|Etymology: 上海浦 (Shànghăi Pǔ)|
"The original name of the Huangpu River."
Location of Shanghai Municipality in China
|Coordinates (People's Square): Coordinates:|
|Settled||c. 4000 BCE|
- Qinglong Town
|- Shanghai County||1292|
|- Municipality||7 July 1927|
210 towns and subdistricts
|• Body||Shanghai Municipal People's Congress|
|• CCP Secretary||Li Qiang|
|• Congress Chairman||Jiang Zhuoqing|
|• Mayor||Gong Zheng|
|• Municipal CPPCC Chairman||Dong Yunhu|
|• Municipality||6,341 km2 (2,448 sq mi)|
|• Water||697 km2 (269 sq mi)|
| • Urban|
|4,000 km2 (1,550 sq mi)|
|Elevation||4 m (13 ft)|
|Highest elevation||118 m (387 ft)|
|• Municipality||24 million|
|• Rank||1st in China|
|Time zone||UTC+08:00 (CST)|
|ISO 3166 code||CN-SH|
|- Total||¥3.87 trillion|
|- Per Capita||¥157,279|
|HDI (2018)||0.867 (2nd) – very high|
|License plate prefixes||沪A, B, D, E, F, G, H, J, K, L, M, N|
沪C (outer suburbs only)
|Abbreviation||SH / 沪 (Hù)|
|City flower||Yulan magnolia|
|Literal meaning||"Upon the Sea"|
Shanghai (Chinese: 上海, Shanghainese pronunciation [zɑ̃̀.hɛ́] (listen), Standard Mandarin pronunciation: [ʂâŋ.xài] (listen)) is one of the four direct-administered municipalities of the People's Republic of China, governed by the State Council. The city is located on the southern estuary of the Yangtze River, with the Huangpu River flowing through it. With a population of 24.28 million as of 2019[update], it is the most populous urban area in China and the third most populous city proper in the world. Shanghai is a global center for finance, research, technology, manufacturing, and transportation, and the Port of Shanghai is the world's busiest container port.
Originally a fishing village and market town, Shanghai grew its importance in the 19th century due to both domestic and foreign trade and its favorable port location. The city was one of five treaty ports forced open to European trade after the First Opium War, the Shanghai International Settlement and the French Concession were subsequently established. The city then flourished, becoming a primary commercial and financial hub of Asia in the 1930s. During the Second Sino-Japanese War, the city was the site of the major Battle of Shanghai. After the war, with the CPC takeover of mainland China in 1949, trade was limited to other socialist countries and the city's global influence declined.
In the 1990s, economic reforms introduced by Deng Xiaoping a decade earlier resulted in an intense redevelopment of the city, especially the Pudong New Area, aiding the return of finance and foreign investment. The city has since re-emerged as a hub for international trade and finance; It is the home of the Shanghai Stock Exchange, one of the largest stock exchanges in the world by market capitalization and the Shanghai Free-Trade Zone the first free-trade zone in mainland China. As of 2020, Shanghai is classified as an Alpha+ (global first-tier) city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network and ranked as having the 3rd most competitive and largest financial center in the world behind New York City and London. It has the second-highest number of billionaires of any city in the world, the fifth-largest scientific research output of any city in the world, and highly ranked educational institutions including four Project 985 universities: Fudan University, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Tongji University, and East China Normal University.
Shanghai has been described as the "showpiece" of the booming economy of China. Featuring several architectural styles such as Art Deco and shikumen, the city is renowned for its Lujiazui skyline, museums and historic buildings including the City God Temple, Yu Garden, the China Pavilion and buildings along the Bund. Shanghai is also known for its sugary cuisine, distinctive local language and vibrant international flair.
As an important international city, Shanghai hosts numerous national and international events every year, such as Shanghai Fashion Week, the Chinese Grand Prix and ChinaJoy. In 2018, Shanghai hosted the first China International Import Expo (CIIE) the world's first import-themed national-level expo.
The two Chinese characters in the city's name are 上 (shàng/zan, "upon") and 海 (hǎi/hae, "sea"), together meaning "Upon the Sea". The earliest occurrence of this name dates from the 11th-century Song dynasty, when there was already a river confluence and a town with this name in the area. How the name should be understood has been disputed, but Chinese historians have concluded that during the Tang dynasty, the area of modern-day Shanghai was under the sea level, so the land appeared to be literally "on the sea". Shanghai is officially abbreviated 沪[a] (Hù/Vu2) in Chinese, a contraction of 沪渎[b] (Hù Dú/Vu Doh, "Harpoon Ditch"), a 4th- or 5th-century Jin name for the mouth of Suzhou Creek when it was the main conduit into the ocean. This character appears on all motor vehicle license plates issued in the municipality today.
申 (Shēn) or 申城 (Shēnchéng, "Shen City") was an early name originating from Lord Chunshen, a 3rd-century BC nobleman and prime minister of the state of Chu, whose fief included modern Shanghai. Shanghai-based sports teams and newspapers often use Shen in their names, such as Shanghai Shenhua and Shen Bao.
华亭[c] (Huátíng) was another early name for Shanghai. In AD 751 during the mid-Tang dynasty, Huating County was established by Zhao Juzhen, the governor of Wu Commandery, at modern-day Songjiang, the first county-level administration within modern-day Shanghai. The first five-star hotel in the city was named after Huating.
魔都 (Módū, "Magical City"), a contemporary nickname for Shanghai, is widely known among the youth. The name was first mentioned in Shōfu Muramatsu's 1924 novel Mato, which portrayed Shanghai as a dichotomic city where both light and darkness existed.
The city has various nicknames in English, including "Pearl of the Orient" and "Paris of the East". This is similar to Ho Chi Minh City (also known as Saigon), in Vietnam, which has also been nicknamed as "Paris of the Orient", due to Vietnam's historical French status.
The western part of modern-day Shanghai was inhabited 6000 years ago. During the Spring and Autumn period (approximately 771 to 476 BC), it belonged to the Kingdom of Wu, which was conquered by the Kingdom of Yue, which in turn was conquered by the Kingdom of Chu. During the Warring States period (475 BC), Shanghai was part of the fief of Lord Chunshen of Chu, one of the Four Lords of the Warring States. He ordered the excavation of the Huangpu River. Its former or poetic name, the Chunshen River, gave Shanghai its nickname of "Shēn". Fishermen living in the Shanghai area then created a fish tool called the hù, which lent its name to the outlet of Suzhou Creek north of the Old City and became a common nickname and abbreviation for the city.
During the Tang and Song dynasties, Qinglong Town (青龙镇[d]) in modern Qingpu District was a major trading port. Established in 746 (the fifth year of the Tang Tianbao era), it developed into what historically called a "giant town of the Southeast", with thirteen temples and seven pagodas. Mi Fu, a scholar and artist of the Song dynasty, served as its mayor. The port experienced thriving trade with provinces along the Yangtze and the Chinese coast, as well as with foreign countries such as Japan and Silla.
By the end of the Song dynasty, the center of trading had moved downstream of the Wusong River to Shanghai. It was upgraded in status from a village to a market town in 1074, and in 1172, a second sea wall was built to stabilize the ocean coastline, supplementing an earlier dike. From the Yuan dynasty in 1292 until Shanghai officially became a municipality in 1927, central Shanghai was administered as a county under Songjiang Prefecture, which had its seat in the present-day Songjiang District.
Two important events helped promote Shanghai's developments in the Ming dynasty. A city wall was built for the first time in 1554 to protect the town from raids by Japanese pirates. It measured 10 m (33 ft) high and 5 km (3 mi) in circumference. A City God Temple was built in 1602 during the Wanli reign. This honor was usually reserved for prefectural capitals and not normally given to a mere county seat such as Shanghai. Scholars have theorized that this likely reflected the town's economic importance, as opposed to its low political status.
During the Qing dynasty, Shanghai became one of the most important sea ports in the Yangtze Delta region as a result of two important central government policy changes: in 1684, the Kangxi Emperor reversed the Ming dynasty prohibition on oceangoing vessels—a ban that had been in force since 1525; and in 1732, the Qianlong Emperor moved the customs office for Jiangsu province (江海关;[e] see Customs House, Shanghai) from the prefectural capital of Songjiang to Shanghai, and gave Shanghai exclusive control over customs collections for Jiangsu's foreign trade. As a result of these two critical decisions, Shanghai became the major trade port for all of the lower Yangtze region by 1735, despite still being at the lowest administrative level in the political hierarchy.
Rise and golden age
In the 19th century, international attention to Shanghai grew due to European recognition of its economic and trade potential at the Yangtze. During the First Opium War (1839–1842), British forces occupied the city. The war ended in 1842 with the Treaty of Nanking, which opened Shanghai as one of the five treaty ports for international trade. The Treaty of the Bogue, the Treaty of Wanghia, and the Treaty of Whampoa (signed in 1843, 1844, and 1844, respectively) forced Chinese concession to European and American desires for visitation and trade on Chinese soil. Britain, France, and the United States all carved out outside the walled city of Shanghai, which was still ruled by the Chinese.
The Chinese-held Old City of Shanghai fell to rebels from the Small Swords Society in 1853, but was recovered by the Qing government in February 1855. In 1854, the Shanghai Municipal Council was created to manage the foreign settlements. Between 1860 and 1862, the Taiping rebels twice attacked Shanghai and destroyed the city's eastern and southern suburbs, but failed to take the city. In 1863, the British settlement to the south of Suzhou Creek (northern Huangpu District) and the American settlement to the north (southern Hongkou District) joined in order to form the Shanghai International Settlement. The French opted out of the Shanghai Municipal Council and maintained its own concession to the south and southwest.
The First Sino-Japanese War concluded with the 1895 Treaty of Shimonoseki, which elevated Japan to become another foreign power in Shanghai. Japan built the first factories in Shanghai, which was soon copied by other foreign powers. All this international activity gave Shanghai the nickname "the Great Athens of China". In 1914, the Old City walls were dismantled because they blocked the city's expansion. In July 1921, the Communist Party of China was founded in the French Concession. On 30 May 1925, the May Thirtieth Movement broke out when a worker in a Japanese-owned cotton mill was shot and killed by a Japanese foreman. Workers in the city then launched general strikes against imperialism, which became nation-wide protests that gave rise to Chinese nationalism.
The golden age of Shanghai began with its elevation to municipality on 7 July 1927. This new Chinese municipality covered an area of 494.69 km2 (191.0 sq mi), including the modern-day districts of Baoshan, Yangpu, Zhabei, Nanshi, and Pudong, but excluded the foreign concessions territories. Headed by a Chinese mayor and municipal council, the new city government's first task—the Greater Shanghai Plan—was to create a new city center in Jiangwan town of Yangpu district, outside the boundaries of the foreign concessions. The plan included a public museum, library, sports stadium, and city hall, which were partially constructed before being interrupted by the Japanese invasion.
The city flourished, becoming a primary commercial and financial hub of the Asia-Pacific region in the 1930s. During the ensuing decades, citizens of many countries and all continents came to Shanghai to live and work; those who stayed for long periods—some for generations—called themselves "Shanghailanders". In the 1920s and 1930s, almost 20,000 White Russians fled the newly established Soviet Union to reside in Shanghai. These Shanghai Russians constituted the second-largest foreign community. By 1932, Shanghai had become the world's fifth largest city and home to 70,000 foreigners. In the 1930s, some 30,000 Ashkenazi Jewish refugees from Europe arrived in the city.
Shanghai filmed in 1937
Shanghai Park Hotel was the tallest building in Asia for decades
Former Shanghai Library
On 28 January 1932, Japanese forces invaded Shanghai while the Chinese resisted. More than 10,000 shops and hundreds of factories and public buildings were destroyed, leaving Zhabei district ruined. About 18,000 civilians were either killed, injured, or declared missing. A ceasefire was brokered on 5 May. In 1937, the Battle of Shanghai resulted in the occupation of the Chinese-administered parts of Shanghai outside of the International Settlement and the French Concession. People who stayed in the occupied city suffered on a daily basis, experiencing hunger, oppression, or death. The foreign concessions were ultimately occupied by the Japanese on 8 December 1941 and remained occupied until Japan's surrender in 1945; multiple war crimes were committed during that time.
