|Etymology: 上海浦 (Shànghăi Pǔ)|
"The original name of the Huangpu River."
Location of Shanghai Municipality in China
|Coordinates (People's Square): Coordinates:|
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|Settled||c. 4000 BC|
- Qinglong Town
|- Shanghai County||1292|
|- Municipality||7 July 1927|
210 towns and subdistricts
|• Party Secretary||Li Qiang|
|• Mayor||Ying Yong|
|• Congress Chairwoman||Yin Yicui|
|• Municipal CPPCC Chairman||Dong Yunhu|
|• Municipality||6,341 km2 (2,448 sq mi)|
|• Water||697 km2 (269 sq mi)|
| • Urban|
|4,000 km2 (1,550 sq mi)|
|Elevation||4 m (13 ft)|
|• Rank||1st in China|
|• Density||3,800/km2 (9,900/sq mi)|
| • Metro|
|Time zone||UTC+08:00 (CST)|
|ISO 3166 code||CN-SH|
|- Total||¥3.27 trillion (11th)|
|- Per capita||¥135,212 (2nd)|
|HDI (2017)||0.863 (4th) – very high|
|License plate prefixes||沪A, B, D, E, F, G, H, J, K, L, M, N|
沪C (outer suburbs only)
|Abbreviation||SH / 沪 (Hù)|
|City flower||Yulan magnolia|
|Languages||Wu (Shanghainese), Mandarin|
"Shanghai" in regular Chinese characters
|Literal meaning||"Upon the Sea"|
Shanghai (Chinese: 上海, Shanghainese pronunciation: [zɑ̃.hɛ] (listen); Mandarin Chinese pronunciation: [ʂâŋ.xài] (listen)) is one of the four municipalities of the People's Republic of China. Located on the southern estuary of the Yangtze, Shanghai has a population of 24.2 million as of 2018[update]. It is the most populous urban area in China and the second most populous city proper in the world. Shanghai is a global center for finance, innovation, and transportation; the Port of Shanghai is the world's busiest container port.
Originally a fishing village and market town, Shanghai grew in importance in the 19th century due to trade and its favorable port location. The city was one of five treaty ports forced open to foreign trade after the First Opium War. The Shanghai International Settlement and the French Concession was established subsequently. The city then flourished to a primary commercial and financial hub of the Asia-Pacific region in the 1930s. During the Second Sino-Japanese War, the city was the site of the major Battle of Shanghai. After the war, with the CPC takeover of mainland China in 1949, trade was limited to other socialist countries, and the city's global influence declined.
In the 1990s, economic reforms introduced by Deng Xiaoping resulted in an intense re-development of the city, especially the Pudong district, aiding the return of finance and foreign investment to the city. The city has since re-emerged as a hub for international trade and finance; it is the home of the Shanghai Stock Exchange, one of the world's largest by market capitalization, and the Shanghai Free-Trade Zone, the first free-trade zone in China.
Shanghai has been described as the "showpiece" of the booming economy of mainland China. The city is renowned for its Lujiazui skyline, museums, and historic buildings—including the City God Temple, the Yu Garden, the China pavilion, and those along the Bund—and for its sugary cuisine and unique dialect, Shanghainese. Every year, Shanghai hosts numerous national and international events, including Shanghai Fashion Week, the Chinese Grand Prix, and Chinajoy.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Education
- 8 Transportation
- 9 Culture
- 10 Environment
- 11 Media
- 12 International relations
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 Further reading
- 16 External links
The two Chinese characters in the city's name are 上 (shàng/zan, "upon") and 海 (hǎi/hae, "sea"), together meaning "Upon the Sea". The earliest occurrence of this name dates from the 11th-century Song dynasty, when there was already a river confluence and a town with this name in the area. How the name should be understood has been disputed, but Chinese historians have concluded that during the Tang dynasty, the area of modern-day Shanghai was under the sea level, so the land appeared to be literally "on the sea".
Shanghai is officially abbreviated 沪[a] (Hù/Vu2) in Chinese, a contraction of 沪渎[b] (Hù Dú/Vu Doh, lit "Harpoon Ditch"), a 4th- or 5th-century Jin name for the mouth of Suzhou Creek when it was the main conduit into the ocean. This character appears on all motor vehicle license plates issued in the municipality today.
申 (Shēn) or 申城 (Shēnchéng, "Shen City") was an early name originating from Lord Chunshen, a 3rd-century BC nobleman and prime minister of the state of Chu, whose fief included modern Shanghai. Shanghainese sports teams and newspapers often use Shen in their names, such as Shanghai Shenhua F.C. and Shen Bao.
华亭 (Huátíng) was another early name for Shanghai. In AD 751 during the mid-Tang dynasty, Huating County was established by Zhao Juzhen, the governor of Wu Commandery, at modern-day Songjiang, the first county-level administration within modern-day Shanghai. The first five-star hotel in the city was named after Huating.
魔都 (Módū, lit "Demon City") is a contemporary nickname for Shanghai, being widespread among the youth. The name was first mentioned in Shōfu Muramatsu's 1924 novel Mato, which portrayed Shanghai as a dichotomic city where both light and darkness existed.
The western part of modern-day Shanghai was inhabited 6000 years ago. During the Spring and Autumn period (approximately 771 to 476 BC), it belonged to the Kingdom of Wu, which was conquered by the Kingdom of Yue, which in turn was conquered by the Kingdom of Chu. During the Warring States period (475 BC), Shanghai was part of the fief of Lord Chunshen of Chu, one of the Four Lords of the Warring States. He ordered the excavation of the Huangpu River. Its former or poetic name, the Chunshen River, gave Shanghai its nickname of "Shēn". Fishermen living in the Shanghai area then created a fish tool called the hù, which lent its name to the outlet of Suzhou Creek north of the Old City and became a common nickname and abbreviation for the city.
During the Tang and Song dynasties, Qinglong Town (青龍鎮) in modern Qingpu District was a major trading port. Established in 746 (the fifth year of the Tang Tianbao era), it developed into what historically called a "giant town of the Southeast", with thirteen temples and seven pagodas. Mi Fu, a scholar and artist of the Song dynasty, served as its mayor. The port experienced thriving trade with provinces along the Yangtze and the Chinese coast, as well as with foreign countries such as Japan and Silla.
By the end of the Song dynasty, the center of trading had moved downstream of the Wusong River to Shanghai. It was upgraded in status from a village to a market town in 1074, and in 1172, a second sea wall was built to stabilize the ocean coastline, supplementing an earlier dike. From the Yuan dynasty in 1292 until Shanghai officially became a municipality in 1927, central Shanghai was administered as a county under Songjiang Prefecture, which had its seat in the present-day Songjiang District.
Two important events helped promote Shanghai's development in the Ming dynasty. A city wall was built for the first time in 1554 to protect the town from raids by Japanese pirates. It measured 10 m (33 ft) high and 5 km (3 mi) in circumference. And a City God Temple was built in 1602, during the Wanli reign. This honor was usually reserved for prefectural capitals and not normally given to a mere county seat such as Shanghai. Scholars have theorized that this likely reflected the town's economic importance, as opposed to its low political status.
During the Qing dynasty, Shanghai became one of the most important sea ports in the Yangtze Delta region as a result of two important central government policy changes: in 1684, the Kangxi Emperor reversed the Ming dynasty prohibition on oceangoing vessels—a ban that had been in force since 1525; and in 1732, the Qianlong Emperor moved the customs office for Jiangsu province (江海关; see Customs House, Shanghai) from the prefectural capital of Songjiang to Shanghai, and gave Shanghai exclusive control over customs collections for Jiangsu's foreign trade. As a result of these two critical decisions, Shanghai became the major trade port for all of the lower Yangtze region by 1735, despite still being at the lowest administrative level in the political hierarchy.
Rise and golden age
In the 19th century, international attention to Shanghai grew due to European recognition of its economic and trade potential at the Yangtze. During the First Opium War (1839–1842), British forces occupied the city. The war ended in 1842 with the Treaty of Nanking, which opened Shanghai as one of the five treaty ports for international trade. The Treaty of the Bogue, the Treaty of Wanghia and the Treaty of Whampoa (signed in 1843, 1844 and 1844, respectively) forced Chinese concession to European and American desires for visitation and trade on Chinese soil. Britain, France, and the United States all carved out outside the walled city of Shanghai, which was still ruled by the Chinese.
The Chinese-held Old City of Shanghai fell to rebels from the Small Swords Society in 1853, but was recovered by the Qing government in February 1855. In 1854, the Shanghai Municipal Council was created to manage the foreign settlements. Between 1860 and 1862, the Taiping rebels twice attacked Shanghai and destroyed the city's eastern and southern suburbs, but failed to take the city. In 1863, the British settlement to the south of Suzhou Creek (northern Huangpu District) and the American settlement to the north (southern Hongkou District) joined in order to form the Shanghai International Settlement. The French opted out of the Shanghai Municipal Council and maintained its own concession to the south and southwest.
The First Sino-Japanese War concluded with the 1895 Treaty of Shimonoseki, which elevated Japan to become another foreign power in Shanghai. Japan built the first factories in Shanghai, which was soon copied by other foreign powers. All this international activity gave Shanghai the nickname "the Great Athens of China". In 1914, the Old City walls were dismantled because they blocked the city's expansion. In July 1921, the Communist Party of China was founded in the French Concession. On May 30, 1925, the May Thirtieth Movement broke out when a worker in a Japanese-owned cotton mill was shot and killed by a Japanese foreman. Workers in the city then launched general strikes against imperialism, which became nation-wide protests that gave rise to Chinese nationalism.
The golden age of Shanghai began with its elevation to municipality on 7 July 1927. This new Chinese municipality covered an area of 494.69 km2 (191.0 sq mi), including the modern-day districts of Baoshan, Yangpu, Zhabei, Nanshi, and Pudong, but excluded the foreign concessions territories. Headed by a Chinese mayor and municipal council, the new city government's first task—the Greater Shanghai Plan—was to create a new city center in Jiangwan town of Yangpu district, outside the boundaries of the foreign concessions. The plan included a public museum, library, sports stadium, and city hall, which were partially constructed before being interrupted by the Japanese invasion.
During the ensuing decades, citizens of many countries and all continents came to Shanghai to live and work; those who stayed for long periods—some for generations—called themselves "Shanghailanders". In the 1920s and 1930s, almost 20,000 White Russians fled the newly established Soviet Union to reside in Shanghai. These Shanghai Russians constituted the second-largest foreign community. By 1932, Shanghai had become the world's fifth largest city and home to 70,000 foreigners. In the 1930s, some 30,000 Jewish refugees from Europe arrived in the city.
Shanghai filmed in 1937
Shanghai Park Hotel was the tallest building in Asia for decades
Former Shanghai Library
On 28 January 1932, Japanese forces invaded Shanghai and the Chinese resisted. More than 10,000 shops and hundreds of factories were destroyed, leaving Zhabei district ruined. About 18,000 civilians were either killed, injured, or declared missing. A ceasefire was brokered on 5 May. In 1937, the Battle of Shanghai resulted in the occupation of the Chinese-administered parts of Shanghai outside of the International Settlement and the French Concession. People who stayed in the occupied city suffered on a daily basis, experiencing hunger, oppression, or even death. The foreign concessions were ultimately occupied by the Japanese on 8 December 1941 and remained occupied until Japan's surrender in 1945; many war crimes were committed during this time.
On 27 May 1949, the People's Liberation Army took control of Shanghai through the Shanghai Campaign. Under the new People's Republic of China, Shanghai was one of only three municipalities not merged into neighboring provinces (the others being Beijing and Tianjin). Most foreign firms moved their offices from Shanghai to Hong Kong, as part of a foreign divestment due to the PRC's victory.
After the war, Shanghai's economy was restored—from 1949 to 1952, the city's agricultural and industrial output increased by 51.5% and 94.2%, respectively. There were 20 urban districts and 10 suburbs at the time. On 17 January 1958, Jiading, Baoshan, and Shanghai County in Jiangsu became part of Shanghai Municipality, which expanded to 863 km2 (333.2 sq mi). The following December, the land area of Shanghai was further expanded to 5,910 km2 (2,281.9 sq mi) after more surrounding suburban areas in Jiangsu were added: Chongming, Jinshan, Qingpu, Fengxian, Chuansha, and Nanhui. In 1964, the city's administrative divisions were rearranged to 10 urban districts and 10 counties.
