertical launching system for YJ-18 anti-ship missiles, and a longer teardrop hull with a "wing-shaped cross-section" for improved speed and stealth. Rear Admiral Yin Zhuo has said the Type 093G may carry 12 anti-ship variants of the CJ-10 cruise missile.
In 2002, Chinese sources said the Type 093's noise level was on par with the improved Los Angeles-class. In 2004, Chinese sources said the Type 093 was on par with Project 971 (NATO reporting name Akula), at 110 decibels. In 2009, USN ONI listed the Type 093 as being noisier than Project 671RTM (NATO reporting name Victor III) which entered service in 1979.
Chinese media say the Type 093G is quieter than the shorter Type 093 due to an altered hull form.
There are two suspected variants of the Type 093. One, as noted above is the Type 093G, the cruise missile variant. This and the fast attack variant, might be able to launch the YJ-18 anti-ship cruise missile and a naval version of the DF-10 long-range land-attack cruise missile. The second variant is the Type 093A, which will be or are the third and subsequent three boats. These are stretched versions of the two original Shang-class boats: possibly in an attempt to accommodate a Dry Dock Shelter for special forces.
- People's Liberation Army Navy Submarine Force
- List of submarine classes in service
- Cruise missile submarine
- Attack submarine
- "Type 093 Shang-class Nuclear Attack Submarine". GlobalSecurity.org. 24 November 2013. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
- United States Department of Defense (2017: 24)
- "China's growing submarine force is 'armed to the teeth' — and the rest of the Pacific is racing to keep up". 5 May 2015.
- O'Rourke (2014: 14)
- Erickson and Goldstein (2007: 58)
- Erickson and Goldstein (2007: 64-65)
- O'Rourke (2014: 91)
- United States Department of Defense (2013: 6)
- "PLA's new Type 093G nuclear sub a potential 'carrier killer'". wantchinatimes.com. 15 February 2015. Retrieved 23 February 2015.
- Zhao, Lei (3 April 2015). "Navy to get 3 new nuclear subs". China Daily USA. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
- Erickson and Goldstein (2007: 67)
- Erickson and Goldstein (2007: 67-68)
- Erickson and Goldstein (2007: 68)
- United States Department of Defense (2013: 34)
- "PLA's Type 093G submarines 'could destroy Izumo'". wantchinatimes.com. 7 April 2015. Retrieved 5 August 2015.
- Office of Naval Intelligence (2009: 22)
- "Image shows new variant of China's Type 093 attack submarine". janes.com. 23 June 2016. Retrieved 24 June 2016.
- Erickson, Andrew S.; Goldstein, Lyle J. (Winter 2007). "China's Future Nuclear Submarine Force: Insights from Chinese Writings" (PDF). Naval War College Review. 60 (1). Retrieved 24 January 2015.
- O'Rourke, Ronald (23 December 2014). China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities - Background and Issues for Congress (PDF) (Report). Congressional Research Service. RL33153. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
- Office of Naval Intelligence (August 2009). The People’s Liberation Army Navy, A Modern Navy with Chinese Characteristics (PDF) (Report). Retrieved 24 January 2015.
- United States Department of Defense (May 2013). Annual Report To Congress: Military and Security Developments Involving the People’s Republic of China 2013 (PDF) (Report). Retrieved 24 January 2015.
- United States Department of Defense (April 2016). Annual Report To Congress: Military and Security Developments Involving the People’s Republic of China 2016 (PDF) (Report). Retrieved 8 March 2018.
- United States Department of Defense (May 2017). Annual Report To Congress: Military and Security Developments Involving the People’s Republic of China 2017 (PDF) (Report). Retrieved 8 March 2018.