A side-effect of the Japanese invasion of Shanghai was the Shanghai Ghetto. Japanese consul to Kaunas, Lithuania, Chiune Sugihara issued thousands of visas to Jewish refugees who were escaping the Nazi's Final Solution to the Jewish Question. They traveled from Keidan, Lithuania across Russia by railroad to the Vladivostok from where they traveled by ship to Kobe, Japan. However, the Jewish refugees' stay in Kobe was short as the Japanese government transferred them to Shanghai by November 1941. Other Jewish refugees found haven in Shanghai, not through Sugihara, but came on ships from Italy. The refugees from Europe were interned into a cramped ghetto in the Hongkou District, and after the Japanese invasion of Pearl Harbor, even the Iraqi Jews who had been living in Shanghai from before the outbreak of WWII were interned. Among the refugees in the Shanghai Ghetto was the Mirrer Yeshiva, including its students and faculty. On 3 September 1945, the Chinese Army liberated the Ghetto and most of the Jews left over the next few years. By 1957, there were only one hundred Jews remaining in Shanghai.
On 27 May 1949, the People's Liberation Army took control of Shanghai through the Shanghai Campaign. Under the new People's Republic of China (PRC), Shanghai was one of only three municipalities not merged into neighboring provinces (the others being Beijing and Tianjin). Most foreign firms moved their offices from Shanghai to Hong Kong, as part of a foreign divestment due to the PRC's victory.
After the war, Shanghai's economy was restored—from 1949 to 1952, the city's agricultural and industrial output increased by 51.5% and 94.2%, respectively. There were 20 urban districts and 10 suburbs at the time. On 17 January 1958, Jiading, Baoshan, and Shanghai County in Jiangsu became part of Shanghai Municipality, which expanded to 863 km2 (333.2 sq mi). The following December, the land area of Shanghai was further expanded to 5,910 km2 (2,281.9 sq mi) after more surrounding suburban areas in Jiangsu were added: Chongming, Jinshan, Qingpu, Fengxian, Chuansha, and Nanhui. In 1964, the city's administrative divisions were rearranged to 10 urban districts and 10 counties.
As the industrial center of China with the most skilled industrial workers, Shanghai became a center for radical leftism during the 1950s and 1960s. The radical leftist Jiang Qing and her three allies, together the Gang of Four, were based in the city. During the Cultural Revolution (1966–1976), Shanghai's society was severely damaged, with 310,000 wrongful convictions involving more than 1 million people. About 11,500 people were unjustly persecuted to death. Yet, even during the most tumultuous times of the revolution, Shanghai was able to maintain economic production with positive annual growth rate.
Since 1949, Shanghai has been a comparatively heavy contributor of tax revenue to the central government; in 1983, the city's contribution in tax revenue was greater than investment received in the past 33 years combined. Its importance to the fiscal well-being of the central government also denied it from economic liberalizations begun in 1978. In 1990, Deng Xiaoping finally permitted Shanghai to initiate economic reforms, which reintroduced foreign capital to the city and developed the Pudong district, resulting in the birth of Lujiazui. As of 2020, Shanghai is classified as an Alpha+ city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, making it one of the world's Top 10 major cities.
Shanghai is located on the Yangtze Estuary of China's east coast, with the Yangtze River to the north and Hangzhou Bay to the south. The land is formed by the Yangtze's natural deposition and modern land reclamation projects. As such, it has sandy soil, and skyscrapers are to be built with deep concrete piles to avoid sinking into the soft ground. The provincial-level Municipality of Shanghai administers both the estuary and many of its surrounding islands. It is roughly equidistant from Beijing and Guangzhou, bordering the East China Sea to the east, Zhejiang to the south, and Jiangsu to the west and north. The municipality's northernmost point is on Chongming Island, which is the second-largest island in mainland China after its expansion during the 20th century. It does not administratively include an exclave of Jiangsu on northern Chongming or the two islands forming Shanghai's Yangshan Port, which are parts of Zhejiang's Shengsi County.
Shanghai is located on an alluvial plain. As such, the vast majority of its 6,340.5 km2 (2,448.1 sq mi) land area is flat, with an average elevation of 4 m (13 ft). The city's few hills, such as She Shan, lie to the southwest, and its highest point is the peak of Dajinshan Island (103 m or 338 ft) in Hangzhou Bay. Shanghai has many rivers, canals, streams, and lakes, and it is known for its rich water resources as part of the Lake Tai drainage basin.
Downtown Shanghai is bisected by the Huangpu River, a man-made tributary of the Yangtze created by order of Lord Chunshen during the Warring States period. The historic center of the city was located on the west bank of the Huangpu (Puxi), near the mouth of Suzhou Creek, connecting it with Lake Tai and the Grand Canal. The central financial district, Lujiazui, has been established on the east bank of the Huangpu (Pudong). Along Shanghai's eastern shore, the destruction of local wetlands due to the construction of Pudong International Airport has been partially offset by the protection and expansion of a nearby shoal, Jiuduansha, as a nature preserve.
Shanghai has a humid subtropical climate, with an average annual temperature of 15.8 °C (60.4 °F) for urban districts and 15.2–15.7 °C (59.4–60.3 °F) for suburbs. The city experiences four distinct seasons. Winters are temperate to cold and damp—northwesterly winds from Siberia can cause nighttime temperatures to drop below freezing. Each year, there are an average of 6.2 days with snowfall and 2.8 days with snow cover. Summers are hot and humid, and occasional downpours or freak thunderstorms can be expected. On average, 8.7 days exceed 35 °C (95 °F) annually. In summer and the beginning of autumn, the city is susceptible to typhoons.
The most pleasant seasons are generally spring, although changeable and often rainy, and autumn, which is usually sunny and dry. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 34% in March to 54% in August, the city receives 1,895 hours of bright sunshine annually. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −10.1 °C (14 °F) on 31 January 1977 (unofficial record of −12.1 °C (10 °F) was set on 19 January 1893) to 40.9 °C (106 °F) on 21 July 2017 at a weather station in Xujiahui.
|Climate data for Shanghai (normals 1981–2010, extremes 1951–present)|
|Record high °C (°F)||22.1
|Average high °C (°F)||8.1
|Daily mean °C (°F)||4.8
|Average low °C (°F)||2.1
|Record low °C (°F)||−10.1
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||74.4
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||9.9||9.2||12.4||11.2||10.4||12.7||11.4||12.3||9.1||6.9||7.6||7.7||120.8|
|Average relative humidity (%)||74||73||73||72||72||79||77||78||75||72||72||71||74|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||114.3||119.9||128.5||148.5||169.8||130.9||190.8||185.7||167.5||161.4||131.1||127.4||1,775.8|
|Source: China Meteorological Administration|
See or edit raw graph data.
The Bund, located by the bank of the Huangpu River, is home to a row of early 20th-century architecture, ranging in style from the neoclassical HSBC Building to the Art Deco Sassoon House (now part of the Peace Hotel). Many areas in the former foreign concessions are also well-preserved, the most notable being the French Concession. Shanghai is also home to many architecturally distinctive and even eccentric buildings, including the Shanghai Museum, the Shanghai Grand Theatre, the Shanghai Oriental Art Center, and the Oriental Pearl Tower. Despite rampant redevelopment, the Old City still retains some traditional architecture and designs, such as the Yu Garden, an elaborate Jiangnan style garden.
As a result of its construction boom during the 1920s and 1930s, Shanghai has among the most Art Deco buildings in the world. One of the most famous architects working in Shanghai was László Hudec, a Hungarian-Slovak who lived in the city between 1918 and 1947. His most notable Art Deco buildings include the Park Hotel, the Grand Cinema, and the Paramount. Other prominent architects who contributed to the Art Deco style are Clement Palmer and Arthur Turner, who together designed the Peace Hotel, the Metropole Hotel, and the Broadway Mansions; and Austrian architect GH Gonda, who designed the Capitol Theater. The Bund has been revitalized several times. The first was in 1986, with a new promenade by the Dutch architect Paulus Snoeren. The second was before the 2010 Expo, which includes restoration of the century-old Waibaidu Bridge and reconfiguration of traffic flow.
One distinctive cultural element is the shikumen (石库门, "stone storage door") residence, typically two- or three-story gray brick houses with the front yard protected by a heavy wooden door in a stylistic stone arch. Each residence is connected and arranged in straight alleys, known as longtang[f] (弄堂). The house is similar to western-style terrace houses or townhouses, but distinguishes by the tall, heavy brick wall and archway in front of each house.
The shikumen is a cultural blend of elements found in Western architecture with traditional Jiangnan Chinese architecture and social behavior. Like almost all traditional Chinese dwellings, it has a courtyard, which reduces outside noise. Vegetation can be grown in the courtyard, and it can also allow for sunlight and ventilation to the rooms.
Some of Shanghai's buildings feature Soviet neoclassical architecture or Stalinist architecture, though the city has fewer such structures than Beijing. These buildings were mostly erected between the founding of the People's Republic in 1949 and the Sino-Soviet Split in the late 1960s. During this time period, large numbers of Soviet experts, including architects, poured into China to aid the country in the construction of a communist state. An example of Soviet neoclassical architecture in Shanghai is the modern-day Shanghai Exhibition Center.
Shanghai—Lujiazui in particular—has numerous skyscrapers, making it the fifth city in the world with the most skyscrapers. Among the most prominent examples are the 421 m (1,381 ft) high Jin Mao Tower, the 492 m (1,614 ft) high Shanghai World Financial Center, and the 632 m (2,073 ft) high Shanghai Tower, which is the tallest building in China and the second tallest in the world. Completed in 2015, the tower takes the form of nine twisted sections stacked atop each other, totaling 128 floors. It is featured in its double-skin facade design, which eliminates the need for either layer to be opaqued for reflectivity as the double-layer structure has already reduced the heat absorption. The futuristic-looking Oriental Pearl Tower, at 468 m (1,535 ft), is located nearby at the northern tip of Lujiazui. Skyscrapers outside of Lujiazui include the White Magnolia Plaza in Hongkou, the Shimao International Plaza in Huangpu, and the Shanghai Wheelock Square in Jing'an.
|Title||Party Committee Secretary||SMPC Chairman||Mayor||Shanghai CPPCC Chairman|
|Name||Li Qiang||Jiang Zhuoqing||Gong Zheng||Dong Yunhu|
|Ancestral home||Ruian, Zhejiang||Cixi, Zhejiang||Suzhou, Jiangsu||Taizhou, Zhejiang|
|Born||July 1959 (age 61)||August 1959 (age 61)||March 1960 (age 61)||November 1962 (age 58)|
|Assumed office||October 2017||January 2020||March 2020||January 2018|
Like virtually all governing institutions in mainland China, Shanghai has a parallel party-government system, in which the Party Committee Secretary, officially termed the Communist Party of China Shanghai Municipal Committee Secretary, outranks the Mayor. The party's committee acts as the top policy-formulation body, and is typically composed of 12 members (including the secretary).
Political power in Shanghai has frequently been a stepping stone to higher positions in the central government. Since Jiang Zemin became the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China in June 1989, all former Shanghai party secretaries but one were elevated to the Politburo Standing Committee, the de facto highest decision-making body in China, including Jiang himself (Party General Secretary), Zhu Rongji (Premier), Wu Bangguo (Chairman of the National People's Congress), Huang Ju (Vice Premier), Xi Jinping (current General Secretary), Yu Zhengsheng, and Han Zheng. Zeng Qinghong, a former deputy party secretary of Shanghai, also rose to the Politburo Standing Committee and became the Vice President and an influential power broker. The only exception is Chen Liangyu, who was fired in 2006 and later convicted of corruption.