As the industrial center of China with most skilled industrial workers, Shanghai became a center for radical leftism during the 1950s and 1960s. The radical leftist Jiang Qing and her three allies, together the Gang of Four, were based in the city. During the Cultural Revolution (1966–1976), Shanghai's society was severely damaged, with 310,000 wrongful convictions involving more than 1 million people. About 11,500 people were unjustly persecuted to death. Yet, even during the most tumultuous times of the revolution, Shanghai was able to maintain economic production with positive annual growth rate.
Since 1949, Shanghai has been a comparatively heavy contributor of tax revenue to the central government; in 1983, the city's contribution in tax revenue was greater than investment received in the past 33 years combined. This came at the cost of the severely crippling welfare of Shanghainese people and Shanghai's infrastructural and capital development. Its importance to the fiscal well-being of the central government also denied it from economic liberalizations begun in 1978. In 1990, Deng Xiaoping finally permitted Shanghai to initiate economic reforms, which reintroduced foreign capital to the city and developed the Pudong district, resulting in the birth of Lujiazui.
Shanghai is located on the Yangtze Estuary of China's east coast, with the Yangtze River to the north and Hangzhou Bay to the south. The land is formed by the Yangtze's natural deposition and modern land reclamation projects. As such, it has sandy soil, and skyscrapers are to be built with deep concrete piles to avoid sinking into the soft ground. The provincial-level Municipality of Shanghai administers both the estuary and many of its surrounding islands. It is roughly equidistant from Beijing and Guangzhou, bordering the East China Sea to the east, Zhejiang to the south, and Jiangsu to the west and north. The municipality's northernmost point is on Chongming Island, which is the second-largest island in mainland China after its expansion during the 20th century. However, it does not include an exclave of Jiangsu on northern Chongming or the two islands forming Shanghai's Yangshan Port, which are parts of Zhejiang's Shengsi County.
Shanghai is located on an alluvial plain. As such, the vast majority of its 6,340.5 km2 (2,448.1 sq mi) land area is flat, with an average elevation of 4 m (13 ft). The city's few hills, such as She Shan, lie to the southwest, and its highest point is the peak of Dajinshan Island (103 m or 338 ft) in Hangzhou Bay. Shanghai has many rivers, canals, streams, and lakes, and it is known for its rich water resources as part of the Lake Tai drainage basin.
Downtown Shanghai is bisected by the Huangpu River, a man-made tributary of the Yangtze created by order of Lord Chunshen during the Warring States period. The historic center of the city was located on the west bank of the Huangpu (Puxi), near the mouth of Suzhou Creek, connecting it with Lake Tai and the Grand Canal. The central financial district, Lujiazui, has been established on the east bank of the Huangpu (Pudong). Along Shanghai's eastern shore, the destruction of local wetlands due to the construction of Pudong International Airport has been partially offset by the protection and expansion of a nearby shoal, Jiuduansha, as a nature preserve.
Shanghai has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), with an average annual temperature of 15.8 °C (60.4 °F) for urban districts and 15.2–15.7 °C (59.4–60.3 °F) for suburbs. The city experiences four distinct seasons. Winters are chilly and damp—northwesterly winds from Siberia can cause nighttime temperatures to drop below freezing. Each year, there are an average of 6.2 days with snowfall and 2.8 days with snow cover. Summers are hot and humid, and occasional downpours or freak thunderstorms can be expected. On average, 8.7 days exceed 35 °C (95 °F) annually. In summer and the beginning of autumn, the city is susceptible to typhoons, which have not caused considerable damage in recent years.
The most pleasant seasons are generally spring, although changeable and often rainy, and autumn, which is usually sunny and dry. The city averages 4.8 °C (40.6 °F) in January and 28.6 °C (83.5 °F) in July, for an annual mean of 17.1 °C (62.8 °F). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 34% in March to 54% in August, the city receives 1,895 hours of bright sunshine annually. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −10.1 °C (14 °F) on 31 January 1977 (unofficial record of −12.1 °C (10 °F) was set on 19 January 1893) to 40.9 °C (106 °F) on 21 July 2017 at a weather station in Xujiahui.
|Climate data for Shanghai (normals 1981–2010, extremes 1951–present)|
|Record high °C (°F)||22.1
|Average high °C (°F)||8.1
|Daily mean °C (°F)||4.8
|Average low °C (°F)||2.1
|Record low °C (°F)||−10.1
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||74.4
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||9.9||9.2||12.4||11.2||10.4||12.7||11.4||12.3||9.1||6.9||7.6||7.7||120.8|
|Average relative humidity (%)||74||73||73||72||72||79||77||78||75||72||72||71||74|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||114.3||119.9||128.5||148.5||169.8||130.9||190.8||185.7||167.5||161.4||131.1||127.4||1,775.8|
|Source: China Meteorological Administration|
Shanghai has a rich collection of buildings and structures of various architectural styles. The Bund, located by the bank of the Huangpu River, is home to a row of early 20th-century architecture, ranging in style from the neoclassical HSBC Building to the Art Deco Sassoon House (now part of the Peace Hotel). Many areas in the former foreign concessions are also well-preserved, the most notable being the French Concession. Shanghai is also home to many architecturally distinctive and even eccentric buildings, including the Shanghai Museum, the Shanghai Grand Theatre, the Shanghai Oriental Art Center, and the Oriental Pearl Tower. Despite rampant redevelopment, the Old City still retains some traditional architecture and designs, such as the Yu Garden, an elaborate Jiangnan style garden.
Art Deco architecture
As a result of its construction boom during the 1920s and 1930s, Shanghai has among the most Art Deco buildings in the world. One of the most famous architects working in Shanghai was László Hudec, a Hungarian-Slovak who lived in the city between 1918 and 1947. His most notable Art Deco buildings include the Park Hotel, the Grand Theatre, and the Paramount. Other prominent architects who contributed to the Art Deco style are Clement Palmer and Arthur Turner, who together designed the Peace Hotel, the Metropole Hotel, and the Broadway Mansions; and Austrian architect GH Gonda, who designed the Capitol Theater. The Bund has been revitalized several times. The first was in 1986, with a new promenade by the Dutch architect Paulus Snoeren. The second was before the 2010 Expo, which includes restoration of the century-old Waibaidu Bridge and reconfiguration of traffic flow.
One uniquely Shanghainese cultural element is the shikumen (石库门, lit "stone storage door") residence, typically two- or three-story gray brick houses with the front yard protected by a heavy wooden door in a stylistic stone arch. Each residence is connected and arranged in straight alleys, known as longtang[c] (弄堂). The house is similar to western-style terrace houses or townhouses, but distinguishes by the tall, heavy brick wall and archway in front of each house.
The shikumen is a cultural blend of elements found in Western architecture with traditional Jiangnan Chinese architecture and social behavior. Like almost all traditional Chinese dwellings, it has a courtyard, which reduces outside noise. Vegetation can be grown in the courtyard, and it can also allow for sunlight and ventilation to the rooms.
Soviet and Stalinist architecture
Some of Shanghai's buildings feature Soviet neoclassical architecture or Stalinist architecture, though the city has fewer such structures than Beijing. These buildings were mostly erected between the founding of the People's Republic in 1949 and the Sino-Soviet Split in the late 1960s. During this time period, large numbers of Soviet experts, including architects, poured into China to aid the country in the construction of a communist state. An example of Soviet neoclassical architecture in Shanghai is the modern-day Shanghai Exhibition Center.
Shanghai—Lujiazui in particular—has numerous skyscrapers, making it the fifth city in the world with the most skyscrapers. Among the most prominent examples are the 421 m (1,381 ft) high Jin Mao Tower, the 492 m (1,614 ft) high Shanghai World Financial Center, and the 632 m (2,073 ft) high Shanghai Tower, which is the tallest building in China and the second tallest in the world. Completed in 2015, the tower takes the form of nine twisted sections stacked atop each other, totaling 128 floors. It is featured in its Double-skin facade design, which eliminates the need for either layer to be opaqued for reflectivity as the double-layer structure has already reduced the heat absorption. The futuristic-looking Oriental Pearl Tower, at 468 m (1,535 ft), is located nearby at the northern tip of Lujiazui. Skyscrapers outside of Lujiazui include the White Magnolia Plaza in Hongkou, the Shimao International Plaza in Huangpu, and the Shanghai Wheelock Square in Jing'an.
|Title||Party Committee Secretary||SMPC Chairwoman||Mayor||Shanghai CPPCC Chairman|
|Name||Li Qiang||Yin Yicui||Ying Yong||Dong Yunhu|
|Ancestral home||Ruian, Zhejiang||Wenzhou, Zhejiang||Taizhou, Zhejiang||Taizhou, Zhejiang|
|Born||July 1959 (age 60)||January 1955 (age 64)||November 1957 (age 61)||November 1962 (age 56)|
|Assumed office||October 2017||February 2013||January 2017||January 2018|
Like virtually all governing institutions in mainland China, Shanghai has a parallel party-government system, in which the Party Committee Secretary, officially termed the Communist Party of China Shanghai Municipal Committee Secretary, outranks the Mayor. The party's committee acts as the top policy-formulation body, and is typically composed of 12 members (including the secretary).
Political power in Shanghai has frequently been a stepping stone to higher positions in the central government. Since Jiang Zemin became the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China in June 1989, all former Shanghai party secretaries but one were elevated to the Politburo Standing Committee, the de facto highest decision-making body in China, including Jiang himself (Party General Secretary), Zhu Rongji (Premier), Wu Bangguo (Chairman of the National People's Congress), Huang Ju (Vice Premier), Xi Jinping (current General Secretary), Yu Zhengsheng, and Han Zheng. Zeng Qinghong, a former deputy party secretary of Shanghai, also rose to the Politburo Standing Committee and became the Vice President and an influential power broker. The only exception is Chen Liangyu, who was fired in 2006 and later convicted of corruption.
Officials with ties to the Shanghai administration collectively form a powerful faction in the central government known as the Shanghai Clique, which has often been viewed to compete against the rival Youth League Faction over personnel appointments and policy decisions. However, Xi Jinping, successor to Hu Jintao as General Secretary and President, was largely an independent leader and took anti-corruption campaigns on both factions.
|Administrative divisions of Shanghai|
|Division code||Division||Area (km2)||Total population 2017||Seat||Postal code|
|310105||Changning||38.30||693,700||Jiangsu Road Subdistrict||200000|
|310106||Jing'an||36.88||1,066,200||Jiangning Road Subdistrict||200000|
|310107||Putuo||54.83||1,284,700||Zhenru Town Subdistrict||200000|
|310109||Hongkou||23.46||799,000||Jiaxing Road Subdistrict||200000|
|310110||Yangpu||60.73||1,313,400||Pingliang Road Subdistrict||200000|
|310113||Baoshan||270.99||2,030,800||Youyi Road Subdistrict||201900|
|310114||Jiading||464.20||1,581,800||Xincheng Road Subdistrict||201800|
|310115||Pudong||1210.41||5,528,400||Huamu Subdistrict||201200 & 201300|
|Divisions in Chinese and varieties of romanizations|
|Shanghai Municipality||上海市||Shànghǎi Shì||zeon he zy|
|Huangpu District||黄浦区||Huángpǔ Qū||waon phu chiu|
|Xuhui District||徐汇区||Xúhuì Qū||zi we chiu|
|Changning District||长宁区||Chángníng Qū||zan nyin chiu|
|Jing'an District||静安区||Jìng'ān Qū||zin oe chiu|
|Putuo District||普陀区||Pǔtuó Qū||phu du chiu|
|Hongkou District||虹口区||Hóngkǒu Qū||ghon kheu chiu|
|Yangpu District||杨浦区||Yángpǔ Qū||yan phu chiu|
|Minhang District||闵行区||Mǐnháng Qū||min ghaon chiu|
|Baoshan District||宝山区||Bǎoshān Qū||pau sae chiu|
|Jiading District||嘉定区||Jiādìng Qū||ka din chiu|
|Pudong New Area||浦东新区||Pǔdōng Xīnqū||phu ton sin chiu|
|Jinshan District||金山区||Jīnshān Qū||cin se chiu|
|Songjiang District||松江区||Sōngjiāng Qū||son kaon chiu|
|Qingpu District||青浦区||Qīngpǔ Qū||tsin phu chiu|
|Fengxian District||奉贤区||Fèngxián Qū||von yi chiu|
|Chongming District||崇明区||Chóngmíng Qū||dzon min chiu|
Although every district has its own urban core, the city hall and major administrative units are located in Huangpu District, which also serves as a commercial area, including the famous Nanjing Road. Other major commercial areas include Xintiandi and Huaihai Road[d] in Huangpu District, and Xujiahui[e] in Xuhui District. Many universities in Shanghai are located in residential areas in Yangpu District and Putuo District.
Seven of the districts govern Puxi (lit. "The West Bank", or "West of the River Pu"), the older part of urban Shanghai on the west bank of the Huangpu River. These seven districts are collectively referred to as Shanghai Proper (上海市区) or the core city (市中心), which comprise Huangpu, Xuhui, Changning, Jing'an, Putuo, Hongkou, and Yangpu.
Chongming District comprises the islands of Changxing and Hengsha and most—but not all[n]—of Chongming Island.
The former district of Nanhui was absorbed into Pudong District in 2009. In 2011, Luwan District merged with Huangpu District. As of 2015[update], these county-level divisions are further divided into the following 210 township-level divisions: 109 towns, 2 townships, and 99 subdistricts. Those are in turn divided into the following village-level divisions: 3,661 neighborhood committees and 1,704 village committees.
Shanghai is the commercial, financial, trade and transportation center of China, with a GDP of ¥3.27 trillions (US$494 billions) that makes up 3.63% of China's GDP, and a GDP per capita of ¥135,212 (US$20,425) in 2018. The six pillar industries in Shanghai—retail, finance, IT, real estate, machine manufacturing and automotive manufacturing—consist about half the city's GDP. Average annual disposable income of Shanghai residents was ¥64,183 (US$9,695) per capita in 2018, making it one of the wealthiest cities in China, but the city is also the most expensive city to live in mainland China according to the study of Economist Intelligence Unit in 2017.
|GDP per Capita (¥K)||2.85||2.73||2.95||3.96||5.91||11.06||20.81||30.31||38.88||55.62||77.28||92.85||116.58||126.63||134.83|
|Average disposable income
|Average disposable income
Shanghai was the largest and most prosperous city in East Asia during the 1930s, and rapid re-development began in the 1990s. In the last two decades Shanghai has been one of the fastest developing cities in the world: it has recorded double-digit growth in almost every year between 1992 and the global recession of 2008.
Shanghai is a global financial center, ranking 5th in the 2018 edition of the Global Financial Centres Index (and third most competitive in Asia after Singapore and Hong Kong) published by the Z/Yen Group and Qatar Financial Centre Authority. In 2009, the Shanghai Stock Exchange ranked third among worldwide stock exchanges in terms of trading volume and sixth in terms of the total capitalization of listed companies, and the trading volume of six key commodities including rubber, copper and zinc on the Shanghai Futures Exchange all ranked first in the world. By the end of 2009, there were 787 financial institutions, of which 170 were foreign-invested. In September 2013, with the backing of Chinese Premier Li Keqiang the city launched the China (Shanghai) Pilot Free-Trade Zone-the first free-trade zone in mainland China. The Zone introduced a number of pilot reforms designed to create a preferential environment for foreign investment. In April 2014, The Banker reported that Shanghai "has attracted the highest volumes of financial sector foreign direct investment in the Asia-Pacific region in the 12 months to the end of January 2014". In August 2014, Shanghai was named FDi magazine's Chinese Province of the Future 2014/15 due to "particularly impressive performances in the Business Friendliness and Connectivity categories, as well as placing second in the Economic Potential and Human Capital and Lifestyle categories".
Shanghai is one of the main industrial centers of China, playing a key role in China's heavy industries. A large number of industrial zones, including Shanghai Hongqiao Economic and Technological Development Zone, Jinqiao Export Economic Processing Zone, Minhang Economic and Technological Development Zone, and Shanghai Caohejing High-Tech Development Zone, are backbones of Shanghai's secondary industry. Heavy industries accounted for 78% of the gross industrial output in 2009. China's largest steelmaker Baosteel Group, China's largest shipbuilding base – Hudong-Zhonghua Shipbuilding Group, and the Jiangnan Shipyard, one of China's oldest shipbuilders are all located in Shanghai. Auto manufacture is another important industry. The Shanghai-based SAIC Motor is one of the three largest automotive corporations in China, and has strategic partnerships with Volkswagen and General Motors.
Tourism in general is a major industry of the city. In 2016, 296 million domestic tourists and 8.54 million overseas tourists visited Shanghai for an approximate increase of 7% from the previous year. The conference and meeting sector is also growing. In 2012, the city hosted 780 international gatherings, up from 754 in 2011. The high supply of hotel rooms has kept room rates lower than expected, with the average room rate for four- and five-star hotels in 2012 at just RMB950 (US$153).
As of September 2013, Shanghai is also home to the largest free-trade zone in mainland China, the China (Shanghai) Pilot Free-Trade Zone. The zone covers an area of 29 km2 (11 sq mi) and integrates four existing bonded zones — Waigaoqiao Free Trade Zone, Waigaoqiao Free Trade Logistics Park, Yangshan Free Trade Port Area and Pudong Airport Comprehensive Free Trade Zone. Several preferential policies have been implemented to attract foreign investment in various industries to the FTZ. Because the Zone is not technically considered PRC territory for tax purposes, commodities entering the zone are not subject to duty and customs clearance as would otherwise be the case.
|Population size may be affected by changes to administrative divisions.|
As of 2018, Shanghai has a total population of 24,237,800, 14,551,300 (59.7%) of whom are hukou holders. According to the nation census in 2010, 89.3% of Shanghai's population are urban and 10.7％ are rural. Based on the population of its total administrative area, Shanghai is the second largest of the four municipalities of China, behind Chongqing, but is generally considered the largest Chinese city because Chongqing's urban population is much smaller.
Among all residents in Shanghai about 157,900 are foreigners, including 28,900 Japanese, 21,900 Americans and 20,800 Koreans, but the real number of foreign citizens in the city is probably much higher. Shanghai is also a domestic immigration city, with 40.3% (9.8 million) of the city's residents come from other regions of China.
Shanghai has a life expectancy of 83.63 for the city's huji population, putting it the top in mainland China in terms of life expectancy. However the longevity has also caused the city to age severely, with 33.1% (4.8 million) of the city's huji population aged 60 or above in 2017.
In 2017 the Chinese Government implemented population controls for Shanghai. The population of Shanghai has declined by 10,000 from this policy by the end of 2017.
Due to its cosmopolitan history, Shanghai has a blend of religious heritage as shown by the religious buildings and institutions still scattered around the city. According to a 2012 survey only around 13% of the population of Shanghai belongs to organised religions, the largest groups being Buddhists with 10.4%, followed by Protestants with 1.9%, Catholics with 0.7% and other faiths with 0.1%. Around 87% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities and ancestors, Confucian churches, Taoism and folk religious sects.
There are folk religious temples such as the City God Temple, at the heart of the Old City, and a temple dedicated to the Three Kingdoms general Guan Yu. The White Cloud Temple of Shanghai is an important Taoist center in the city. The Wenmiao (Temple of the God of Culture) is dedicated to Confucius.
Buddhism, in its Chinese varieties, has had a presence in Shanghai since ancient times. The Longhua Temple, the largest temple in Shanghai, and the Jing'an Temple, were first founded in the Three Kingdoms period. Another important temple is the Jade Buddha Temple, which is named after a large statue of Buddha carved out of jade in the temple. In recent decades, dozens of modern temples have been built throughout the city.
Islam came into Shanghai 700 years ago and a mosque was built in 1295 in Songjiang. In 1843, a teachers' college was also set up. The Shanghai Muslim Association is located in the Xiaotaoyuan Mosque in Huangpu.
Shanghai has one of the largest proportions of Catholics in China (2003). Among Catholic churches, St Ignatius Cathedral in Xujiahui is one of the largest, while She Shan Basilica is an active pilgrimage site.
Other forms of Christianity in Shanghai include Eastern Orthodox minorities and, since 1996, registered Christian Protestant churches. During World War II thousands of Jews emigrated to Shanghai in an effort to flee Hitler's regime. The Jews lived side-by-side in a designated area called Shanghai Ghetto and formed a vibrant community centered on the Ohel Moishe Synagogue, which is a preserved remnant of this portion of Shanghai's complex religious past.
The vernacular language spoken in the city is Shanghainese, a dialect of the Taihu Wu subgroup of the Wu Chinese family. This makes it a different language from the official language nationwide, which is Mandarin, itself completely mutually unintelligible with Wu Chinese. Most Shanghai residents are the descendants of immigrants from the two adjacent provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang who moved to Shanghai in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The population of those regions speak different Wu Chinese dialects. From the 1990s, many migrants outside of the Wu-speaking region have come to Shanghai for work and education. They often cannot speak or learn the local language and therefore use Mandarin as a lingua franca.
Modern Shanghainese is based on different dialects of Taihu Wu: Suzhounese, Ningbonese and dialects of Shanghai's traditional areas (now lying within the Hongkou, Baoshan and Pudong districts). The prestige dialect of Wu Chinese is spoken within the city of Shanghai prior to its modern expansion. Known as "the local tongue" (本地話), it is influenced to a lesser extent by the languages of other nearby regions from which large numbers of people have migrated to Shanghai since the 20th century, and includes a significant number of terms borrowed from European languages. The prevalence of Mandarin fluency is generally higher for those born after 1949 than those born before, while the prevalence of English fluency is higher for people who received their secondary and tertiary education before 1949 than those who did so after 1949 and before the 1990s. On the other hand, however, Shanghainese started to decline and fluency amongst young speakers weakened, as Mandarin and English are being favoured and taught over the native language. In recent years though, there have been movements within the city to protect and promote the local language from ever fading out.
The city government's education agency is the Shanghai Municipal Education Commission.
Shanghai is a major center of higher education in China with over 30 universities and colleges. By the end of 2018, Shanghai had 64 universities and colleges, 913 secondary schools, 721 primary schools and 30 special schools. A number of China's most prestigious universities are based in Shanghai, including Fudan University, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Tongji University, East China Normal University (these universities are selected as "985 universities" by the Chinese Government in order to build world-class universities). In 2012 NYU Shanghai was established in Pudong by New York University in partnership with East China Normal University as the first Sino-US joint venture university. In 2013 the Shanghai Municipality and the Chinese Academy of Sciences founded the ShanghaiTech University in the Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park in Pudong. This new research university is aiming to be a first-class institution on a national and international level. The cadre school China Executive Leadership Academy in Pudong is also located in Shanghai, as well as the China Europe International Business School.
Shanghai has an extensive public transportation system, largely based on metros, buses and taxis. It is also home to the world's busiest port, the Shanghai Port. Payment for all these public transportation tools can be made by using the Shanghai Public Transportation Card.
Shanghai's rapid transit system, the Shanghai Metro, incorporates both subway and light metro lines and extends to every core urban district as well as neighboring suburban districts. As of 2017[update], there are 16 metro lines (excluding the Shanghai Maglev Train and Jinshan Railway), 395 stations and 673 km (418 mi) of lines in operation, making it the longest network in the world. On 8 March 2019, it set a record of daily ridership of 13.3 million. The fare depends on the length of travel distance starting from ¥3.
Opened in 2004, Shanghai maglev train is the first and the fastest commercial high-speed maglev in the world, with a daily maximum operation speed of 430 km/h (267 mph). The train connects the 30 km journey between Longyang Road Station and Pudong International Airport in 7 minutes 20 seconds, comparing to 32 minutes by Metro Line 2 and 30 minutes by car. A one-way ticket costs ¥50 (US$8), or ¥40 ($6.40) for those with airline tickets or public transportation cards. A round-trip return ticket costs ¥80 ($12.80) and VIP tickets cost double the standard fare.
Shanghai reintroduced trams in 2010, this time as a modern rubber tyred Translohr system, in Zhangjiang area of East Shanghai as Zhangjiang Tram. Another regular tram network, Songjiang Tram started operating in Songjiang District in 2018. Additional tram lines are under study in Hongqiao Subdistrict and Jiading District.