Officials with ties to the Shanghai administration collectively form a powerful faction in the central government known as the Shanghai Clique, which has often been viewed to compete against the rival Youth League Faction over personnel appointments and policy decisions. However, Xi Jinping, successor to Hu Jintao as General Secretary and President, was largely an independent leader and took anti-corruption campaigns on both factions.
|Administrative divisions of Shanghai|
|Division code||Division||Area (km2)||Total population 2017||Seat||Postal code|
|310105||Changning||38.30||693,700||Jiangsu Road Subdistrict||200050|
|310106||Jing'an||36.88||1,066,200||Jiangning Road Subdistrict||200040|
|310107||Putuo||54.83||1,284,700||Zhenru Town Subdistrict||200333|
|310109||Hongkou||23.46||799,000||Jiaxing Road Subdistrict||200080|
|310110||Yangpu||60.73||1,313,400||Pingliang Road Subdistrict||200082|
|310113||Baoshan||270.99||2,030,800||Youyi Road Subdistrict||201900|
|310114||Jiading||464.20||1,581,800||Xincheng Road Subdistrict||201800|
|Divisions in Chinese and varieties of romanizations|
|Shanghai Municipality||上海市||Shànghǎi Shì||zeon he zy|
|Huangpu District||黄浦区||Huángpǔ Qū||waon phu chiu|
|Xuhui District||徐汇区||Xúhuì Qū||zi we chiu|
|Changning District||长宁区||Chángníng Qū||zan nyin chiu|
|Jing'an District||静安区||Jìng'ān Qū||zin oe chiu|
|Putuo District||普陀区||Pǔtuó Qū||phu du chiu|
|Hongkou District||虹口区||Hóngkǒu Qū||ghon kheu chiu|
|Yangpu District||杨浦区||Yángpǔ Qū||yan phu chiu|
|Minhang District||闵行区||Mǐnháng Qū||min ghaon chiu|
|Baoshan District||宝山区||Bǎoshān Qū||pau sae chiu|
|Jiading District||嘉定区||Jiādìng Qū||ka din chiu|
|Pudong New Area||浦东新区||Pǔdōng Xīnqū||phu ton sin chiu|
|Jinshan District||金山区||Jīnshān Qū||cin se chiu|
|Songjiang District||松江区||Sōngjiāng Qū||son kaon chiu|
|Qingpu District||青浦区||Qīngpǔ Qū||tsin phu chiu|
|Fengxian District||奉贤区||Fèngxián Qū||von yi chiu|
|Chongming District||崇明区||Chóngmíng Qū||dzon min chiu|
Although every district has its own urban core, the city hall and major administrative units are located in Huangpu District, which also serves as a commercial area, including the famous Nanjing Road. Other major commercial areas include Xintiandi and Huaihai Road[g] in Huangpu District, and Xujiahui[h] in Xuhui District. Many universities in Shanghai are located in residential areas in Yangpu District and Putuo District.
Seven of the districts govern Puxi (lit. "The West Bank", or "West of the River Pu"), the older part of urban Shanghai on the west bank of the Huangpu River. These seven districts are collectively referred to as Shanghai Proper (上海市区) or the core city (市中心), which comprise Huangpu, Xuhui, Changning, Jing'an, Putuo, Hongkou, and Yangpu.
Chongming District comprises the islands of Changxing and Hengsha and most—but not all[q]—of Chongming Island.
The former district of Nanhui was absorbed into Pudong District in 2009. In 2011, Luwan District merged with Huangpu District. As of 2015[update], these county-level divisions are further divided into the following 210 township-level divisions: 109 towns, 2 townships, and 99 subdistricts. Those are in turn divided into the following village-level divisions: 3,661 neighborhood committees and 1,704 village committees.
Shanghai has been described as the "showpiece" of the booming economy of China. The city is a global center for finance and innovation, and a national center for commerce, trade, and transportation, with the world's busiest container port—the Port of Shanghai. As of 2019[update], Shanghai had a GDP of CN¥3.82 trillion (US$539 billion) that makes up 3.85% of China's GDP, and a GDP per capita of CN¥157,138 (US$22,186). Shanghai's six largest industries—retail, finance, IT, real estate, machine manufacturing, and automotive manufacturing—comprise about half the city's GDP. In 2019, the average annual disposable income of Shanghai's residents was CN¥69,442 (US$9,808) per capita, making it one of the wealthiest cities in China, but also the most expensive city in mainland China to live in according to a 2017 study by the Economist Intelligence Unit.
As of March 2021, Shanghai has the world's second-highest number of billionaires of any city in the world after Beijing. Shanghai's nominal GDP is projected to reach US$1.3 trillion in 2035 (ranking first in China), making it one of the world's Top 5 major cities in terms of GRP according to a study by Oxford Economics.
|GDP per capita (¥K)||2.85||2.73||2.95||3.96||5.91||11.06||20.81||30.31||38.88||55.62||77.28||92.85||116.58||126.63||134.83||157.14|
|Average disposable income
|Average disposable income
Shanghai was the largest and most prosperous city in East Asia during the 1930s, and its rapid redevelopment began in the 1990s. In the last two decades, Shanghai has been one of the fastest-developing cities in the world; it has recorded double-digit GDP growth in almost every year between 1992 and 2008, before the financial crisis of 2007–08.
Shanghai is a global financial center, ranking third (after New York and London) in the 28th edition of the Global Financial Centres Index (ranking first in whole Asia and the Pacific), published in September 2020 by Z/Yen and China Development Institute. As of 2019[update], the Shanghai Stock Exchange had a market capitalization of US$4.02 trillion, making it the largest stock exchange in China and the fourth-largest stock exchange in the world. In 2009, the trading volume of six key commodities—including rubber, copper, and zinc—on the Shanghai Futures Exchange all ranked first globally. By the end of 2017, Shanghai had 1,491 financial institutions, of which 251 were foreign-invested.
In September 2013 with the backing of Chinese Premier Li Keqiang, the city launched the China (Shanghai) Pilot Free-Trade Zone—the first free-trade zone in mainland China. The zone introduced a number of pilot reforms designed to incentivize foreign investment. In April 2014, The Banker reported that Shanghai "has attracted the highest volumes of financial sector foreign direct investment in the Asia-Pacific region in the 12 months to the end of January 2014". In August 2014, fDi magazine named Shanghai the "Chinese Province of the Future 2014/15" due to "particularly impressive performances in the Business Friendliness and Connectivity categories, as well as placing second in the Economic Potential and Human Capital and Lifestyle categories".
As one of the main industrial centers of China, Shanghai plays a key role in domestic manufacturing and heavy industry. Several industrial zones—including Shanghai Hongqiao Economic and Technological Development Zone, Jinqiao Export Economic Processing Zone, Minhang Economic and Technological Development Zone, and Shanghai Caohejing High-Tech Development Zone—are backbones of Shanghai's secondary sector. Shanghai is home to China's largest steelmaker Baosteel Group, China's largest shipbuilding base Hudong-Zhonghua Shipbuilding Group, and one of China's oldest shipbuilders, the Jiangnan Shipyard. Auto manufacturing is another important industry. The Shanghai-based SAIC Motor is one of the three largest automotive corporations in China, and has strategic partnerships with Volkswagen and General Motors.
- Kobayashi Pharmaceutical
- Mondelez International
- Kao Corporation
- Ezaki Glico
- Meiji Holdings
- Victoria's Secret
- Taisho Pharmaceutical
- Estée Lauder Companies
- The Walt Disney Company
- SAIC Motor
Tourism is a major industry of Shanghai. In 2017, the number of domestic tourists increased by 7.5% to 318 million, while the number of overseas tourists increased by 2.2% to 8.73 million. As of 2019[update], the city had 71 five star hotels, 61 four star hotels, 1,758 travel agencies, 113 rated tourist attractions, and 34 red tourist attractions.
The conference and meeting sector is also growing. According to the International Congress and Convention Association, Shanghai hosted 82 international meetings in 2018, a 34% increase from 61 in 2017.
Shanghai is home to China (Shanghai) Pilot Free-Trade Zone, the first free-trade zone in mainland China. As of October 2019[update], it is also the second largest free-trade zone in mainland China in terms of land area (behind Hainan Free Trade Zone, which covers the whole Hainan province) by covering an area of 240.22 km2 (92.75 sq mi) and integrating four existing bonded zones—Waigaoqiao Free Trade Zone, Waigaoqiao Free Trade Logistics Park, Yangshan Free Trade Port Area, and Pudong Airport Comprehensive Free Trade Zone. Several preferential policies have been implemented to attract foreign investment in various industries to the zone. Because the zone is not technically considered Chinese territory for tax purposes, commodities entering the zone are exempt from duty and customs clearance.
|Population size may be affected by changes to administrative divisions.|
As of 2019[update], Shanghai had a total population of 24,281,400, including 14,504,300 (59.7%) hukou holders (registered locally). According to the 2010 national census, 89.3% of Shanghai's population live in urban areas, and 10.7% live in rural areas. Based on the population of its total administrative area, Shanghai is the second largest of the four municipalities of China, behind Chongqing, but is generally considered the largest Chinese city because the urban population of Chongqing is much smaller. According to the OECD, Shanghai's metropolitan area has an estimated population of 34 million.
According to the Shanghai Municipal Statistics Bureau, about 157,900 residents in Shanghai are foreigners, including 28,900 Japanese, 21,900 Americans and, 20,800 Koreans. The actual number of foreign citizens in the city is probably much higher. Shanghai is also a domestic immigration city—40.3% (9.8 million) of the city's residents are from other regions of China.
Shanghai has a life expectancy of 83.6 years for the city's registered population, the highest life expectancy of all cities in mainland China. This has also caused the city to experience population aging—in 2017, 33.1% (4.8 million) of the city's registered population was aged 60 or above. In 2017, the Chinese government implemented population controls for Shanghai, resulting in a population decline of 10,000 people by the end of the year.
Due to its cosmopolitan history, Shanghai has a blend of religious heritage; religious buildings and institutions are scattered around the city. According to a 2012 survey, only 13.1% of the city's population belongs to organized religions, including Buddhists with 10.4%, Protestants with 1.9%, Catholics with 0.7%, and other faiths with 0.1% while the remaining 86.9% of the population could be either atheists or involved in worship of nature deities and ancestors or folk religious sects.
Buddhism, in its Chinese varieties, has had a presence in Shanghai since the Three Kingdoms period, during which the Longhua Temple—the largest temple in Shanghai—and the Jing'an Temple were founded. Another significant temple is the Jade Buddha Temple, which was named after a large statue of Buddha carved out of jade in the temple. As of 2014[update], Buddhism in Shanghai had 114 temples, 1,182 clergical staff, and 453,300 registered followers. The religion also has its own college, the Shanghai Buddhist College, and its own press, Shanghai Buddhological Press.
Catholicism was brought into Shanghai in 1608 by Italian missionary Lazzaro Cattaneo. The Apostolic Vicariate of Shanghai was erected in 1933, and was further elevated to the Diocese of Shanghai in 1946. Notable Catholic sites include the St. Ignatius Cathedral in Xujiahui—the largest Catholic church in the city, the St. Francis Xavier Church, and the She Shan Basilica. Other forms of Christianity in Shanghai include Eastern Orthodox minorities and, since 1996, registered Christian Protestant churches. During World War II, thousands of Jews emigrated to Shanghai in an effort to flee Nazi Germany. They lived in a designated area called the Shanghai Ghetto and formed a community centered on the Ohel Moishe Synagogue, which is now the Shanghai Jewish Refugees Museum.
Islam came into Shanghai during the Yuan dynasty. The city's first mosque, Songjiang Mosque, was built during the Zhizheng (至正) era under Emperor Huizong. Shanghai's Muslim population increased in the 19th and early 20th centuries (when the city was a treaty port), during which time many mosques—including the Xiaotaoyuan Mosque, the Huxi Mosque, and the Pudong Mosque—were built. The Shanghai Islamic Association is located in the Xiaotaoyuan Mosque in Huangpu.
Shanghai has several folk religious temples, including the City God Temple at the heart of the Old City, the Dajing Ge Pavilion dedicated to the Three Kingdoms general Guan Yu, the Confucian Temple of Shanghai, and a major Taoist center Shanghai White Cloud Temple where the Shanghai Taoist Association locates.
The vernacular language spoken in the city is Shanghainese, a dialect of the Taihu Wu subgroup of the Wu Chinese family. This is different from the official Chinese dialect, Mandarin, which is mutually unintelligible with Wu Chinese. Modern Shanghainese is based on other dialects of Taihu Wu: Suzhounese, Ningbonese, and the local dialect of Songjiang Prefecture.
Prior to its expansion, the language spoken in Shanghai was subordinate to those spoken around Jiaxing and later Suzhou, and was known as "the local tongue" (本地闲话), which is now being used in suburbs only. In the late 19th century, downtown Shanghainese (上海闲话) appeared, undergoing rapid changes and quickly replacing Suzhounese as the prestige dialect of the Yangtze River Delta region. At the time, most of the city's residents were immigrants from the two adjacent provinces, Jiangsu and Zhejiang, so Shanghainese was mostly a hybrid between Southern Jiangsu and Ningbo dialects. After 1949, Putonghua (Standard Mandarin) has also had a great impact on Shanghainese as a result of being rigorously promoted by the government. Since the 1990s, many migrants outside of the Wu-speaking region have come to Shanghai for education and jobs. They often cannot speak the local language and therefore use Putonghua as a lingua franca. Because Putonghua and English were more favored, Shanghainese began to decline, and fluency among young speakers weakened. In recent years, there have been movements within the city to promote the local language and protect it from fading out.
Education and research
Shanghai is an international center of research and development and is ranked 5th globally and 2nd in the whole Asia and the Pacific (after Beijing) by scientific research outputs, as tracked by the Nature Index. It is also a major center of higher education in China. By the end of 2019, Shanghai had 64 universities and colleges, 929 secondary schools, 698 primary schools, and 31 special schools. A number of China's most prestigious universities entering the global university rankings are based in Shanghai, including Fudan University, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Tongji University, East China Normal University, Shanghai University, East China University of Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai University of Finance and Economics, and Shanghai International Studies University. These universities were selected as "985 universities" or "211 universities" by the Chinese government in order to build world-class universities.
The city is a seat of two members (Fudan University and Shanghai Jiao Tong University) of the C9 League, an alliance of elite Chinese universities offering comprehensive and leading education, and these two universities are ranked in the global top 100 research comprehensive universities according to the most influential university rankings in the world such as QS Rankings, Shanghai Rankings, and Times Higher Education Rankings. Fudan University established a joint EMBA program with Washington University in St. Louis in 2002 which has since consistently been ranked as one of the best in the world. The city government's education agency is the Shanghai Municipal Education Commission.
The city has many Chinese–foreign joint education institutes, such as the Shanghai University–University of Technology Sydney Business School since 1994, the University of Michigan–Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Institute since 2006, and New York University Shanghai—the first China–U.S. joint venture university—since 2012. In 2013, the Shanghai Municipality and the Chinese Academy of Sciences founded the ShanghaiTech University in the Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park in Pudong. Shanghai is also home to the cadre school China Executive Leadership Academy in Pudong and the China Europe International Business School.
In Shanghai, the nine years of compulsory education—including five years of primary education and four years of junior secondary education—are free, with a gross enrollment ratio of over 99.9%. The city's compulsory education system is among the best in the world: in 2009 and 2012, 15-year-old students from Shanghai ranked first in every subject (math, reading, and science) in the Program for International Student Assessment, a worldwide study of academic performance conducted by the OECD. The consecutive three-year senior secondary education is priced and uses the Senior High School Entrance Examination (Zhongkao) as a selection process, with a gross enrollment ratio of 98%. Among all senior high schools, the four with the best teaching quality—Shanghai High School, No. 2 High School Attached to East China Normal University, High School Affiliated to Fudan University, and High School Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University—are termed "The Four Schools" ("四校") of Shanghai. As of October 2019[update], the city's National College Entrance Examination (Gaokao) is structured under the "3+3" system, in which all general senior high school students study three compulsory subjects (Chinese, English, and math) and three subjects chosen from six options (physics, chemistry, biology, history, geography, and politics).
Shanghai's rapid transit system, the Shanghai Metro, incorporates both subway and light metro lines and extends to every core urban district as well as neighboring suburban districts. As of 2019[update], there are 17 metro lines (excluding the Shanghai maglev train and Jinshan Railway), 415 stations, and 704.91 km (438 mi) of lines in operation, making it the longest network in the world. On 8 March 2019, it set the city's daily metro ridership record with 13.3 million. The average fare ranges from CN¥3 (US$0.48) to CN¥9 (US$1.28), depending on the travel distance.
Opened in 2004, the Shanghai maglev train is the first and the fastest commercial high-speed maglev in the world, with a maximum operation speed of 430 km/h (267 mph). The train can complete the 30-kilometer (19 mi) journey between Longyang Road Station and Pudong International Airport in 7 minutes 20 seconds, comparing to 32 minutes by Metro Line 2 and 30 minutes by car. A one-way ticket costs CN¥50 (US$8), or CN¥40 (US$6.40) for those with airline tickets or public transportation cards. A round-trip ticket costs CN¥80 (US$12.80), and VIP tickets cost double the standard fare.
With the first tram line been in service in 1908, trams were once popular in Shanghai in the early 20th century. By 1925, there were 328 tramcars and 14 routes operated by Chinese, French, and British companies collaboratively, all of which were nationalized after the PRC's victory in 1949. Since the 1960s, many tram lines were either dismantled or replaced by trolleybus or motorbus lines; the last tram line was demolished in 1975. Shanghai reintroduced trams in 2010, as a modern rubber-tire Translohr system in Zhangjiang area of East Shanghai as Zhangjiang Tram. In 2018, the steel wheeled Songjiang Tram started operating in Songjiang District. Additional tram lines are under planning in Hongqiao Subdistrict and Jiading District as of 2019[update].
Shanghai also has the world's most extensive bus network, including the world's oldest continuously operating trolleybus system, with 1,575 lines covering a total length of 8,997 km (5,590 mi) by 2019. The system is operated by multiple companies. Bus fares generally cost CN¥2 (US$0.32).
As of 2019[update], a total of 40,000 taxis were in operation in Shanghai. The base fare for taxis is CN¥14 (US$2.24), which covers the first 3 km (2 mi) and includes a CN¥1 (US$0.14) fuel surcharge. The base fare is CN¥18 (US$2.55) between 11:00 pm and 5:00 am. Each additional kilometer costs CN¥2.5 (US$0.40), or CN¥3.3 (US$0.47) between 11:00 pm and 5:00 am. Taxicabs and DiDi play major roles in urban transportation and DiDi is often cheaper than taxis.
Roads and expressways
Shanghai is a major hub of China's expressway network. Many national expressways (prefixed with the letter G) pass through or end in Shanghai, including Jinghu Expressway (overlaps with Hurong Expressway), Shenhai Expressway, Hushaan Expressway, Huyu Expressway, Hukun Expressway (overlaps with Hangzhou Bay Ring Expressway), and Shanghai Ring Expressway. There are also numerous municipal expressways prefixed with the letter S. As of 2019, Shanghai has a total of 12 bridges and 14 tunnels crossing the Huangpu River. The Shanghai Yangtze River Bridge is the city's only bridge–tunnel complex across Yangtze River.
The expressway network within the city center consists of North–South Elevated Road, Yan'an Elevated Road, and Inner Ring Road. Other ring roads in Shanghai include Middle Ring Road, Outer Ring Expressway, and Shanghai Ring Expressway.
Bicycle lanes are common in Shanghai, separating non-motorized traffic from car traffic on most surface streets. However, on some main roads, including all expressways, bicycles and motorcycles are banned. In recent years, cycling has seen a resurgence in popularity due to the emergence of a large number of dockless app-based bicycle-sharing systems, such as Mobike, Bluegogo, and ofo. As of December 2018[update], bicycle-sharing systems had an average of 1.15 million daily riders within the city.
Private car ownership in Shanghai is rapidly increasing: in 2019, there were 3.40 million private cars in the city, a 12.5% increase from 2018. New private cars cannot be driven without a license plate, which are sold in monthly license plate auctions. Around 9,500 license plates are auctioned each month, and the average price is about CN¥89,600 (US$12,739) in 2019. According to the city's vehicle regulations introduced in June 2016, only locally registered residents and those who have paid social insurance or individual income taxes for over three years are eligible to be in the auction. The purpose of this policy is to limit the growth of automobile traffic and alleviate congestion.
Shanghai has four major railway stations: Shanghai railway station, Shanghai South railway station, Shanghai West railway station, and Shanghai Hongqiao railway station. All are connected to the metro network and serve as hubs in the railway network of China.
Built in 1876, the Woosung railway was the first railway in Shanghai and the first railway in operation in China By 1909, Shanghai–Nanjing railway and Shanghai–Hangzhou railway were in service. As of October 2019[update], the two railways have been integrated into two main railways in China: Beijing–Shanghai railway and Shanghai–Kunming railway, respectively.
Shanghai has three high-speed railways (HSRs): Beijing–Shanghai HSR (overlaps with Shanghai–Wuhan–Chengdu passenger railway), Shanghai–Nanjing intercity railway, and Shanghai–Kunming HSR. Two HSRs are under construction: Shanghai–Nantong railway and Shanghai–Suzhou–Huzhou HSR.
Shanghai also has four commuter railways: Pudong railway (passenger service is currently suspended) and Jinshan railway operated by China Railway, and Line 16 and Line 17 operated by Shanghai Metro. As of October 2019[update], three additional lines—Chongming line, Jiamin line and Shanghai Airport Link—are under construction.
Air and sea
Shanghai is one of the largest air transportation hubs in Asia. The city has two commercial airports: Shanghai Pudong International Airport and Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport. Pudong International Airport is the primary international airport, while Hongqiao International Airport mainly operates domestic flights with limited short-haul international flights. In 2018, Pudong International Airport served 74.0 million passengers and handled 3.8 million tons of cargo, making it the ninth-busiest airport by passenger volume and third-busiest airport by cargo volume. The same year, Hongqiao International Airport served 43.6 million passengers, making it the 19th-busiest airport by passenger volume.
Since its opening, the Port of Shanghai has rapidly grown to become the largest port in China. Yangshan Port was built in 2005 because the river was unsuitable for docking large container ships. The port is connected with the mainland through the 32-kilometer (20 mi) long Donghai Bridge. Although the port is run by the Shanghai International Port Group under the government of Shanghai, it administratively belongs to Shengsi County, Zhejiang.
Overtaking the Port of Singapore in 2010, the Port of Shanghai has become world's busiest container port with an annual TEU transportation of 42 million in 2018. Besides cargo, the Port of Shanghai handled 259 cruises and 1.89 million passengers in 2019.
Shanghai is part of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road that runs from the Chinese coast to the south via the southern tip of India to Mombasa, from there to the Mediterranean, there to the Upper Adriatic region to the northern Italian hub of Trieste with its rail connections to Central and the Eastern Europe.
The culture of Shanghai was formed by a combination of the nearby Wuyue culture and the "East Meets West" Haipai culture. Wuyue culture's influence is manifested in Shanghainese language—which comprises dialectal elements from nearby Jiaxing, Suzhou, and Ningbo—and Shanghai cuisine, which was influenced by Jiangsu cuisine and Zhejiang cuisine. Haipai culture emerged after Shanghai became a prosperous port in the early 20th century, with numerous foreigners from Europe, America, Japan, and India moving into the city. The culture fuses elements of Western cultures with the local Wuyue culture, and its influence extends to the city's literature, fashion, architecture, music, and cuisine. The term Haipai—originally referring to a painting school in Shanghai—was coined by a group of Beijing writers in 1920 to criticize some Shanghai scholars for admiring capitalism and Western culture. In the early 21st century, Shanghai has been recognized as a new influence and inspiration for cyberpunk culture. Futuristic structures, such as the Oriental Pearl Tower and the neon-illuminated Yan'an Elevated Road, are examples that have boosted Shanghai's cyberpunk image.
Cultural curation in Shanghai has seen significant growth since 2013, with several new museums having been opened in the city. This is in part due to the city's 2018 development plans, which aim to make Shanghai "an excellent global city". As such, Shanghai has several museums of regional and national importance. The Shanghai Museum has one of the largest collections of Chinese artifacts in the world, including a large collection of ancient Chinese bronzes and ceramics. The China Art Museum, located in the former China Pavilion of Expo 2010, is one of the largest museums in Asia and displays an animated replica of the 12th century painting Along the River During the Qingming Festival. The Shanghai Natural History Museum and the Shanghai Science and Technology Museum are notable natural history and science museums. In addition, there are numerous smaller, specialist museums housed in important archaeological and historical sites, such as the Songze Museum, the Museum of the First National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party, the Former Site of Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, the Shanghai Jewish Refugees Museum, and the Shanghai Post Office Museum (located in the General Post Office Building).
Benbang cuisine (本帮菜) is cooking style that originated in the 1600s, with influences from surrounding provinces. It emphasizes the use of condiments while retaining the original flavors of the raw ingredients. Sugar is an important ingredient in Benbang cuisine, especially when used in combination with soy sauce. Signature dishes of Benbang cuisine include Xiaolongbao, Red braised pork belly, and Shanghai hairy crab. Haipai cuisine, on the other hand, is a Western-influenced cooking style that originated in Shanghai. It absorbed elements from French, British, Russian, German, and Italian cuisines and adapted them to suit the local taste according to the features of local ingredients. Famous dishes of Haipai cuisine include Shanghai-style borscht (罗宋汤, "Russian soup"), crispy pork cutlets, and Shanghai salad derived from Olivier salad. Both Benbang and Haipai cuisine make use of a variety of seafood, including freshwater fish, shrimps, and crabs.