Shanghai also has the world's most extensive bus network, including the world's oldest continuously operating trolleybus system, with nearly 1,500 lines covering a total length of 24,161 km (15,013 mi) by 2017. The system is operated by a combination of companies. Bus fare normally costs ¥2.
Taxis are plentiful in Shanghai: By 2017, a total number of 46,400 vehicles were in operation. Taxis base fare is ¥14(sedan)/¥16(MPV) (inclusive of a ¥1 fuel surcharge; ¥18 between 11:00 pm and 5:00 am) which covers the first 3 km (2 mi). Additional km cost ¥2.4 each (¥3.2 between 11:00 pm and 5:00 am). Ride share giants like DiDi and Uber are playing major roles in urban tranportation besides the traditional taxi system. Cost of DiDi rides are comparable to that of taxis and sometimes even lower due to subsidies from DiDi.
Roads and expressway network
Shanghai is a major hub of China's expressway network. Many national expressways (prefixed with G) pass through or terminate in Shanghai, including Jinghu Expressway (overlapping Hurong Expressway), Shenhai Expressway, Hushaan Expressway, Huyu Expressway, Hukun Expressway (overlapping Hangzhou Bay Ring Expressway), and Shanghai Ring Expressway. In addition, there are also numerous municipal expressways prefixed with S (S1, S2, S20, etc.). As of 2019, Shanghai has a total 12 bridges and 14 tunnels across the Huangpu River. Shanghai Yangtze River Bridge to the north of the city is the only bridge–tunnel complex across Yangtze River in Shanghai.
The expressway network within the city center consists of North–South Elevated Road, Yan'an Elevated Road and Inner Ring Road, followed by Middle Ring Road, Outer Ring Expressway and Shanghai Ring Expressway.
Bicycle lanes are commonplace in Shanghai, separating non-motorized traffic from car traffic on most surface streets. However, on some main roads, including all expressways, bicycles and motorcycles are banned. In recent years cycling has seen a resurgence in popularity thanks to the emergence of a large number of dockless app-based bicycle-sharing systems such as Mobike, Bluegogo, and ofo.
Private car ownership in Shanghai has been rapidly increasing in recent years, but a new private car cannot be driven until the owner buys a license in the monthly private car license plate auction. Around 11,500 license plates are auctioned each month and the average price is about 84,000 RMB ($12,758). According to the municipal regulation in 2016, only those who are Shanghai registered residents or have paid social insurance or individual incomer tax for over 3 years in a row. The purpose of this policy is to limit the growth of automobile traffic and to alleviate congestion.
Shanghai has four major railway stations: Shanghai railway station, Shanghai South railway station, Shanghai West railway station, and Shanghai Hongqiao railway station. All are connected to the metro network and serve as hubs in the railway network of China.
The earliest railway in Shanghai was the Woosung railway built in 1876, which was also the earliest railway in operation in China. By 1909, Huning Railway (Shanghai-Nanjing) and Huhang Railway (Shanghai-Hangzhou) had been in service. Today, the two railways has been integrated into Jinghu railway from Beijing, and Hukun railway from Kunming, respectively, forming two main railways in China.:2353
Shanghai has four high-speed railways: Beijing–Shanghai high-speed railway, Shanghai–Kunming high-speed railway, Shanghai–Wuhan–Chengdu passenger railway and Shanghai–Nanjing intercity railway, with two high-speed rail lines in construction: Shanghai–Nantong railway and Shanghai–Suzhou–Huzhou railway.
Shanghai also has four commuter railways: Pudong railway and Jinshan Railway operated by China Railway and Line 16 and Line 17 operated by Shanghai Metro. Three more lines: Chongming line, Jiamin line and Shanghai Airport Link are in construction.
Shanghai is one of the leading air transportation gateways in Asia. The city has two commercial airports: Shanghai Pudong International Airport and Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport. Pudong International Airport is the main international airport, while Hongqiao Airport mainly operates domestic flights with limited short-haul international flights. In 2018 Pudong International Airport served 74.0 million passengers and handled 3.8 million tons of cargo, making it the ninth busiest airports by passengers and third busiest by cargoes. Hongqiao Airport served 43.6 million passengers, making it the nineteenth busiest airports by passengers.
The Port of Shanghai has grown rapidly to the largest port in China since it opened. Wharves are clusttered along the Huangpu River at first. Yangshan Port is built in 2005 because the river is not suitable for docking large container ships. The port is connected with the continent through Donghai Bridge, which has a total length of 32 kilometers. Although the port is run by Shanghai International Port Group under Shanghai government, it locates in Shengsi County, Zhejiang.
Overtaking Singapore in 2010, the Port of Shanghai has become world's busiest container port with an annual TEU transportation of 42,010,000 in 2018. Besides cargoes, the Port of Shanghai handled 512 cruises and 2.97 millions of passengers in 2017.
Shanghai was formerly a part of Jiangsu province and still shares strong cultural similarities with Jiangsu although mass migration from all across China and the rest of the world has made Shanghai a melting pot of different cultures. It is geographically a part of the Jiangnan region and as such, Wuyue culture dominated Shanghai but the influx of Western influences since the 20th century has generated a unique "East Meets West" Haipai culture. Shanghai is sometimes considered a center of innovation and progress in China. It was in Shanghai, for example, that the first motor car was driven and (technically) the first train tracks and modern sewers were laid. It was also the intellectual battleground between socialist writers who concentrated on critical realism, which was pioneered by Lu Xun, Mao Dun, Nien Cheng and the famous French novel by André Malraux, Man's Fate, and the more "bourgeois", more romantic and aesthetically inclined writers, such as Shi Zhecun, Shao Xunmei, Ye Lingfeng and Eileen Chang.
In the past years Shanghai has been widely recognized as a new influence and inspiration for cyberpunk culture. Futuristic buildings such as the Oriental Pearl Tower and the neon-illuminated Yan'an Elevated Road are a few examples that have helped to boost Shanghai's cyberpunk image.
Cultural curation in Shanghai has seen significant growth since 2013, with several new museums having been opened in the city. This is in part due to the city's most recently released city development plans, with aims in making the city "an excellent global city". As such, Shanghai has several museums of regional and national importance. The Shanghai Museum has one of the best collections of Chinese historical artifacts in the world, including a large collection of ancient Chinese bronzes. The China Art Museum, located in the former China Pavilion of Expo 2010, is the largest art museum in Asia. Power Station of Art is built in a converted power station, similar to London's Tate Modern. The Shanghai Natural History Museum and the Shanghai Science and Technology Museum are major natural history and science museums. In addition, there is a variety of smaller, specialist museums housed in important archaeological and historical sites such as the Songze Museum, the Museum of the First National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party, the site of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, the former Ohel Moshe Synagogue (Shanghai Jewish Refugees Museum), and the General Post Office Building (Shanghai Postal Museum). The Rockbund Art Museum is also in Shanghai. There are also many art galleries, concentrated in the M50 Art District and Tianzifang. Shanghai is also home to one of China's largest aquariums, the Shanghai Ocean Aquarium. MoCA, Museum of Contemporary Art of Shanghai, is a private museum centrally located in People's Park on West Nanjing Road, and is committed to promote contemporary art and design.
Shanghai cuisine emphasises the use of condiments and meanwhile retaining the original flavours of the raw ingredients materials. Sugar is an important ingredient in Shanghai cuisine, especially when used in combination with soy sauce. Another characteristic is the use of a great variety of seafood and freshwater food. Followings are Shanghai's signature dishes:
- Xiaolongbao – A type of steamed bun made with a thin skin of dough and stuffed with pork or minced crabmeat, and soup. The delicious soup inside can be hold up until it is bitten.
- Shengjian mantou – A type of small, pan-fried steamed bun which is a specialty of Shanghai. It is made from leavened or semi-leavened dough, wrapped around pork (most commonly found) and gelatin fillings that melts into soup/liquid when cooked.
- Shanghai hairy crab– A variety of Chinese mitten crab. The crab is usually steamed with fragrant ginger, and consumed with a dipping sauce of rice vinegar, sugar and ginger. Mixing crabmeat with lard to make Xiefen, and consuming it in xiaolongbao or with tofu is another highlight of hairy crab season.
- Squirrel-shaped mandarin fish – This dish uses fresh mandarin fish. The fish is deep-fried and has a crispy exterior and soft interior. Yellow and red in color, it is displayed in the shape of a squirrel on the plate. Hot broth is poured over, which produces a high-pitched sound. Sour and sweet flavours are combined in this dish.
- Sweet and sour spare ribs – One of the best known rib dishes. The fresh pork ribs, which appear shiny and red after being cooked, are traditionally deep fried then coated in a delicious sweet and sour sauce.
- Shanghai-style borscht – A Shanghai variety of borscht. The recipe was changed by removing beetroot and using tomato paste to color the soup and to add to its sweetness, cream is replaced by flour to generate thickness without inducing sourness as well.
The "Songjiang School" (淞江派), containing the "Huating School" (华亭派) founded by Gu Zhengyi, was a small painting school appeared in Shanghai during the Ming Dynasty and dominanted the painting style in Jiangnan during the Qing Dynasty. It was represented by Dong Qichang. The school was commonly considered as a further development of the Wu School in the then-cultural center of the region, Suzhou.
In the mid 19th century, the "Shanghai School" movement commenced, focusing less on the symbolism emphasized by the Literati style but more on the visual content of the painting itself through the use of bright colors. Secular objects like flowers and birds were often selected as themes. Western art was introduced to Shanghai in 1847 by a Spanish missionary named Joannes Ferrer (范廷佐), and the first western atelier in Shanghai was established in 1864 inside the T'ou-sè-wè orphanage. During the Republic of China, many famous artists including Zhang Daqian, Liu Haisu, Xu Beihong, Feng Zikai and Yan Wenliang settled in Shanghai thus it gradually became the art center of China. Various art forms—photography, wood carving, sculpture, comics (Manhua) and Lianhuanhua—emerged. Sanmao, one of the most well-known comics in China, was created then to dramatize the confusion brought about to society by the Second Sino-Japanese War.
Today, the most comprehensive art and cultural facility in Shanghai is the China Art Museum. In addition, the city's Guohua is represented by the Chinese painting academy while the Power Station of Art plays an important role in the contemporary art. First held in 1996, the Shanghai Biennale has now become an important place for Chinese and foreign arts to interact.
Traditional Xiqu became the main way of entertainment for the public in the late 19th century. In the early 20th century, monologue and burlesque in Shanghainese appeared in Shanghai, absorbing elements from traditional dramas. The Great World opened in 1912 is a significant stage at the time.
In 1920s, Pingtan expanded from Suzhou to Shanghai due to the arrival of many famous performers. With the abundant commercial radio stations, Pingtan art developed rapidly to 103 programs every day by the 1930s. At the same time, Shanghai also formed a Shanghai style of Beijing Opera led by Zhou Xinfang and Gai Jiaotian, and attracted lots of Xiqu masters like Mei Lanfang to the city. A small troupe from Shengxian (now Shengzhou), Zhejiang also began to promote Yue opera on the Shanghainese stage. A unique style of opera, Shanghai opera, is formed when the local folksongs collided with modern operas.
As of 2012, the well-known Xiqu troupes in Shanghai include Shanghai Jingju Theatre Company, Shanghai Kunqu Opera Troupe, Shanghai Yue Opera House and Shanghai Huju Opera House. The Kunqu Troupe often perform overseas.
Drama appeared in missionary schools in Shanghai in the late 19th century. Back then, it was mainly performed in English. Scandals in Officialdom (官场丑史; guānchǎng chóushǐ), staged in 1899, was one of the earliest recorded plays. In 1907, Uncle Tom's Cabin; or, Life Among the Lowly (黑奴吁天录; hēinú xūtiānlù) was performed at the Lyceum Theatre. After the New Culture Movement, drama had become a popular way for students and intellectuals to express their views.
Numerous influential musicals and operas have taken place in Shanghai, including Les Misérables, Cats and La bohème from Giacomo Puccini, etc. Conversely, many dramas and stage plays set in Shanghai, for example, The Bund series produced by TVB and Secret Love for the Peach Blossom Spring directed by Stan Lai.