The Songjiang School (淞江派), containing the Huating School (华亭派) founded by Gu Zhengyi, was a small painting school in Shanghai during the Ming and Qing Dynasties. It was represented by Dong Qichang. The school was considered an expansion of the Wu School in Suzhou, the cultural center of the Jiangnan region at the time. In the mid 19th century, the Shanghai School movement commenced, focusing less on the symbolism emphasized by the Literati style but more on the visual content of painting through the use of bright colors. Secular objects like flowers and birds were often selected as themes. Western art was introduced to Shanghai in 1847 by Spanish missionary Joannes Ferrer (范廷佐), and the city's first Western atelier was established in 1864 inside the Tushanwan orphanage. During the Republic of China, many famous artists including Zhang Daqian, Liu Haisu, Xu Beihong, Feng Zikai, and Yan Wenliang settled in Shanghai, allowing it to gradually become the art center of China. Various art forms—including photography, wood carving, sculpture, comics (Manhua), and Lianhuanhua—thrived. Sanmao was created to dramatize the chaos created by the Second Sino-Japanese War. Today, the most comprehensive art and cultural facility in Shanghai is the China Art Museum. In addition, the Chinese Painting Academy features traditional Chinese painting, while the Power Station of Art displays contemporary art. The city also has many art galleries, many of which are located in the M50 Art District and Tianzifang. First held in 1996, the Shanghai Biennale has become an important place for Chinese and foreign arts to interact.
Traditional Chinese opera (Xiqu) became a popular source of public entertainment in the late 19th century. In the early 20th century, monologue and burlesque in Shanghainese appeared, absorbing elements from traditional dramas. The Great World opened in 1912 and was a significant stage at the time. In the 1920s, Pingtan expanded from Suzhou to Shanghai. Pingtan art developed rapidly to 103 programs every day by the 1930s because of the abundant commercial radio stations in the city. Around the same time, a Shanghai-style Beijing Opera was formed. Led by Zhou Xinfang and Gai Jiaotian, it attracted many Xiqu masters, like Mei Lanfang, to the city. A small troupe from Shengxian (now Shengzhou) also began to promote Yue opera on the Shanghainese stage. A unique style of opera, Shanghai opera, was formed when local folksongs were fused with modern operas. As of 2012, prominent troupes in Shanghai include Shanghai Jingju Theatre Company, Shanghai Kunqu Opera Troupe, Shanghai Yue Opera House, and Shanghai Huju Opera House.
Drama appeared in missionary schools in Shanghai in the late 19th century. At the time, it was mainly performed in English. Scandals in Officialdom (官场丑史), staged in 1899, was one of the earliest-recorded plays. In 1907, Uncle Tom's Cabin; or, Life Among the Lowly (黑奴吁天录) was performed at the Lyceum Theatre. After the New Culture Movement, drama became a popular way for students and intellectuals to express their views. The city has several major institutes of theater training, including the Shanghai Conservatory of Music, the Shanghai Dramatic Arts Centre, the Shanghai Opera House, and the Shanghai Theatre Academy. Notable theaters in Shanghai include the Shanghai Grand Theatre, the Oriental Art Center, and the People's Theatre.
Shanghai is considered to be the birthplace of Chinese cinema. China's first short film, The Difficult Couple (1913), and the country's first fictional feature film, An Orphan Rescues His Grandfather (孤儿救祖记, 1923) were both produced in Shanghai. Shanghai's film industry grew during the early 1930s, generating stars such as Hu Die, Ruan Lingyu, Zhou Xuan, Jin Yan, and Zhao Dan. Another film star, Jiang Qing, went on to become Madame Mao Zedong. The exile of Shanghainese filmmakers and actors as a result of the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Communist revolution contributed enormously to the development of the Hong Kong film industry. The movie In the Mood for Love directed by Wong Kar-wai, a Shanghai native, depicts a slice of the displaced Shanghainese community in Hong Kong and the nostalgia for that era, featuring 1940s music by Zhou Xuan.
Since 2001, Shanghai has held its own fashion week called Shanghai Fashion Week twice every year in April and October. The main venue is in Fuxing Park, and the opening and closing ceremonies are held in the Shanghai Fashion Center. The April session is also part of the one-month Shanghai International Fashion Culture Festival. Shanghai Fashion Week is considered to be an event of national significance featuring both international and Chinese designers. The international presence has included many promising young British fashion designers. The event is hosted by the Shanghai Municipal Government and supported by the People's Republic Ministry of Commerce.
Shanghai is home to several soccer teams, including two in the Chinese Super League: Shanghai Greenland Shenhua and Shanghai Port. China's top-tier basketball team, the Shanghai Sharks of the Chinese Basketball Association, developed Yao Ming before he entered the NBA. Shanghai's baseball team, the Shanghai Golden Eagles, plays in the China Baseball League.
The Shanghai Cricket Club dates back to 1858 when the first recorded cricket match was played between a team of British Naval officers and a Shanghai 11. Following a 45-year dormancy after the founding of the PRC in 1949, the club was re-established in 1994 by expatriates living in the city and has since grown to over 300 members. The Shanghai cricket team played various international matches between 1866 and 1948. With cricket in the rest of China almost non-existent, for that period they were the de facto China national cricket team.
Shanghai is home to many prominent Chinese professional athletes, such as basketball player Yao Ming, 110-meter hurdler Liu Xiang, table tennis player Wang Liqin, and badminton player Wang Yihan.
Shanghai is the host of several international sports events. Since 2004, it has hosted the Chinese Grand Prix, a round of the Formula One World Championship. The race is staged annually at the Shanghai International Circuit. It hosted the 1000th Formula One race on 14 April 2019. In 2010, Shanghai became the host city of Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters, which raced in a street circuit in Pudong. In 2012, Shanghai began hosting 4 Hours of Shanghai as one round from the inaugural season of the FIA World Endurance Championship. The city also hosts the Shanghai Masters tennis tournament, which is part of ATP World Tour Masters 1000, as well as golf tournaments including the BMW Masters and WGC-HSBC Champions.
Parks and resorts
Shanghai has an extensive public park system; by 2018, the city had 300 parks, of which 281 had free admission, and the per capita park area was 8.2 m2 (88 sq ft). Some of the parks also have become popular tourist attractions due to their unique location, history, or architecture.
The People's Square park, located in the heart of downtown Shanghai, is especially well known for its proximity to other major landmarks in the city. Fuxing Park, located in the former French Concession, features formal French-style gardens and is surrounded by high-end bars and cafes.
Zhongshan Park in western central Shanghai is famous for its monument of Chopin, the tallest statue dedicated to the composer in the world. Built in 1914 as Jessfield Park, it once contained the campus of St. John's University, Shanghai's first international college; today, the park features sakura and peony gardens and a 150-year-old platanus, and it also serves as an interchange hub in the metro system.
One of Shanghai's newer parks is the Xujiahui Park, which was built in 1999, on the former grounds of the Great Chinese Rubber Works Factory and the EMI Recording Studio (now La Villa Rouge restaurant). The park has an artificial lake with a sky bridge running across the park. Shanghai Botanical Garden is located 12 km (7 mi) southwest of the city center and was established in 1978. In 2011, the largest botanical garden in Shanghai—Shanghai Chen Shan Botanical Garden—opened in Songjiang District.
The Shanghai Disney Resort Project was approved by the government on 4 November 2009 and opened in 2016. The $4.4 billion theme park and resort in Pudong features a castle that is the biggest among Disney's resorts. More than 11 million people visited the resort in its first year of operation.
Air pollution in Shanghai is not as severe as in many other Chinese cities, but is still considered substantial by world standards. During the December 2013 Eastern China smog, air pollution rates reached between 23 and 31 times the international standard. On 6 December 2013, levels of PM2.5 particulate matter in Shanghai rose above 600 micrograms per cubic meter and in the surrounding area, above 700 micrograms per cubic metre. Levels of PM2.5 in Putuo District reached 726 micrograms per cubic meter. As a result, the Shanghai Municipal Education Commission received orders to suspend students' outdoor activities. Authorities pulled nearly one-third of government vehicles from the roads, while much construction work was halted. Most inbound flights were canceled, and more than 50 flights at Pudong International Airport were diverted.
On 23 January 2014, Yang Xiong, the mayor of Shanghai, announced that three main measures would be taken to manage the air pollution in Shanghai, along with surrounding Anhui, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang provinces. The measures involved implementing the 2013 air-cleaning program, establishing a linkage mechanism with the three surrounding provinces, and improving the city's early-warning systems. On 12 February 2014, China's cabinet announced that a CN¥10 billion (US$1.7 billion) fund will be set up to help companies meet the new environmental standards. The effect of the policy was significant. From 2013 to 2018, more than 3,000 treatment facilities for industrial waste gases were installed, and the city's annual smoke, nitrogen oxide, and sulfur dioxide emission decreased by 65%, 54%, and 95%, respectively.
Public awareness of the environment is growing, and the city is investing in a number of environmental protection projects. A 16-year rehabilitation of Suzhou Creek, which runs through the city, was finished in 2012, clearing the creek of barges and factories and removing 1.3 million cubic meters of sludge. Additionally, the government has moved almost all the factories within the city center to either the outskirts or other provinces, and provided incentives for transportation companies to invest in LPG buses and taxis.
On 1 July 2019, Shanghai adopted a new garbage-classification system that sorts out waste into residual waste, kitchen waste, recyclable waste, and hazardous waste. The wastes are collected by separate vehicles and sent to incineration plants, landfills, recycling centers, and hazardous-waste-disposal facilities, respectively.
Media in Shanghai covers newspapers, publisher, broadcast, television, and Internet, with some media having influence over the country. In regard to foreign publications in Shanghai, Hartmut Walravens of the IFLA Newspapers Section said that when the Japanese controlled Shanghai in the 1940s "it was very difficult to publish good papers – one either had to concentrate on emigration problems, or cooperate like the Chronicle".
As of March 2020[update], newspapers publishing in Shanghai include:
Newspapers formerly published in Shanghai include:
The city's main broadcaster is Shanghai Media Group.
Twin towns and sister cities
- Yokohama, Japan – 1973
- Osaka, Japan – 1974
- Milan, Italy – 1979
- Rotterdam, Netherlands – 1979
- San Francisco, United States – 1979
- Zagreb, Croatia – 1980
- Osaka Prefecture, Japan – 1980
- Hamhung, North Korea – 1982
- Metro Manila, Philippines – 1983
- Karachi, Pakistan – 1984
- Antwerp, Belgium – 1984
- Montreal, Canada – 1985
- Piraeus, Greece – 1985
- Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland – 1985
- Chicago, United States – 1985
- Hamburg, Germany – 1986
- Casablanca, Morocco – 1986
- Marseille, France – 1987
- São Paulo, Brazil – 1988
- Saint Petersburg, Russia – 1988
- Queensland, Australia – 1989
- Istanbul, Turkey – 1989
- Alexandria, Egypt – 1992
- Haifa, Israel – 1993
- Busan, South Korea – 1993
- Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam – 1994
- Port Vila, Vanuatu – 1994
- Dunedin, New Zealand – 1994
- Tashkent, Uzbekistan – 1994
- Porto, Portugal – 1995
- Prague, Czech Republic
- Aden, Yemen – 1995
- Windhoek, Namibia – 1995
- Santiago de Cuba, Cuba – 1996
- Rosario, Argentina – 1997
- Espoo, Finland – 1998
- Jalisco, Mexico – 1998
- Liverpool, United Kingdom – 1999
- Maputo, Mozambique – 1999
- Chiang Mai, Thailand – 2000
- Dubai, United Arab Emirates – 2000
- KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa – 2001
- Guayaquil, Ecuador – 2001
- Valparaíso, Chile – 2001
- Barcelona, Spain – 2001
- Oslo, Norway – 2001
- Constanța, Romania – 2002
- Colombo, Sri Lanka – 2003
- Bratislava Region, Slovakia – 2003
- Central Denmark Region, Denmark – 2003
- Cork, Ireland – 2005
- East Java, Indonesia – 2006
- Basel-Stadt, Switzerland – 2007
- Phnom Penh, Cambodia – 2008
- Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, France – 2008
- Greater London, United Kingdom – 2009
- Salzburg, Austria – 2009
- Quebec, Canada – 2011
- Budapest, Hungary – 2013
- Mumbai, India – 2014
- Houston, United States – 2015
- Bangkok, Thailand – 2016
- Sofia, Bulgaria – 2016
- Belgrade, Serbia – 2018
- Lima, Peru – 2018
- Minsk, Belarus – 2019
Consulates General/consulates in Shanghai
As of September 2020, Shanghai hosts 71 consulates general and 5 consulates, excluding Hong Kong and Macao trade office.