Shanghai Conservatory of Music, Shanghai Dramatic Arts Centre, Shanghai Opera House and Shanghai Theatre Academy are four major institutes of theater training in Shanghai. The Dramatic Arts Centre focuses on drama, while the musicals and western operas mainly rely on international troupes. Notable theaters in Shanghai today include the Shanghai Grand Theatre, the Oriental Art Center and the People's Theatre.
Shanghai was the birthplace of Chinese cinema and theater. China's first short film, The Difficult Couple (1913), and the country's first fictional feature film, An Orphan Rescues His Grandfather (孤兒救祖記; Gū'ér jiù zǔjì, 1923) were both produced in Shanghai. These two films were very influential, and established Shanghai as the center of Chinese film-making. Shanghai's film industry went on to blossom during the early 1930s, generating great stars such as Hu Die, Ruan Lingyu, Zhou Xuan, Jin Yan, and Zhao Dan. Another film star, Jiang Qing, went on to become Madame Mao Zedong. The exile of Shanghainese filmmakers and actors as a result of the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Communist revolution contributed enormously to the development of the Hong Kong film industry. Many aspects of Shanghainese popular culture ("Shanghainese Pops") were transferred to Hong Kong by the numerous Shanghainese emigrants and refugees after the Communist Revolution. The movie In the Mood for Love, which was directed by Wong Kar-wai (a native Shanghainese himself), depicts a slice of the displaced Shanghainese community in Hong Kong and the nostalgia for that era, featuring 1940s music by Zhou Xuan.
Other Shanghainese cultural artifacts include the cheongsam (Shanghainese: zansae), a modernization of the traditional Manchurian qipao. This contrasts sharply with the traditional qipao, which was designed to conceal the figure and be worn regardless of age. The cheongsam went along well with the western overcoat and the scarf, and portrayed a unique East Asian modernity, epitomizing the Shanghainese population in general. As Western fashions changed, the basic cheongsam design changed, too, introducing high-neck sleeveless dresses, bell-like sleeves, and the black lace frothing at the hem of a ball gown. By the 1940s, cheongsams came in transparent black, beaded bodices, matching capes and even velvet. Later, checked fabrics became also quite common. The 1949 Communist Revolution ended the cheongsam and other fashions in Shanghai. However, the Shanghainese styles have seen a recent revival as stylish party dresses. The fashion industry has been rapidly revitalizing in the past decade. Like Shanghai's architecture, local fashion designers strive to create a fusion of western and traditional designs, often with innovative if controversial results.
In recent times Shanghai has established its own fashion week called Shanghai Fashion Week. It is held twice every year in October and April. The April session is a part of Shanghai International Fashion Culture Festival which usually lasts for a month, while Shanghai Fashion Week lasts for seven days, and the main venue is in Fuxing Park, Shanghai, while the opening and closing ceremony is in Shanghai Fashion Center. Supported by the People's Republic Ministry of Commerce, Shanghai Fashion Week is a major business and culture event of national significance hosted by the Shanghai Municipal Government. Shanghai Fashion Week is aiming to build up an international and professional platform, gathering all of the top design talents of Asia. The event features international designers but the primary purpose is to showcase Chinese designers. The international presence has included many of the most promising young British fashion designers.
Shanghai is home to several soccer teams, including two in the Chinese Super League – Shanghai Greenland Shenhua and Shanghai SIPG. Another professional team, Shanghai Shenxin, is currently in China League One. China's top tier basketball team, the Shanghai Sharks of the Chinese Basketball Association, developed Yao Ming before he entered the NBA. Shanghai also has an ice hockey team, China Dragon, and a baseball team, the Shanghai Golden Eagles, which plays in the China Baseball League.
Shanghai is home to many outstanding and well-known Chinese professional athletes, such as Yao Ming, the 110-meter hurdler Liu Xiang, the table-tennis player Wang Liqin and the former world women's single champion and current Olympic silver medalist badminton player Wang Yihan.
As of 2004, Shanghai hosts the Chinese Grand Prix, a round of the Formula One World Championship. The race is staged annually at the Shanghai International Circuit. It hosted the 1000th Formula One race on 14 April 2019. In 2010, Shanghai also became the host city of Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters (DTM), which raced in a street circuit in Pudong. In 2012, Shanghai started to host 6 Hours of Shanghai as one round from the inaugural season of the FIA World Endurance Championship.
The Shanghai Cricket Club is a cricket club based in Shanghai. The club dates back to 1858 when the first recorded cricket match was played between a team of British Naval officers and a Shanghai 11. Following a 45-year dormancy after the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, the club was re-established in 1994 by expatriates living in the city and has since grown to over 300 members. The Shanghai cricket team was a cricket team that played various international matches between 1866 and 1948. With cricket in the rest of China almost non-existent, for that period they were the de facto Chinese national side.
On 21 September 2017, Shanghai hosted a National Hockey League (NHL) ice hockey exhibition game featured the Los Angeles Kings vs. the Vancouver Canucks as an effort to garner fan interest in China for the 2017–18 season.
Parks and resorts
The extensive public park system in Shanghai offers the citizens some reprieve from the urban jungle. By 2017, the city had 248 parks with a total area of 19,805 hectares. Some of the parks, aside from offering a green public space to locals, became popular tourist attractions due to their unique location, history or architecture.
The former racetrack turned central park, People's Square park, located in the heart of downtown Shanghai, is especially well known for its proximity to other major landmarks in the city. Fuxing Park, located in the former French Concession, features formal French-style gardens and is surrounded by high end bars and cafes. Zhongshan Park in northwestern central Shanghai is famous for its monument of Chopin, the tallest statue dedicated to the composer in the world. Built in 1914 as Jessfield Park, it once contained the campus of St. John's University, Shanghai's first international college; today, it is known for its extensive rose and peony gardens, a large children's play area, and as the location of an important transfer station on the metro system. One of the newest parks is in the Xujiahui—Xujiahui Park—built in 1999 on the former grounds of the Great Chinese Rubber Works Factory and the EMI Recording Studio (now La Villa Rouge restaurant). The park has an artificial lake with a sky bridge running across the park, offering a pleasant respite for Xujiahui shoppers. Shanghai Botanical Garden is located 12 km (7 mi) southwest of the city center and was established in 1978. In 2011, another yet the biggest botanical garden in Shanghai—Shanghai Chen Shan Botanical Garden—opened in Songjiang District.
The Shanghai Disney Resort Project was approved by the government on 4 November 2009, and opened in 2016. The $4.4 billion theme park and resort in Pudong features a castle that is the biggest among Disney's resorts.
Public awareness of the environment is growing, and the city is investing in a number of environmental protection projects. A 14-year cleanup of Suzhou Creek, which runs through the city-center, was finished in 2012, and 1.3 million cubic meters of sludge has been removed. Additionally, the government has moved almost all the factories within the city center to either the outskirts or other provinces, and provided incentives for transportation companies to invest in LPG buses and taxis.
From 1 July 2019, Shanghai adopt a new garbage classification. This system sort out waste into: recyclable waste, hazardous waste, residual waste, and kitchen waste.
Air pollution in Shanghai is not as severe as in many other Chinese cities, but still substantial by world standards. During the December 2013 Eastern China smog, air pollution rates reached between 23 and 31 times the international standard. On 6 December 2013, levels of PM2.5 particulate matter in Shanghai rose above 600 micrograms per cubic meter and in the surrounding area, above 700 micrograms per cubic metre. Levels of PM2.5 in Putuo District reached 726 micrograms per cubic meter. As a result, the Shanghai Municipal Education Commission received orders to suspend students' outdoor activities. Authorities pulled nearly one-third of government vehicles from the roads, while a mass of construction work was halted. Most of inbound flights were canceled, and more than 50 flights were diverted at Pudong International Airport.
On 23 January 2014, Yang Xiong, the mayor of Shanghai municipality announced that three main measures would be taken to manage the air pollution in Shanghai, along with surrounding Anhui, Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces. The measures involved delivery of the 2013 air cleaning program, linkage mechanism with the three surrounding provinces and improvement of the ability of early warning of emergency situation. On 12 February 2014, China's cabinet announced that a 10-billion-renminbi (US$1.7-billion) fund will be set up to help companies to meet new environmental standards.
In regard to foreign publications in Shanghai, Hartmut Walravens of the IFLA Newspapers Section said that when the Japanese controlled Shanghai in the 1940s "it was very difficult to publish good papers – one either had to concentrate on emigration problems, or cooperate like the Chronicle".
Newspapers publishing in Shanghai include:
Newspapers formerly published in Shanghai include:
The city is the home of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), a Eurasian political, economic, and security organization.
- Yokohama, Japan – since 1973
- Osaka, Japan – 1974
- Milan, Italy – 1979
- Rotterdam, Netherlands – 1979
- San Francisco, United States – 1979
- Osaka Prefecture, Japan – 1980
- Zagreb, Croatia – 1980
- Hamhung, North Korea – 1982
- Manila, Philippines – 1983
- Antwerp, Belgium – 1984
- Karachi, Pakistan – 1984
- Chicago, United States – 1985
- Montreal, Canada – 1985
- Piraeus, Greece – 1985
- Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland – 1985
- Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan – 1986
- Hamburg, Germany – 1986
- Casablanca, Morocco – 1986
- Gothenburg, Sweden – 1986
- Marseille, France – 1987
- São Paulo, Brazil – 1988
- Saint Petersburg, Russia – 1988
- Istanbul, Turkey – 1989
- Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam – 1990
- Alexandria, Egypt – 1992
- Busan, South Korea – 1993
- Port Vila, Vanuatu – 1994
- Dunedin, New Zealand – 1994
- Haifa, Israel – 1994
- Tashkent, Uzbekistan – 1994
- Porto, Portugal – 1995
- Prague, Czech Republic
- Aden, Yemen – 1995
- Windhoek, Namibia – 1995
- City of London, United Kingdom – 1996
- Santiago de Cuba, Cuba – 1996
- Rosario, Argentina – 1997
- Espoo, Finland – 1998
- Jalisco State, Mexico – 1998
- Liverpool, United Kingdom – 1999
- Maputo, Mozambique – 1999
- Dubai, United Arab Emirates – 2000
- Chiang Mai, Thailand – 2000
- KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa – 2001
- Guayaquil, Ecuador – 2001
- Valparaíso, Chile – 2001
- Barcelona, Spain – 2001
- Oslo, Norway – 2001
- Constanța, Romania – 2002
- Algiers, Algeria – 2003
- Colombo, Sri Lanka – 2003
- Aarhus County, Denmark – 2003
- Bratislava Region, Slovakia – 2003
- Hauraki District, New Zealand – 2003
- Salzburg, Austria – 2004
- Nicosia, Cyprus – 2004
- Cork, Ireland – 2005
- Winston-Salem, United States – 2006
- New York City, United States – 2007
- Basel, Switzerland – 2007
- Borås, Sweden – 2007
- Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina – 2008
- London, United Kingdom – 2009
- Manaus, Brazil – 2009
- Phnom Penh, Cambodia – 2009
- Kuopio, Finland – 2012
- Budapest, Hungary – 2013
- Sofia, Bulgaria – 2014
- Mumbai, India – 2014
- Seoul, South Korea – 2014
- Bangkok, Thailand – 2014
- Houston, United States – 2015
- Belgrade, Serbia – 2018
- List of economic and technological development zones in Shanghai
- List of fiction set in Shanghai
- List of films set in Shanghai
- Shanghai Detention Center
- Shanghai International Football Tournament
- Shanghai Scientific and Technical Publishers
- Traditional Chinese: 滬
- Traditional Chinese: 滬瀆
- Shanghainese romanization: longdhang; pronunciation: [lòŋdɑ̃́]
- historically "Avenue Joffre"
- Shanghainese romanization: Xhigawhe, Zikawei, or Siccawei; pronunciation: [ʑìkᴀ̋ɦuᴇ᷆]
- Chuansha County until 1992; merged with Nanhui District in 2009 with oversight of the Jiuduansha shoals
- Baoshan County and Wusong District until 1988
- Original Minhang District and Shanghai County until 1992
- Jiading County until 1992
- Jinshan County until 1997
- Songjiang County until 1998
- Qingpu County until 1999
- Fengxian County until 2001
- The absorption of the separate island of Yonglongsha by Chongming in the 1970s has produced a narrow pene-enclave of Jiangsu along about 20 kilometers (12 mi) of the northern shore of the island, separately administered as Nantong's Haiyong and Qilong townships.