- List of diplomatic missions in China
- List of economic and technological development zones in Shanghai
- List of fiction set in Shanghai
- List of films set in Shanghai
- List of twin towns and sister cities in China
- Shanghai Detention Center
- Shanghai International Football Tournament
- Shanghai Scientific and Technical Publishers
- Traditional Chinese: 滬
- Traditional Chinese: 滬瀆
- Chinese: 華亭
- Chinese: 青龍鎮
- Chinese: 江海關
- Shanghainese romanization: longdhang; pronunciation: [lòŋdɑ̃́]
- historically "Avenue Joffre"
- Shanghainese romanization: Xhigawhe, Zikawei, or Siccawei; pronunciation: [ʑìkᴀ̋ɦuᴇ᷆]
- Chuansha County until 1992; merged with Nanhui District in 2009 with oversight of the Jiuduansha shoals
- Baoshan County and Wusong District until 1988
- Original Minhang District and Shanghai County until 1992
- Jiading County until 1992
- Jinshan County until 1997
- Songjiang County until 1998
- Qingpu County until 1999
- Fengxian County until 2001
- The absorption of the separate island of Yonglongsha by Chongming in the 1970s has produced a narrow pene-enclave of Jiangsu along about 20 kilometers (12 mi) of the northern shore of the island, separately administered as Nantong's Haiyong and Qilong townships.
- "The Shanghainese of 6000 Years Ago – the Majiabang Culture". Shanghai Qingpu Museum. Archived from the original on 4 January 2017. Retrieved 15 July 2017.
- 上海青浦青龙镇遗址 [Ruins of Qinglong Town in Qingpu, Shanghai]. Institute of Archaeology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. 24 March 2017. Archived from the original on 31 August 2017. Retrieved 16 July 2017.
- 上海镇、上海县、上海县城考录 (in Chinese). Government of Shanghai. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 10 November 2017.
- 政协上海市第十三届委员会主席、副主席、秘书长和常务委员选举产生 [Elected by the Chairman, Vice Chairman, Secretary-General and Standing Committee of the 13th CPPCC Shanghai Committee] (in Chinese). Xinhua. 27 January 2018. Archived from the original on 27 January 2018.
- "Doing Business in China – Survey". Ministry Of Commerce of the People's Republic of China. Archived from the original on 26 May 2014. Retrieved 5 August 2013.
- "Land Area". Basic Facts. Shanghai Municipal People's Government. Archived from the original on 3 October 2011. Retrieved 19 July 2011.
- "Water Resources". Basic Facts. Shanghai Municipal People's Government. Archived from the original on 3 October 2011. Retrieved 19 July 2011.
- Cox, W. (2018). Demographia World Urban Areas. 14th Annual Edition (PDF). St. Louis: Demographia. p. 22. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 May 2018. Retrieved 15 June 2018.
- "Topographic Features". Basic Facts. Shanghai Municipal People's Government. Archived from the original on 3 October 2011. Retrieved 19 July 2011.
- 2019年上海市国民经济和社会发展统计公报 [Statistical Communiqué of Shanghai on the 2019 National Economic and Social Development]. tjj.sh.gov.cn (in Chinese). Shanghai Municipal Statistics Bureau. 9 March 2020. Archived from the original on 24 March 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
- "Subnational Human Development Index". Global Data Lab China. 2020. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
- Danielson, Eric N., Shanghai and the Yangzi Delta, 2004, pp. 8–9.
- National Academy for Educational Research. 教育部重編國語辭典修訂本. dict.revised.moe.edu.tw (in Chinese). Retrieved 29 September 2019.
- 滬瀆詞語解釋 / 滬瀆是什麽意思. chinesewords.org (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 29 September 2019. Retrieved 29 September 2019.
- "申","沪"的由来 (in Chinese). Shanghai Municipal People's Government. Archived from the original on 16 April 2011. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- 中华人民共和国机动车号牌 [License plate of motor vehicle of the People's Republic of China] (PDF) (in Chinese). Ministry of State Security of the People's Republic of China. 28 September 2007. p. 14. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 May 2018. Retrieved 29 September 2019.
- 华亭宾馆和零的突破. Xinmin Evening News (in Chinese). 5 September 2013. Archived from the original on 5 September 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
- "'Modu' Shanghai but why people call it 'Modu'?". shanghaifact.weebly.com. Archived from the original on 2 October 2019. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
- Lippet, Seiji (2002). Topographies of Japanese Modernism. Columbia University Press. p. 84. ISBN 0231500688.
- Moraski, Brittney (20 July 2011). "Shanghai brings a touch of home". Daily Press. Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
- "Shanghai: Pearl of the Orient". Meetingsfocus.com. 7 April 2013. Archived from the original on 30 August 2013. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
- "Lodi News-Sentinel - Google News Archive Search". news.google.com. Retrieved 13 March 2021.
- "The Shanghainese of 6000 Years Ago – the Majiabang Culture". Shanghai Qingpu Museum. Archived from the original on 4 January 2017. Retrieved 24 November 2014.
- "Ancient History". cultural-china.com. Archived from the original on 16 June 2013. Retrieved 26 April 2014.
- "申"、"沪"的由来. shanghai.gov.cn (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 1 October 2019. Retrieved 1 October 2019.
- 青龙镇考古：上海首个贸易港，为何人称"小杭州". Thepaper.cn. 10 December 2016. Archived from the original on 11 September 2017. Retrieved 16 July 2017.
- Danielson, Eric N., Shanghai and the Yangzi Delta, 2004, p.9.
- Danielson, Eric N., Shanghai and the Yangzi Delta, 2004, p.9, pp.11–12, p.34.
- Danielson, Eric N., Shanghai and the Yangzi Delta, 2004, p.10.
- Danielson, Eric N., Shanghai and the Yangtze Delta, 2004, pp.10–11.
- Rait, Robert S. (1903). The Life and Campaigns of Hugh, First Viscount Gough, Field-Marshal Archived 7 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Volume 1. p. 267–268
- "The Opium war (or how Hong Kong began)". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 6 May 2016. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
- 上海通志 总述 [General History of Shanghai – Overview] (in Chinese). Office of Shanghai Chronicles. 1 July 2008. Archived from the original on 25 November 2018. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
- Scarne, John. Twelve years in China Archived 28 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Edinburgh: Constable, 1860: 187–209.
- Williams, S. Wells. The Middle Kingdom: A Survey of the Geography, Government, Literature, Social Life, Arts, and History of the Chinese Empire and its Inhabitants, Vol. 1, p. 107. Scribner (New York), 1904.
- "Shanghai International Settlement". Flag of the World. Archived from the original on 14 May 2019. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
- Gordon Cumming, C. F. (Constance Frederica), "The inventor of the numeral-type for China by the use of which illiterate Chinese both blind and sighted can very quickly be taught to read and write fluently", London : Downey, 1899, archive.org Archived 29 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- Ku, Hung-Ting  (1979). Urban Mass Movement: The May Thirtieth Movement in Shanghai. Modern Asian Studies, Vol.13, No.2. pp.197–216
- Cathal J. Nolan (2002). The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations: S-Z. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 1509. ISBN 978-0-313-32383-6.
- 第一卷 建置沿革 (in Chinese). Office of Shanghai Chronicles. 2 July 2008. Archived from the original on 25 October 2018. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
- Danielson, Eric N., Shanghai and the Yangzi Delta, 2004, p. 34.
- Scott Tong (October 2009). "Shanghai: Global financial center? Aspirations and reality, and implications for Hong Kong" (PDF). Hong Kong Journal. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 June 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- Shanghai: Paradise for adventurers. CBC – TV. Legendary Sin Cities. Archived 1 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- "Shanghai's White Russians (1937)". SHANGHAI SOJOURNS. 21 August 2018. Archived from the original on 24 March 2019. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
- "All About Shanghai. Chapter 4 – Population Archived 20 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine". Tales of Old Shanghai.
- "Shanghai Sanctuary Archived 14 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine". Time. 31 July 2008.
- Board of Directors of the Oriental Library, A Description of the Oriental Library Before and After the Destruction by Japanese on February 1, 1932, Shanghai: Mercury Press, 1932, p. 5. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
- 图说上海一二八事变----战争罪行. archives.sh.cn (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 4 February 2018. Retrieved 3 October 2019.
- Nicole Huang, "Introduction," in Eileen Chang, Written on Water, translated by Andrew F. Jones (New York: Columbia University Press, 2005), XI
- 149 comfort women houses discovered in Shanghai Archived 1 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine, Xinhua News Agency,16 June 2005.
- Changhai est tombé sans combat Archived 28 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Le Monde, 27 May 1949.
- Thomas, Thompson (1979). China's Nationalization of Foreign Firms: The Politics of Hostage Capitalism, 1949–1957 (PDF). University of Maryland School of Law. p. 16. ISBN 0-942182-26-X. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 February 2019. Retrieved 27 November 2019.
- 上海地名志 总述 (in Chinese). Office of Shanghai Chronicles. 3 August 2004. Retrieved 3 October 2019.
- Pacione, Michael (4 December 2014). Problems and Planning in Third World Cities. Routledge Revivals. ISBN 9780415705936.
- Shanghai: transformation and modernization under China's open policy. By Yue-man Yeung, Sung Yun-wing, page 66, Chinese University Press, 1996
- McGregor, Richard (31 July 2012). The Party: The Secret World of China's Communist Rulers. Harper Perennial; Reprint. ISBN 9780061708763.
- 浦东，改革开放尽显"上海风度". Xinhua News (in Chinese). 17 September 2018. Archived from the original on 29 September 2019. Retrieved 29 September 2019.
- "GaWC - The World According to GaWC 2020". www.lboro.ac.uk. Retrieved 27 September 2020.
- 上海通志 第二卷 自然环境 [General History of Shanghai – Volume 2. Natural environment] (in Chinese). Office of Shanghai Chronicles. 4 July 2008. Archived from the original on 25 October 2018. Retrieved 5 October 2019.
- "Geographic Location". Basic Facts. Shanghai Municipal People's Government. Archived from the original on 29 May 2012. Retrieved 14 September 2011.
- "Chongming Island" in the Encyclopedia of Shanghai, p. 52. Archived 2 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine Shanghai Scientific & Technical Publishers (Shanghai), 2010. Hosted by the Municipality of Shanghai.
- "Fourth Island Wetland Emerging", pp. 1–2. Archived 24 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine Shanghai Daily. 8 December 2009. Hosted at China.org.
- Spencer, Richard (19 September 2007). "1.6m flee Shanghai typhoon". The Daily Telegraph. UK. Archived from the original on 13 October 2007. Retrieved 20 March 2008.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 March 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Extreme Temperatures Around the World". Archived from the original on 4 August 2014. Retrieved 1 December 2010.
- 中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集 (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
- Loh, Juliana (16 February 2016). "An art deco journey through Shanghai's belle époque". Lonely Planet. Archived from the original on 7 October 2019. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
- "Shanghai Architectural History". shanghaiguide.org. Archived from the original on 23 October 2018. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
- Kabos, Ladislav. "The man who changed Shanghai". Who is L.E.Hudec. Archived from the original on 4 May 2011. Retrieved 17 May 2011.
- Jin, Zhihao (12 July 2011). 一个外国建筑设计师的上海传奇----邬达克和他设计的经典老房子 (in Chinese). Shanghai Archives Bureau. Archived from the original on 7 October 2019. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
- "FAIRMONT PEACE HOTEL – A HISTORY". Accor. Archived from the original on 7 October 2019. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
- "Strolling Shanghai's Bund (Part 2)". EVERETT POTTER'S TRAVEL REPORT. 13 August 2018. Archived from the original on 7 October 2019. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
- "Bigger and better: The Shanghai Bund is back – CNN Travel". cnngo.com. Archived from the original on 1 November 2012. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
- Goldberger, Paul (26 December 2005). "Shanghai Surprise: The radical quaintness of the Xintiandi district". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 2 November 2012. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
- Qian, Nairong (2007). 上海话大词典. Shanghai Lexicographical Publishing House. ISBN 9787532622481.