- "The Shanghainese of 6000 Years Ago - the Majiabang Culture". Shanghai Qingpu Museum. Archived from the original on 4 January 2017. Retrieved 15 July 2017.
- "Archived copy" 上海青浦青龙镇遗址 [Ruins of Qinglong Town in Qingpu, Shanghai]. Institute of Archaeology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. 24 March 2017. Archived from the original on 31 August 2017. Retrieved 16 July 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy" 上海镇、上海县、上海县城考录 (in Chinese). Government of Shanghai. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 10 November 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "政协上海市第十三届委员会主席、副主席、秘书长和常务委员选举产生". 东方网 (in Chinese). Retrieved 27 January 2018.
- "Doing Business in China – Survey". Ministry Of Commerce – People's Republic Of China. Archived from the original on 26 May 2014. Retrieved 5 August 2013.
- "Land Area". Basic Facts. Shanghai Municipal People's Government. Archived from the original on 3 October 2011. Retrieved 19 July 2011.
- "Water Resources". Basic Facts. Shanghai Municipal People's Government. Archived from the original on 3 October 2011. Retrieved 19 July 2011.
- Cox, W. (2018). Demographia World Urban Areas. 14th Annual Edition (PDF). St. Louis: Demographia. p. 22. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 May 2018. Retrieved 15 June 2018.
- "Topographic Features". Basic Facts. Shanghai Municipal People's Government. Archived from the original on 3 October 2011. Retrieved 19 July 2011.
- "2018年上海市国民经济和社会发展统计公报" [Statistical Communiqué of Shanghai on the 2018 National Economic and Social Development]. www.stats-sh.gov.cn (in Chinese). Shanghai Municipal Statistics Bureau. 1 March 2019. Retrieved 1 September 2019.
- OECD Urban Policy Reviews: China 2015, OECD READ edition. OECD iLibrary. OECD Urban Policy Reviews. OECD. 18 April 2015. p. 37. doi:10.1787/9789264230040-en. ISBN 9789264230033. ISSN 2306-9341. Archived from the original on 27 March 2017. Retrieved 8 December 2017.Linked from the OECD here Archived 9 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine
- "Archived copy" 《2013中国人类发展报告》 (PDF) (in Chinese). United Nations Development Programme China. 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 November 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "The Competitive Position of London as a Global Financial Centre" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 November 2013. Retrieved 25 February 2011.
- Yu, Sheila (7 March 2017). "Shanghai tops next global innovation hub ranking". TechNode. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
- "Top 50 World Container Ports". World Shipping Council. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
- Scott Tong (October 2009). "Shanghai: Global financial center? Aspirations and reality, and implications for Hong Kong" (PDF). Hong Kong Journal. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 June 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- "Historic Transformation". Shanghai.gov.cn. 27 May 1949. Archived from the original on 2 June 2012. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
- "再添6个！18个自贸试验区构筑开放新版图" (in Chinese). 新华社. 26 August 2019. Retrieved 26 September 2019.
- Hunt, Katie (21 May 2008). "Shanghai: China's capitalist showpiece". BBC News. Archived from the original on 6 August 2008. Retrieved 7 August 2008.
- "Of Shanghai... and Suzhou". The Hindu Business Line. 27 January 2003. Archived from the original on 19 August 2005. Retrieved 20 March 2008.
- Danielson, Eric N., Shanghai and the Yangzi Delta, 2004, pp. 8–9.
- National Academy for Educational Research. "教育部重編國語辭典修訂本". dict.revised.moe.edu.tw (in Chinese). Retrieved 29 September 2019.
- "滬瀆詞語解釋 / 滬瀆是什麽意思". www.chinesewords.org (in Chinese). 漢語網. Retrieved 29 September 2019.
- "Archived copy" "申","沪"的由来 (in Chinese). Shanghai Municipal People's Government. Archived from the original on 16 April 2011. Retrieved 11 January 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "中华人民共和国机动车号牌" [License plate of motor vehicle of the People's Republic of China] (PDF) (in Chinese). Ministry of State Security of the People's Republic of China. 28 September 2007. Retrieved 29 September 2019.
- "华亭宾馆和零的突破" (in Chinese). Xinmin Evening News. 5 September 2013. Archived from the original on 5 September 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
- ""Modu" Shanghai but why people call it "Modu" ?". shanghaifact.weebly.com. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
- Lippet, Seiji (2002). Topographies of Japanese Modernism. : Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231500688. page 84
- Moraski, Brittney (20 July 2011). "Shanghai brings a touch of home". Daily Press. Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
- "Shanghai: Pearl of the Orient". Meetingsfocus.com. 7 April 2013. Archived from the original on 30 August 2013. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
- "The Shanghainese of 6000 Years Ago - the Majiabang Culture". Shanghai Qingpu Museum. Retrieved 24 November 2014.
- "Ancient History". cultural-china.com. Archived from the original on 16 June 2013. Retrieved 26 April 2014.
- ""申"、"沪"的由来". www.shanghai.gov.cn (in Chinese). Retrieved 1 October 2019.
- "Archived copy" 青龙镇考古：上海首个贸易港，为何人称"小杭州". Thepaper.cn. 10 December 2016. Archived from the original on 11 September 2017. Retrieved 16 July 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Danielson, Eric N., Shanghai and the Yangzi Delta, 2004, p.9.
- Danielson, Eric N., Shanghai and the Yangzi Delta, 2004, p.9, pp.11–12, p.34.
- Danielson, Eric N., Shanghai and the Yangzi Delta, 2004, p.10.
- Danielson, Eric N., Shanghai and the Yangtze Delta, 2004, pp.10–11.
- Rait, Robert S. (1903). The Life and Campaigns of Hugh, First Viscount Gough, Field-Marshal. Volume 1. p. 267–268
- "The Opium war (or how Hong Kong began)". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 6 May 2016. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
- 上海通志 总述 [General History of Shanghai – Overview] (in Chinese). Office of Shanghai Chronicles. 1 July 2008. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
- Scarne, John. Twelve years in China Archived 28 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Edinburgh: Constable, 1860: 187–209.
- Williams, S. Wells. The Middle Kingdom: A Survey of the Geography, Government, Literature, Social Life, Arts, and History of the Chinese Empire and its Inhabitants, Vol. 1, p. 107. Scribner (New York), 1904.
- "Shanghai International Settlement". Flag of the World. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
- Gordon Cumming, C. F. (Constance Frederica), "The inventor of the numeral-type for China by the use of which illiterate Chinese both blind and sighted can very quickly be taught to read and write fluently", London : Downey, 1899, archive.org Archived 29 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- Ku, Hung-Ting  (1979). Urban Mass Movement: The May Thirtieth Movement in Shanghai. Modern Asian Studies, Vol.13, No.2. pp.197-216
- Cathal J. Nolan (2002). The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations: S-Z. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 1509. ISBN 978-0-313-32383-6.
- "第一卷 建置沿革" (in Chinese). Office of Shanghai Chronicles. 2 July 2008. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
- Danielson, Eric N., Shanghai and the Yangzi Delta, 2004, p. 34.
- Shanghai: Paradise for adventurers. CBC – TV. Legendary Sin Cities. Archived 1 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- "Shanghai's White Russians (1937)". SHANGHAI SOJOURNS. 21 August 2018. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
- "All About Shanghai. Chapter 4 – Population Archived 20 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine". Tales of Old Shanghai.
- "Shanghai Sanctuary Archived 14 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine". Time. 31 July 2008.
- "图说上海一二八事变----战争罪行". www.archives.sh.cn (in Chinese). Retrieved 3 October 2019.
- Nicole Huang, "Introduction," in Eileen Chang, Written on Water, translated by Andrew F. Jones (New York: Columbia University Press, 2005),XI
- 149 comfort women houses discovered in Shanghai Archived 1 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine, Xinhua,16 June 2005.
- Changhai est tombé sans combat Archived 28 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Le Monde, 27 May 1949.
- 上海电影对香港电影的影响 [The influence of Shanghai film on Hong Kong film]. 香港电影论文 (in Chinese). 31 August 2013. Retrieved 3 October 2019.
- "上海地名志 总述" (in Chinese). Office of Shanghai Chronicles. 3 August 2004. Retrieved 3 October 2019.
- Pacione, Michael (4 December 2014). Problems and Planning in Third World Cities. Routledge Revivals. ISBN 9780415705936.
- Shanghai: transformation and modernization under China's open policy. By Yue-man Yeung, Sung Yun-wing, page 66 Archived 1 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Chinese University Press, 1996
- McGregor, Richard (31 July 2012). The Party: The Secret World of China's Communist Rulers. Harper Perennial; Reprint. ISBN 9780061708763.
- "浦东，改革开放尽显"上海风度"". www.xinhuanet.com (in Chinese). 17 September 2018. Retrieved 29 September 2019.
- 上海通志 第二卷 自然环境 [General History of Shanghai – Volume 2. Natural environment] (in Chinese). Office of Shanghai Chronicles. 4 July 2008. Retrieved 5 October 2019.
- "Geographic Location". Basic Facts. Shanghai Municipal People's Government. Archived from the original on 29 May 2012. Retrieved 14 September 2011.
- "Chongming Island" in the Encyclopedia of Shanghai, p. 52. Archived 2 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine Shanghai Scientific & Technical Publishers (Shanghai), 2010. Hosted by the Municipality of Shanghai.
- "Fourth Island Wetland Emerging", pp. 1–2. Archived 24 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine Shanghai Daily. 8 December 2009. Hosted at China.org.
- Spencer, Richard (19 September 2007). "1.6m flee Shanghai typhoon". The Daily Telegraph. UK. Archived from the original on 13 October 2007. Retrieved 20 March 2008.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 March 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Extreme Temperatures Around the World". Archived from the original on 4 August 2014. Retrieved 1 December 2010.
- 中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集 (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
- Loh, Juliana (16 February 2016). "An art deco journey through Shanghai's belle époque". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
- "Shanghai Architectural History". shanghaiguide.org. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
- Kabos, Ladislav. "The man who changed Shanghai". Who is L.E.Hudec. Retrieved 17 May 2011.
- Jin, Zhihao (12 July 2011). "一个外国建筑设计师的上海传奇----邬达克和他设计的经典老房子". 上海市档案局 (in Chinese). Retrieved 7 October 2019.
- "FAIRMONT PEACE HOTEL - A HISTORY". Accor. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
- "Strolling Shanghai's Bund (Part 2)". EVERETT POTTER'S TRAVEL REPORT. 13 August 2018. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
- "Bigger and better: The Shanghai Bund is back - CNN Travel". cnngo.com. Archived from the original on 1 November 2012. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
- Goldberger, Paul (26 December 2005). "Shanghai Surprise: The radical quaintness of the Xintiandi district". The New Yorker.
- Qian, Nairong (2007). 上海话大词典. : Shanghai Lexicographical Publishing House. ISBN 9787532622481.
- "Shikumen Residence". www.travelchinaguide.com. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
- Mo, Yan (18 January 2010). "文汇报:从石库门走入上海城市文化". Wenhui Bao (in Chinese). Retrieved 7 October 2019.
- "Lonely Planet review for Shanghai Exhibition Centre". Lonely Planet. NC2 Media. Retrieved 14 June 2013.
- "Number of 150m+ Completed Buildings - The Skyscraper Center". Skyscrapercenter.com. Archived from the original on 2 December 2017. Retrieved 5 November 2018.
- Alfred Joyner. "Shanghai Tower: Asia's new tallest skyscraper presents a future vision of 'vertical cities'". International Business Times UK. Archived from the original on 26 June 2015. Retrieved 26 June 2015.
- "Shanghai Tower News Release" (PDF). Gensler. 28 November 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 March 2009. Retrieved 28 November 2008.
- CleanTechies (25 March 2010). "The Shanghai Tower: The Beginnings of a Green Revolution in China". Archived from the original on 3 July 2011. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
- "Shanghai". SkyscraperPage.
- 李强 [Li Qiang] (in Chinese). People's Daily. Retrieved 16 January 2017.
- "杨雄当选上海市长 殷一璀当选市人大常委会主任" (in Chinese). National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China. 1 February 2013. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
- "应勇当选上海市市长" (in Chinese). The Paper. 20 January 2017. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
- Lawrence, Susan; Martin, Michael (20 March 2013). "Understanding China's Political System" (PDF). Federation of American Scientists. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 28 September 2019.
- "Dǎng wěi shū jì quán lì jiù jìng yǒu duō dà?" 党委书记权力究竟有多大？ [How much power does a Party Secretary really have?]. 人民论坛 (in Chinese). People's Daily Press. 23 January 2007. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
- "中国共产党上海市委员会" (in Chinese). Shanghai Municipal Government. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
- "上海市委常委名单+简历" (in Chinese). 经济日报-中国经济网. 4 September 2019. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
- "Profile: Jiang Zemin". BBC News. 19 September 2004. Archived from the original on 19 November 2011. Retrieved 13 September 2011.
- Kahn, Joseph (19 March 2003). "The Former Premier Who Ended China's 'Splendid Isolation'". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 26 November 2010. Retrieved 13 September 2011.
- "Biography of Wu Bangguo". China Vitae. Archived from the original on 22 November 2011. Retrieved 14 September 2011.
- Yardley, Jim (2 June 2007). "Huang Ju, Powerful Chinese Official, Dies at 68". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 17 July 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2011.
- "Biography of Xi Jinping". China Vitae. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
- "Biography of Yu Zhengsheng". China Vitae. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
- "Biography of Han Zheng". China Vitae. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
- Kahn, Joseph (4 October 2006). "In Graft Inquiry, Chinese See a Shake-Up Coming". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 18 December 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2011.
- "Former Shanghai Party chief gets 18-year term for bribery". Xinhua. 11 April 2008. Archived from the original on 6 December 2009. Retrieved 13 September 2011.
- Plafker, Ted (25 February 2010). "Factions Help Drive Modern China History". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 12 October 2011. Retrieved 13 September 2011.
- Wang, Xiangwei (8 August 2016). "Why Xi Jinping has no need of factions in the Communist Party". This Week in Asia. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
- 中国的行政区划——省级行政单位 [Administrative divisions in China - Provincial-level administrative divisions] (in Chinese). The Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China. 17 April 2009. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
- 国家统计局统计用区划代码 (in Chinese). National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China. Archived from the original on 5 April 2013.
- "2.2 LAND AREA, POPULATION AND DENSITY OF POPULATION IN DISTRICTS (2017)". Shanghai Municipal Statistics Bureau. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
- "纪念型". 上海地名志 (Shanghai Place Names). Shanghai Surveying and Mapping Institute. Archived from the original on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
- 国务院同意撤销上海市南汇区 将其并入浦东新区 (in Chinese). 新华社. 6 May 2009. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
- Office of Shanghai Chronicles. 岛、沙 ["Dǎo, Shā", "Islands and Shoals"]. Shanghai Municipal Government (Shanghai), 2015. Accessed 12 January 2015. (in Chinese)
- Shanghai Statistical Yearbook 2010 Archived 29 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 18 July 2011
- "上海简介" (in Chinese). 国务院新闻办公室. 4 December 2009. Retrieved 4 September 2019.
- "2018年经济运行保持在合理区间，发展的主要预期目标较好完成". www.gov.cn (in Chinese). 中国政府网. 2019. Retrieved 4 September 2019.
- "主要年份六大支柱产业增加值" (in Chinese). Shanghai Municipal Statistics Bureau. Archived from the original on 4 March 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2012.
- EIU: Chinese cities cost less to live in Archived 22 March 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Shanghai Daily, Ding Yining, 21 March 2017.
- "表4.5 上海市人均生产总值（1978～2017）" (in Chinese). Shanghai Municipal Statistics Bureau. Retrieved 4 September 2019.
- "表10.13 城镇常住居民可支配收入及构成（2015～2017）" (in Chinese). Shanghai Municipal Statistics Bureau. Retrieved 4 September 2019.
- "表10.25 主要年份城乡居民家庭人均收入及消费支出" (in Chinese). Shanghai Municipal Statistics Bureau. Retrieved 4 September 2019.
- "表10.27 主要年份城市居民家庭人均可支配收入" (in Chinese). Shanghai Municipal Statistics Bureau. Retrieved 4 September 2019.
- "表10.14 农村常住居民可支配收入及构成（2015～2017）" (in Chinese). Shanghai Municipal Statistics Bureau. Retrieved 4 September 2019.
- "Growth rate of major national economic indicators over preceding year (1978～2010)". Stats-sh.gov.cn. Archived from the original on 11 January 2012. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
- "The Global Financial Centres Index 19". Long Finance. March 2016. Archived from the original on 8 April 2016. Retrieved 11 April 2016.
- "The rise of Lujiazui Financial City in Shanghai". CCTV News – CNTV English. 19 January 2011. Archived from the original on 18 January 2012. Retrieved 17 May 2011.
- "Shanghai Municipality". hktdc.com. 15 December 2010. Archived from the original on 31 October 2011. Retrieved 17 May 2011.
- "Shanghai top for FDI into Asia-Pacific". The Banker. 1 April 2014. Archived from the original on 9 July 2014. Retrieved 11 April 2014.
- "Chinese Provinces of the Future 2014/15". FDi magazine. 11 August 2014. Archived from the original on 6 February 2015. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
- "Shipping industry woes". China Daily. 30 November 2009. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 17 May 2011.
- "China's Largest Shipbuilding Industry Based in Shanghai". People's Daily. 10 April 2001. Archived from the original on 16 January 2014. Retrieved 15 January 2014.
- 上海汽车工业（集团）总公司|上汽集团. Saicgroup. 18 August 2009. Archived from the original on 29 May 2011. Retrieved 17 May 2011.
"Shanghai: Market Profile". Hong Kong Trade Development Council. 1 March 2018. Archived from the original on 11 August 2018. Retrieved 23 November 2018.
Shanghai is a major tourist destination
- "Shanghai's many challenges". TTGmice. Archived from the original on 5 June 2013. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
- "Basic Statistics on National Population Census". Shanghai Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original on 1 May 2013. Retrieved 25 April 2019.
- "2.1 TOTAL HOUSEHOLDS,POPULATION,DENSITY OF REGISTERED POPULATION AND LIFE EXPECTANCY (1978～2017)". www.stats-sh.gov.cn. Shanghai Municipal Statistics Bureau. Retrieved 1 September 2019.
- 上海人口分布呈现城市化发展和郊区化安居态势. Shanghai Statistics Bureau of Statistics. 23 September 2011. Archived from the original on 26 September 2011.
- Chan,, Kam Wing (2007). "Misconceptions and Complexities in the Study of China's Cities: Definitions, Statistics, and Implications" (PDF). Eurasian Geography and Economics. 48 (4): 383–412. doi:10.2747/1538-722.214.171.1243. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 13 September 2011.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link) p. 395
- "2.11 RESIDENT FOREIGNERS IN SHANGHAI IN MAIN YEARS". www.stats-sh.gov.cn. Shanghai Municipal Statistics Bureau. Retrieved 1 September 2019.
- "Shanghai Population 2015 – World Population Review". worldpopulationreview.com. Archived from the original on 24 November 2015. Retrieved 23 November 2015.
- "上海户籍人口人均期望寿命83.63岁，女性超86岁" (in Chinese). 新华网. 14 February 2019. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
- "2.6 AGE STRUCTURE OF REGISTERED POPULATION IN DISTRICTS (2017)". www.stats-sh.gov.cn. Shanghai Municipal Statistics Bureau. Retrieved 1 September 2019.
- CNBC.com, Justina Crabtree; special to (20 September 2016). "A tale of megacities: China's largest metropolises". CNBC. Archived from the original on 9 December 2017. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
- Roxburgh, Helen (19 March 2018). "China's radical plan to limit the populations of Beijing and Shanghai". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 9 April 2018. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
- 当代中国宗教状况报告——基于CFPS（2012）调查数据 [China Family Panel Studies 2012] (PDF). Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. 3 March 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 August 2014. Retrieved 7 August 2014.. p. 013
- According to Johnstone, Patrick; Schirrmacher, Thomas (2003). Gebet für die Welt. Hänssler. ISBN 978-0-8133-4275-7.
- "Jewish Refugees Museum : Ohel Moishe Synagogue Shanghai". Visions of Travel. Archived from the original on 10 April 2013.
- "Shanghai-jews.com". Shanghai-jews.com. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 17 May 2011.
- Zat Liu (20 August 2010). "Is Shanghai's local dialect, and culture, in crisis?". CNN GO. Archived from the original on 3 September 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2011.
- Jia Feishang (13 May 2011). "Stopping the local dialect becoming derelict". Shanghai Daily. Archived from the original on 12 February 2017. Retrieved 11 February 2017.
- Rouhi, Maureen (19 January 2015). "ShanghaiTech Aims To Raise The Bar For Higher Education In China" Archived 19 November 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Chemical & Engineering News. Retrieved on 19 November 2015.
- "World Port Ranking 2006". Infoplease. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
- David Barboza (29 April 2010). "Expo Offers Shanghai a New Turn in the Spotlight". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 1 May 2010. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
- "3月8日上海地铁客流创历史新高" (in Chinese). 上海地铁shmetro官方微信. 9 March 2019. Retrieved 9 September 2019.
- Hunt, Hugh (19 January 2017). "How we can make super-fast hyperloop travel a reality". Independent. Retrieved 19 January 2017.
- "上海磁悬浮列车示范运营线通过验收". www.gov.cn (in Chinese). 26 April 2006. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
- "沪地铁2号线19日起末班车时间延后 部分列车直通浦东机场" (in Chinese). 新华网上海. 17 April 2019. Archived from the original on 2 September 2019. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
- "Google Maps". www.google.com. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
- "上海磁浮列車 Shanghai Maglev Train 票價、時刻表、班距、轉乘資訊分享". rainieis.tw (in Chinese). 13 December 2018. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
- Xinhua News Agency (1 January 2010). "上海首条现代化有轨电车新年正式载客运营". Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China (in Chinese). Retrieved 12 August 2019.
- Barrow, Keith (26 December 2018). "Shanghai Songjiang Tramway opens". International Railway Journal. Simmons-Boardman Publishing Co. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
- "表11.13 主要年份公共交通和轮渡情况". www.stats-sh.gov.cn (in Chinese). 上海统计. 2019. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- "Personal Cars and China (2003)".[permanent dead link]
- "Shanghai's taxi fares up 2 yuan from today". Shanghai Daily. Archived from the original on 7 January 2012. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
- "打车软件大比拼——上海篇" (in Chinese). Retrieved 2 September 2019.
- "高速公路网". www.shanghai.gov.cn (in Chinese). Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- "上海人飞跃黄浦江历史:建14条隧道12座大桥8条轨交" (in Chinese). 7 December 2017. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- "黄浦江上第13座大桥开始主塔施工，除了可以"走"，还有哪里与众不同？" (in Chinese). 18 July 2018. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- "Ofo, Mobike, BlueGogo: China's Messy Bikeshare Market". What's on Weibo. Archived from the original on 6 August 2017. Retrieved 13 August 2017.
- "Shanghai number plates worth more than a car". Europe.chinadaily.com.cn. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 17 May 2011.
- "上海有哪几个火车站，上海站是哪个站，上海有几个火车站". www.mafengwo.cn (in Chinese). 2 April 2019. Retrieved 1 September 2019.
- "Songhu Railway". Office of Shanghai Chronicles. Retrieved 1 September 2019.
- "第一节 沪宁线". 江苏交通志·铁路篇 (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 13 January 2019. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
- "第一节 修建" (in Chinese). Office of Shanghai Chronicles. 25 December 2003. Retrieved 1 September 2019.
- 辞海编辑委员会, ed. (1989). 《辞海》（1989年版）. Shanghai Lexicographical Publishing House.
- "沪通铁路2013年正式开建 南通到上海仅需一小时" [Construction work on the Hu-Tong Railway will officially start in 2013. It will take just an hour to travel from Nantong to Shanghai] (in Chinese). 24 December 2012.
- "最新进展！沪苏湖高铁今年10月底前开工建设" [Latest progress! Construction of the Shanghai–Suzhou–Huzhou high-speed railway will begin before the end of October this year.] (in Chinese). 15 July 2019. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
- "上海市轨道交通近期建设规划(2017-2025)环境影响评价公示" (in Chinese). 上海环境热线. 18 February 2016.