- "Shikumen Residence". travelchinaguide.com. Archived from the original on 7 October 2019. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
- Mo, Yan (18 January 2010). 文汇报:从石库门走入上海城市文化. Wenhui Bao (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 27 July 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
- "Lonely Planet review for Shanghai Exhibition Centre". Lonely Planet. Archived from the original on 13 November 2010. Retrieved 14 June 2013.
- "Number of 150m+ Completed Buildings – The Skyscraper Center". Skyscrapercenter.com. Archived from the original on 2 December 2017. Retrieved 5 November 2018.
- Alfred Joyner. "Shanghai Tower: Asia's new tallest skyscraper presents a future vision of 'vertical cities'". International Business Times UK. Archived from the original on 26 June 2015. Retrieved 26 June 2015.
- "Shanghai Tower News Release" (PDF). Gensler. 28 November 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 March 2009. Retrieved 28 November 2008.
- CleanTechies (25 March 2010). "The Shanghai Tower: The Beginnings of a Green Revolution in China". Archived from the original on 3 July 2011. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
- "Shanghai". SkyscraperPage.
- 李强 [Li Qiang]. People's Daily (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 18 January 2017. Retrieved 16 January 2017.
- 蒋卓庆当选上海市人大常委会主任. Xinhua News (in Chinese). 20 January 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
- 龚正正式出任上海代市长 (in Chinese). Lianhe Zaobao. 24 March 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
- Lawrence, Susan; Martin, Michael (20 March 2013). "Understanding China's Political System" (PDF). Federation of American Scientists. Congressional Research Service. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 January 2012. Retrieved 28 September 2019.
- 党委书记权力究竟有多大？ [How much power does a Party Secretary really have?]. 人民论坛 (in Chinese). People's Daily Press. 23 January 2007. Archived from the original on 2 July 2018. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
- 中国共产党上海市委员会 (in Chinese). Shanghai Municipal Government. Archived from the original on 14 October 2019. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
- 上海市委常委名单+简历 (in Chinese). 经济日报-中国经济网. 4 September 2019. Archived from the original on 1 May 2019. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
- "Profile: Jiang Zemin". BBC News. 19 September 2004. Archived from the original on 19 November 2011. Retrieved 13 September 2011.
- Kahn, Joseph (19 March 2003). "The Former Premier Who Ended China's 'Splendid Isolation'". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 26 November 2010. Retrieved 13 September 2011.
- "Biography of Wu Bangguo". China Vitae. Archived from the original on 22 November 2011. Retrieved 14 September 2011.
- Yardley, Jim (2 June 2007). "Huang Ju, Powerful Chinese Official, Dies at 68". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 17 July 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2011.
- "Biography of Xi Jinping". China Vitae. Archived from the original on 14 October 2019. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
- "Biography of Yu Zhengsheng". China Vitae. Archived from the original on 14 October 2019. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
- "Biography of Han Zheng". China Vitae. Archived from the original on 14 October 2019. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
- Kahn, Joseph (4 October 2006). "In Graft Inquiry, Chinese See a Shake-Up Coming". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 18 December 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2011.
- "Former Shanghai Party chief gets 18-year term for bribery". Xinhua News. 11 April 2008. Archived from the original on 6 December 2009. Retrieved 13 September 2011.
- Plafker, Ted (25 February 2010). "Factions Help Drive Modern China History". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 12 October 2011. Retrieved 13 September 2011.
- Wang, Xiangwei (8 August 2016). "Why Xi Jinping has no need of factions in the Communist Party". This Week in Asia. Archived from the original on 14 October 2019. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
- 中国的行政区划——省级行政单位 [Administrative divisions in China – Provincial-level administrative divisions] (in Chinese). The Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China. 17 April 2009. Archived from the original on 15 July 2015. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
- 国家统计局统计用区划代码 (in Chinese). National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China. Archived from the original on 5 April 2013.
- "2.2 LAND AREA, POPULATION AND DENSITY OF POPULATION IN DISTRICTS (2017)". Shanghai Municipal Statistics Bureau. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
- 纪念型. 上海地名志 [Shanghai Place Names]. Shanghai Surveying and Mapping Institute. Archived from the original on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
- 国务院同意撤销上海市南汇区 将其并入浦东新区. Xinhua News (in Chinese). 6 May 2009. Archived from the original on 15 October 2019. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
- Office of Shanghai Chronicles (2015). 岛、沙 [Islands and Shoals] (in Chinese). Shanghai Municipal Government. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
- Shanghai Statistical Yearbook 2010 Archived 29 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 18 July 2011
- Hunt, Katie (21 May 2008). "Shanghai: China's capitalist showpiece". BBC News. Archived from the original on 6 August 2008. Retrieved 7 August 2008.
- "Of Shanghai... and Suzhou". Business Line. 27 January 2003. Archived from the original on 19 August 2005. Retrieved 20 March 2008.
- "The Global Financial Centres Index 26" (PDF). Z/Yen. September 2019. p. 17. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 October 2019. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
- Yu, Sheila (7 March 2017). "Shanghai tops next global innovation hub ranking". TechNode. Archived from the original on 31 August 2019. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
- 上海简介 (in Chinese). 国务院新闻办公室. 4 December 2009. Archived from the original on 4 September 2019. Retrieved 4 September 2019.
- "Top 50 World Container Ports". World Shipping Council. Archived from the original on 4 July 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
- 2019年我国GDP近百万亿元，增长6.1%. gov.cn (in Chinese). Government of the People's Republic of China. 18 January 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
- 主要年份六大支柱产业增加值 (in Chinese). Shanghai Municipal Statistics Bureau. Archived from the original on 4 March 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2012.
- EIU: Chinese cities cost less to live in Archived 22 March 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Shanghai Daily, Ding Yining, 21 March 2017.
- "Hurun Report - Info - Hurun Global Rich List 2021". www.hurun.net. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
- "These will be the most important cities by 2035". World Economic Forum. Retrieved 3 November 2020.
- 2018年上海市国民经济和社会发展统计公报 [Statistical Communiqué of Shanghai on the 2018 National Economic and Social Development]. tjj.sh.gov.cn (in Chinese). Shanghai Municipal Statistics Bureau. 1 March 2019. Archived from the original on 2 May 2019. Retrieved 1 September 2019.
- "4.5 PER CAPITA GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (1978～2017)". Shanghai Municipal Statistics Bureau. Retrieved 29 October 2019.
- "10.13 DISPOSABLE INCOME AND ITS COMPOSITION OF URBAN RESIDENTS (2015～2017)". Shanghai Municipal Statistics Bureau. Retrieved 29 October 2019.
- "10.25 PER CAPITA INCOME AND CONSUMPTION EXPENDITURE OF URBAN AND RURAL HOUSEHOLDS IN MAIN YEARS" (in Chinese). Shanghai Municipal Statistics Bureau. Retrieved 29 October 2019.
- "10.27 PER CAPITA DISPOSABLE INCOME OF URBAN HOUSEHOLDS IN MAIN YEARS" (in Chinese). Shanghai Municipal Statistics Bureau. Retrieved 29 October 2019.
- "10.14 DISPOSABLE INCOME AND ITS COMPOSITION OF RURAL RESIDENTS (2015～2017)". Shanghai Municipal Statistics Bureau. Retrieved 29 October 2019.
- "Growth rate of major national economic indicators over preceding year (1978～2010)". Stats-sh.gov.cn. Archived from the original on 11 January 2012. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
- "GFCI 28 Rank". Long Finance. Retrieved 27 September 2020.
- "The Global Financial Centres Index 28" (PDF). Z/Yen. September 2020. pp. 1, 2. Retrieved 27 September 2020.
- Shukla, Vikas (19 February 2019). "Top 10 Largest Stock Exchanges In The World By Market Capitalization". ValueWalk. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
- "The rise of Lujiazui Financial City in Shanghai". CCTV News – CNTV English. 19 January 2011. Archived from the original on 18 January 2012. Retrieved 17 May 2011.
- "Shanghai: Market Profile". HKTDC Research. 29 March 2019. Archived from the original on 20 October 2019. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
- "Shanghai top for FDI into Asia-Pacific". The Banker. 1 April 2014. Archived from the original on 9 July 2014. Retrieved 11 April 2014.
- "Chinese Provinces of the Future 2014/15". FDi magazine. 11 August 2014. Archived from the original on 6 February 2015. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
- "Shipping industry woes". China Daily. 30 November 2009. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 17 May 2011.
- "China's Largest Shipbuilding Industry Based in Shanghai". People's Daily. 10 April 2001. Archived from the original on 16 January 2014. Retrieved 15 January 2014.
- 上海汽车工业（集团）总公司|上汽集团. Saicgroup. 18 August 2009. Archived from the original on 29 May 2011. Retrieved 17 May 2011.
- "2018 ICCA Statistics Report Country & City Rankings Public Abstract". International Congress and Convention Association. June 2019. p. 28. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
- "2017 ICCA Statistics Report Country & City Rankings Public Abstract". International Congress and Convention Association. June 2018. p. 25. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
- 再添6个！18个自贸试验区构筑开放新版图. Xinhua News (in Chinese). 26 August 2019. Archived from the original on 27 August 2019. Retrieved 26 September 2019.
- 中国最大自贸区 奏响奋进序曲 (in Chinese). Office of Shanghai Chronicles. 8 December 2018. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
- "Shanghai free-trade zone launched". BBC News. 29 September 2013. Archived from the original on 29 September 2013. Retrieved 30 September 2013.
- State Council (27 July 2019). 国务院关于同意设立中国（上海）自由贸易试验区临港新片区的批复（国函〔2019〕68号）. gov.cn (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 6 August 2019. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
- "China Is About To Open A New 'Free Trade Zone' And People Are Excited That It Could Lift The Economy". Business Insider Australia. 14 September 2013. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
- "Basic Statistics on National Population Census". Shanghai Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original on 1 May 2013. Retrieved 25 April 2019.
- "2.1 TOTAL HOUSEHOLDS, POPULATION, DENSITY OF REGISTERED POPULATION AND LIFE EXPECTANCY (1978～2017)". Shanghai Municipal Statistics Bureau. Retrieved 1 September 2019.
- 上海人口分布呈现城市化发展和郊区化安居态势. Shanghai Statistics Bureau of Statistics. 23 September 2011. Archived from the original on 26 September 2011.
- Chan, Kam Wing (2007). "Misconceptions and Complexities in the Study of China's Cities: Definitions, Statistics, and Implications" (PDF). Eurasian Geography and Economics. 48 (4): 383–412. doi:10.2747/1538-722.214.171.1243. S2CID 153676671. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 13 September 2011. p. 395
- Justina, Crabtree (20 September 2016). "A tale of megacities: China's largest metropolises". CNBC. Archived from the original on 9 December 2017. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
- "2.11 RESIDENT FOREIGNERS IN SHANGHAI IN MAIN YEARS". stats-sh.gov.cn. Shanghai Municipal Statistics Bureau. Retrieved 1 September 2019.
- "Shanghai Population 2015 – World Population Review". worldpopulationreview.com. Archived from the original on 24 November 2015. Retrieved 23 November 2015.
- 上海户籍人口人均期望寿命83.63岁，女性超86岁. Xinhua News (in Chinese). 14 February 2019. Archived from the original on 22 August 2019. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
- "2.6 AGE STRUCTURE OF REGISTERED POPULATION IN DISTRICTS (2017)". stats-sh.gov.cn. Shanghai Municipal Statistics Bureau. Retrieved 1 September 2019.
- Roxburgh, Helen (19 March 2018). "China's radical plan to limit the populations of Beijing and Shanghai". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 9 April 2018. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
- 当代中国宗教状况报告——基于CFPS（2012）调查数据 [China Family Panel Studies 2012] (PDF). Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. 3 March 2014. p. 13. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 August 2014. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
- 上海市佛教概况 [An overview of Buddhism in Shanghai]. Shanghai Ethnic and Religions (in Chinese). 29 September 2003. Archived from the original on 23 October 2019. Retrieved 23 October 2019.
- 第一节 玉佛寺 [Chapter One: Jade Buddha Temple]. Office of Shanghai Chronicles (in Chinese). 21 March 2007. Archived from the original on 23 October 2019. Retrieved 23 October 2019.