- "上海市轨道交通近期建设规划(2017-2025)环境影响评价第二次公示" (in Chinese). 上海环境热线. 18 April 2016.
- "上海规土局：机场联络线和嘉闵线已明确采用市郊铁路制式" (in Chinese). 澎湃新闻. 10 August 2016.
- "Transportation". Shanghai Focus. Archived from the original on 30 December 2010. Retrieved 5 May 2010.
- "Preliminary world airport traffic rankings released". aci.aero. 13 March 2019. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
- "上海：一个城市的传奇和梦想" (in Chinese). 新浪网. 12 September 2006. Retrieved 11 March 2011.
- "2017年统计用区划代码和城乡划分代码：嵊泗县". National Bureau of Statistics of China (in Chinese). Retrieved 7 October 2019.
- "Shanghai overtakes S'pore as world's busiest port". Straits Times. 8 January 2011. Retrieved 14 September 2011.
- One Hundred Ports 2019 Lloyd's List，2019
- "表15.10 邮轮经济发展情况（2014～2017）". www.stats-sh.gov.cn (in Chinese). 上海统计. 2019. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- Sahr Johnny, "Cybercity – Sahr Johnny's Shanghai Dream" That's Shanghai, October 2005; quoted online by  Archived 14 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
- "3 New Museums to Look Out for in 2018". Archived from the original on 16 January 2018. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
- hermesauto (5 January 2018). "Shanghai releases blueprint for becoming global cosmopolis by 2035". Archived from the original on 15 January 2018. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
- "Museums in Shanghai". www.shanghaitourmap.com. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2013.
- "Museums in Shanghai - SmartShanghai". www.smartshanghai.com. Archived from the original on 20 January 2018. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
- "A Brief Intro to Shanghai "Hu" Cuisine". theculturetrip.com. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- "各地特色小笼包介绍，看完对它有不一样的情感！". kknews.cc. Retrieved 29 August 2019.
- shanghailander. "正宗的上海生煎馒头在哪里？". moment.douban.com. Archived from the original on 29 August 2019. Retrieved 29 August 2019.
- "The That's Guide to Gorging on Shanghai Hairy Crab". www.thatsmags.com. Retrieved 10 August 2019.
- "名家名菜—松鼠鳜鱼". home.meishichina.com. Archived from the original on 28 August 2019. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- "上海糖醋小排". www.meishij.net. Retrieved 29 August 2019.
- "一百个上海人有一百种罗宋汤" [One hundred types of borscht for one hundred Shanghainese]. 新浪网. 20 August 2012. Retrieved 4 January 2014.
- 崔庆国 (9 April 2009). "松江画派：价格与地位不符". 《鉴宝》 (in Chinese). Retrieved 5 September 2019.
- "上海通志>>第三十八卷文化艺术（上）>>第六章美术、书法、摄影>>节" (in Chinese). Office of Shanghai Chronicles. Retrieved 20 April 2012.
- "《上海地方志》>>1989年第五期>>"松江画派"源流" (in Chinese). Office of Shanghai Chronicles. Retrieved 20 April 2012.
- 單國霖 (May 2005). "董其昌與松江畫派" (PDF). www.mam.gov.mo (in Chinese). Retrieved 5 September 2019.
- "海上画派的艺术特点及对后世的影响". www.sohu.com (in Chinese). 18 March 2019. Retrieved 5 September 2019.
- "171年前一个西班牙人来到上海，西洋绘画由此传播开来". www.sohu.com (in Chinese). 17 July 2018. Retrieved 5 September 2019.
- ""三毛"最早诞生于1935年7月28日《晨报》副刊" (in Chinese). 解放日报. 29 July 2010. Archived from the original on 23 August 2017. Retrieved 20 April 2012.
- "上海中国画院" (in Chinese). 今日艺术. Archived from the original on 27 November 2010. Retrieved 12 March 2011.
- 钱雪儿 (22 November 2018). "特稿｜11月的上海，何以成为全球最热的当代艺术地标" (in Chinese). THE PAPER. Retrieved 5 September 2019.
- 钱雪儿 (10 November 2018). "现场｜第12届上海双年展开幕：进退之间，无序或矛盾" (in Chinese). THE PAPER. Retrieved 5 September 2019.
- "王无能". 易文网. 30 November 2006. Retrieved 20 April 2012.[permanent dead link][permanent dead link]
- "历史上的今天 3月2日". 中国网. Retrieved 20 April 2012.
- "梅兰芳的几次出国演出(附图)". 上海档案信息网. 27 February 2008. Archived from the original on 9 November 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2012.
- "怀想当年"越剧十姐妹"绍兴将共演《山河恋》". 搜狐娱乐. 1 February 2007. Retrieved 20 April 2012.
- Stock, Jonathan (2003). Huju: Traditional Opera in modern Shanghai. Oxford ; New York : Published for the British Academy by Oxford University Press. ISBN 0197262732.
- "所属院团". 上海戏曲艺术中心. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
- "上海昆剧团将携全本《长生殿》登上台北舞台". 东方网. 30 March 2010. Retrieved 12 March 2011.
- "剧变沧桑：第1集 舞台西洋风". 文明网. 21 February 2009. Archived from the original on 11 February 2017. Retrieved 20 April 2012.
- "话剧百年 "兰心"之韵" (in Chinese). 城市经济导报. 11 March 2001. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- "经典音乐剧《猫》3月28日大剧院首演". 新浪上海. 25 February 2003. Retrieved 20 April 2012.
- "从《阿蒂拉》上演看意大利歌剧在上海". Wenhui Bao. 28 October 2013. Archived from the original on 7 October 2017. Retrieved 20 November 2013.
- William Peterson (12 November 2018). "Worlds and theatre collide in Secret Love in Peach Blossom Land". The Conversation. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
- "话剧百年 "兰心"之韵" (in Chinese). Retrieved 30 August 2019.
- Group, SEEC Media. "Shanghai Film Museum". timeoutshanghai.com. Archived from the original on 2 June 2016.
- "Setting His Tale Of Love Found In a City Long Lost". The New York Times. 28 January 2001. Archived from the original on 15 February 2017. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- "历届回顾 COLLECTION". Retrieved 30 August 2019.
- "Photos of Shanghai Fashion Week – Scene Asia – Scene Asia – WSJ". The Wall Street Journal. 21 October 2010. Archived from the original on 16 December 2011. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
- Leisa Barnett (27 October 2008). "Aminaka Wilmont to show in Shanghai (Vogue.com UK)". Vogue.co.uk. Archived from the original on 18 October 2010. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
- "Grand Prix Shanghai Set to Go". China.org.cn. 22 October 2002. Retrieved 4 October 2010.
- "European Tour, CGA unveil BMW Masters". China Daily. 25 April 2012. Archived from the original on 26 April 2012. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
- "About the Shanghai Cricket Club". Shanghai Cricket Club. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
- "Kings defeat Canucks in shootout to sweep China Games". NHL. 23 September 2017. Retrieved 1 September 2019.
- 表11.16 主要年份城市绿地情况. www.stats-sh.gov.cn. 上海统计. 2019. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- "2011-01-23:亚洲最大温室建成九千种植物齐聚 辰山植物园全面开放". Office of Shanghai Chronicles. 24 January 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- "The Walt Disney Company Reaches Another Major Milestone on Shanghai Theme Park Project". Walt Disney Company. 3 November 2009. Archived from the original on 27 November 2010. Retrieved 28 January 2011.
- "Disneyland Shanghai to open 2016". The Independent. 8 April 2011. Archived from the original on 19 November 2014. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
- Barboza, David; Barnes, Brooks (7 April 2011). "Disney to Open Park in Shanghai". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 1 July 2017. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- "Largest cleanup along Suzhou Creek complete". Global Times. 28 March 2012. Retrieved 29 September 2019.
- "Environmental Protection in China's Wealthiest City". The American Embassy in China. July 2001. Archived from the original on 30 October 2007. Retrieved 11 May 2008.
- "Shanghai Businesses to Comply with New Waste Management Norms from July 1". China-briefing. June 2019. Retrieved 11 May 2008.
- "Shanghai Warns Children to Stay Indoors on Haze, PM2.5 Surge". Bloomberg News. 25 December 2013. Archived from the original on 26 December 2013. Retrieved 25 December 2013.
- Reuters Editorial (6 December 2013). "Flights delayed as air pollution hits record in Shanghai". Reuters. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2017.
- Liu Chenyao. "Archived copy" 中国出现入冬以来最大范围雾霾 局地严重污染 [Smog levels in China reach record levels since the end of 2013; surrounding areas severely polluted] (in Chinese). China news agency. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013. Retrieved 3 March 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy" 上海今日PM2.5均值超600 高楼在雾霾中若隐若现. People's Daily. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013. Retrieved 18 April 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy" 新闻晨报：释疑——重度污染为何不发霾红色预警. 上视新闻频道-上海早晨栏目. Archived from the original on 10 December 2013. Retrieved 18 April 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Shanghai grinds to a halt as smog nears top of air pollution scale". South China Morning Post. 7 December 2013. Archived from the original on 24 March 2014. Retrieved 24 March 2014.
- "Archived copy" 上海将采取三大措施治理空气污染 [Three main measures will be taken against Shanghai's air pollution]. www.cnstock.com (in Chinese). 24 January 2014. Archived from the original on 17 August 2018. Retrieved 18 December 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Qiu, Jane. Fight against smog ramps up (Nature Archived 8 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine, 18 February 2014).
- Walravens, Hartmut (2003). "German Influence on the Press in China". Newspapers in International Librarianship: Papers presented by the Newspapers at IFLA General Conferences. Walter de Gruyter. p. 95. ISBN 978-3-11-096279-6.
- "Shanghai Foreign Affairs". Shfao.gov.cn. Archived from the original on 18 May 2011. Retrieved 17 May 2011.
- "Partnerská města HMP" [Prague – Twin Cities HMP]. Portál "Zahraniční vztahy" [Portal "Foreign Affairs"] (in Czech). 18 July 2013. Archived from the original on 25 June 2013. Retrieved 5 August 2013.
- "Town Twinning Agreements". Municipalidad de Rosario – Buenos Aires 711. Archived from the original on 19 March 2015. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- Mulcahy, Noreen. "Cork – International Relationsb". Cork City Council. Archived from the original on 18 May 2013. Retrieved 28 August 2013.
- "Sanghaj is Budapest testvérvárosa lett". Origo.hu. Archived from the original on 30 August 2013. Retrieved 29 August 2013.
- "Shanghai, Sofia sign intent agreement to become sister cities". Archived from the original on 27 February 2015. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
- "Potpisan sporazum o bratimljenju Beorgada i Šangaja". b92.net (in Serbian). Tanjug. 21 May 2018. Archived from the original on 22 May 2018. Retrieved 21 May 2018.
- Danielson, Eric N. (2010). Discover Shanghai. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish.
- Danielson, Eric N. (2004). Shanghai and the Yangzi Delta. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish/Times Editions. ISBN 978-981-232-597-6.
- Elvin, Mark (1977). "Market Towns and Waterways: The County of Shang-hai from 1480 to 1910". In Skinner, G. William (ed.). The City in Late Imperial China. Stanford, Cal.: Stanford University Press. pp. 441–474. ISBN 978-0-8047-0892-0. OCLC 2883862.
- Erh, Deke; Johnston, Tess (2007). Shanghai Art Deco. Hong Kong: Old China Hand Press.
- Haarmann, Anke. Shanghai (Urban Public) Space (Berlin: Jovis, 2009). 192 pp. online review
- Horesh, Niv (2009). Shanghai's Bund and Beyond. New Haven: Yale University Press.
- Johnson, Linda Cooke (1995). Shanghai: From Market Town to Treaty Port. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
- Johnson, Linda Cooke (1993). Cities of Jiangnan in Late Imperial China. Albany, NY: State University of New York (SUNY). ISBN 978-0-7914-1424-8.
- Scheen, Lena (2015). Shanghai Literary Imaginings: A City in Transformation. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. ISBN 978-90-8964-587-6.
- Yan Jin. "Shanghai Studies: An evolving academic field" History Compass (October 2018) e12496 Historiography of recent scholarship. online