- 上海宗教简介 [Brief introduction to the religions in Shanghai]. Shanghai Ethnic and Religions (in Chinese). 25 December 2014. Archived from the original on 23 October 2019. Retrieved 23 October 2019.
- 上海天主教概况 [An overview of Catholicism in Shanghai]. Shanghai Ethnic and Religions (in Chinese). 19 September 2003. Archived from the original on 23 October 2019. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
- 天主教上海教区 [Roman Catholic Diocese of Shanghai]. Shanghai Ethnic and Religions (in Chinese). 19 September 2003. Archived from the original on 24 October 2019. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
- 徐家汇天主教堂 [Xujiahui Catholic Church] (in Chinese). Xuhui District People's Government. 6 May 2018. Archived from the original on 24 October 2019. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
- "Famous Churches in Shanghai". Travel China Guide. Archived from the original on 24 October 2019. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
- "Jewish Refugees Museum : Ohel Moishe Synagogue Shanghai". Visions of Travel. Archived from the original on 10 April 2013.
- 上海市伊斯兰教概 [An overview of Islam in Shanghai]. Shanghai Ethnic and Religions (in Chinese). 19 September 2003. Archived from the original on 23 October 2019. Retrieved 23 October 2019.
- 海上道教名观：白云观 [Shanghai's famous taoism temple: Shanghai White Cloud Temple]. Office of Shanghai Chronicles (in Chinese). 27 October 2009. Archived from the original on 16 June 2018. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
- （七）上海市民语言应用能力调查 (in Chinese). Shanghai Municipal Government. 28 May 2015. Archived from the original on 25 October 2019. Retrieved 25 October 2019.
- "Chinese languages". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 20 February 2018.
- Chen, Zhongmin. 上海市区话语音一百多年来的演变 [Changes in the downtown Shanghainese pronunciations in the past one hundred years] (in Chinese). p. 1. Archived from the original on 20 August 2011. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
- You, Rujie (16 October 2018). “上海闲话”和“本地闲话”为何差别这么大?. Shanghai Observer. Retrieved 25 October 2019.
- Zat Liu (20 August 2010). "Is Shanghai's local dialect, and culture, in crisis?". CNN GO. Archived from the original on 3 September 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2011.
- Jia Feishang (13 May 2011). "Stopping the local dialect becoming derelict". Shanghai Daily. Archived from the original on 12 February 2017. Retrieved 11 February 2017.
- "Nature Index's top five science cities, by the numbers". Nature. 585 (7826): S50–S51. 19 September 2020. doi:10.1038/d41586-020-02576-y. PMID 32951017.
- "Top 10 institutions in Shanghai_Nature Index 2020 Science Cities". www.natureindex.com. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
- "Shanghai". Top Universities. 30 November 2015. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
- "Best universities in China". Times Higher Education (THE). 4 September 2020. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
- "US News Best Global Universities in Shanghai". US News & World Report.
- "Shanghai 985 Project Universities list". China's University and College Admission System. Archived from the original on 28 October 2019. Retrieved 28 October 2019.
- "Shanghai 211 Project Universities | Study in China | CUCAS". www.cucas.cn. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
- "Eastern stars: Universities of China's C9 League excel in select fields". Times Higher Education (THE). 17 February 2011. Retrieved 25 February 2021.
- "Best universities in Shanghai". Student. 29 October 2020. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
- "World University Rankings - 2020 | China Universities in Top 1000 universities | Academic Ranking of World Universities - 2020 | Shanghai Ranking - 2020". www.shanghairanking.com. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
- "Business school rankings from the Financial Times". Financial Times. Retrieved 28 February 2020.
- "Executive MBA in Shanghai | WashU Olin Business School". olin.wustl.edu. Retrieved 28 February 2020.
- He, Qi (13 June 2018). "Program offers global degrees – Chinadaily.com.cn". China Daily. Archived from the original on 24 October 2019. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
- Wang, Wei; Lu, Zihua (30 October 2018). 上海中外合作办学走过25年 已在各区遍地开花. Xinmin Evening News (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 24 October 2019. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
- Rouhi, Maureen (19 January 2015). "ShanghaiTech Aims To Raise The Bar For Higher Education In China" Archived 19 November 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Chemical & Engineering News. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
- Dillon, Sam (7 December 2010). "In PISA Test, Top Scores From Shanghai Stun Experts". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 12 May 2011. Retrieved 17 May 2011.
- "How China is winning the school race". BBC. 11 October 2011. Archived from the original on 2 November 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
- 上海市教育改革和发展“十三五暠规划 (PDF) (in Chinese). Shanghai Municipal Government. 16 August 2016. p. 7. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 September 2017. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
- 新中考名额分配补充说明发布 “四校”65%招生计划数参与名额分配 (in Chinese). Shanghai Municipal Government. 19 April 2018. Archived from the original on 26 October 2019. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
- 上海市公布深化高校考试招生制度综合改革试点方案. 中国广播网 (in Chinese). 19 September 2014. Archived from the original on 26 October 2019. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
- 上海公共交通卡 用卡范围 (in Chinese). Shanghai Public Transport Card. Archived from the original on 7 April 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
- 3月8日上海地铁客流创历史新高. WeChat (in Chinese). Shanghai Metro. 9 March 2019. Retrieved 9 September 2019.
- "Metro & Maglev Train". The Official Shanghai China Travel Website. Archived from the original on 14 June 2019. Retrieved 1 November 2019.
- Hunt, Hugh (19 January 2017). "How we can make super-fast hyperloop travel a reality". Independent. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 19 January 2017.
- 上海磁悬浮列车示范运营线通过验收. gov.cn (in Chinese). 26 April 2006. Archived from the original on 2 September 2019. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
- 沪地铁2号线19日起末班车时间延后 部分列车直通浦东机场. Xinhua News (in Chinese). 17 April 2019. Archived from the original on 2 September 2019. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
- "Google Maps". Retrieved 2 September 2019.
- 上海磁浮列車 Shanghai Maglev Train 票價、時刻表、班距、轉乘資訊分享. rainieis.tw (in Chinese). 13 December 2018. Archived from the original on 2 September 2019. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
- 叮铃铃~上海有轨电车的故事. 城市记忆空间研究院 (in Chinese). 28 November 2018. Retrieved 7 November 2019 – via kknews.cc.
- Warr, Anne (2007). Shanghai Architecture. The Watermark Press. ISBN 978-0-949284-76-1.
- "Archived copy" 第三节 公共交通 (in Chinese). Office of Shanghai Chronicles. 5 September 2003. Archived from the original on 27 June 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2019.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy" 第三节 轨线 (in Chinese). Office of Shanghai Chronicles. 30 December 2002. Archived from the original on 27 April 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2019.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- 上海首条现代化有轨电车新年正式载客运营. Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China (in Chinese). 1 January 2010. Archived from the original on 12 August 2019. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
- Barrow, Keith (26 December 2018). "Shanghai Songjiang Tramway opens". International Railway Journal. Simmons-Boardman Publishing Co. Archived from the original on 12 February 2019. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
- "Archived copy" 西虹桥要建有轨电车 “8”字形南北两条环线. 东方网 (in Chinese). 29 August 2014. Archived from the original on 17 November 2019. Retrieved 17 November 2019.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy" 公交行业概况 (in Chinese). Shanghai Municipal Transportation Commission. 18 July 2018. Archived from the original on 3 November 2019. Retrieved 3 November 2019.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy" 公交票价 (in Chinese). Shanghai Municipal Transportation Commission. 3 June 2016. Archived from the original on 29 October 2019. Retrieved 29 October 2019.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy" 本市出租汽车运价结构和收费标准 (in Chinese). Shanghai Municipal Transportation Commission. 3 March 2016. Archived from the original on 29 October 2019. Retrieved 29 October 2019.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- 打车软件大比拼——上海篇 (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2 September 2019. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
- 高速公路网. shanghai.gov.cn (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 28 August 2019. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- 上海人飞跃黄浦江历史:建14条隧道12座大桥8条轨交 (in Chinese). 7 December 2017. Archived from the original on 28 August 2019. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- 黄浦江上第13座大桥开始主塔施工，除了可以"走"，还有哪里与众不同？ (in Chinese). 18 July 2018. Archived from the original on 18 July 2018. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- "Ofo, Mobike, BlueGogo: China's Messy Bikeshare Market". What's on Weibo. Archived from the original on 6 August 2017. Retrieved 13 August 2017.
- "zh:共享单车最新调查 上海共享单车一年时间缩水一大半，"共享经济"是伪命题吗？" [The latest survey of shared bicycles]. Shanghai Observer (in Chinese). 23 January 2019. Archived from the original on 17 November 2019.
- 10月沪牌拍卖结果出炉：中标率6.1%，最低成交价8.93万元. Shanghai Observer (in Chinese). 26 October 2019. Retrieved 27 November 2019.
- 沪牌拍卖规定修订完善调整申请人资格条件 名下已有沪牌额度的不可再参拍 (in Chinese). Shanghai Municipal Government. 19 June 2016. Retrieved 27 November 2019.
- 上海有哪几个火车站，上海站是哪个站，上海有几个火车站. mafengwo.cn (in Chinese). 2 April 2019. Archived from the original on 1 September 2019. Retrieved 1 September 2019.
- "Songhu Railway". Office of Shanghai Chronicles. Archived from the original on 19 September 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2019.
- 第一节 沪宁线. 江苏交通志·铁路篇 (in Chinese). Jiangsu People's Government. Archived from the original on 13 January 2019. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
- 第一节 修建 (in Chinese). Office of Shanghai Chronicles. 25 December 2003. Archived from the original on 27 April 2016. Retrieved 1 September 2019.
- 辞海编辑委员会, ed. (1989). 《辞海》（1989年版）. Shanghai Lexicographical Publishing House. p. 2353.
- 沪通铁路2013年正式开建 南通到上海仅需一小时 [Construction work on the Hu-Tong Railway will officially start in 2013. It will take just an hour to travel from Nantong to Shanghai] (in Chinese). 24 December 2012. Archived from the original on 15 May 2013. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
- 最新进展！沪苏湖高铁今年10月底前开工建设 [Latest progress! Construction of the Shanghai–Suzhou–Huzhou high-speed railway will begin before the end of October this year.] (in Chinese). 15 July 2019. Archived from the original on 12 August 2019. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
- 上海市轨道交通近期建设规划(2017-2025)环境影响评价公示. 上海环境热线 (in Chinese). 18 February 2016. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- 上海市轨道交通近期建设规划(2017-2025)环境影响评价第二次公示. 上海环境热线 (in Chinese). 18 April 2016. Archived from the original on 6 May 2016. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- 上海规土局：机场联络线和嘉闵线已明确采用市郊铁路制式. The Paper (in Chinese). 10 August 2016. Archived from the original on 10 August 2016. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- Chan, KG (15 August 2019). "New satellite terminals to propel Shanghai's ascent". Asia Times Online. Archived from the original on 21 August 2019. Retrieved 17 November 2019.
- "Transportation". Shanghai Focus. Archived from the original on 30 December 2010. Retrieved 5 May 2010.
- "Preliminary world airport traffic rankings released". Airports Council International. 13 March 2019. Archived from the original on 10 September 2019. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
- 上海：一个城市的传奇和梦想. Sina News (in Chinese). 12 September 2006. Archived from the original on 12 November 2011. Retrieved 11 March 2011.
- 2017年统计用区划代码和城乡划分代码：嵊泗县. National Bureau of Statistics of China (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 10 June 2019. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
- "Shanghai overtakes S'pore as world's busiest port". The Straits Times. 8 January 2011. Archived from the original on 15 August 2011. Retrieved 14 September 2011.
- One Hundred Ports 2019 Archived 26 August 2019 at the Wayback Machine Lloyd's List，2019
- China’s Maritime Silk Road Initiative
- Wolf D. Hartmann, Wolfgang Maennig, Run Wang: Chinas neue Seidenstraße. (2017).
- Jean-Marc F. Blanchard "China’s Maritime Silk Road Initiative and South Asia" (2019).
- Maritime Shipping and Export Trade on "Maritime Silk Road"
- "The key ingredients of Shanghai culture". Shanghai Daily. 2 June 2018. Retrieved 16 February 2020.
- "Shanghai-style Culture". Top China Travel. Archived from the original on 22 October 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
- Xu, S.L. "The Culture of Shanghai. Beijing". Archived from the original on 16 December 2012.
- Yu, Jianhua (俞剑华) (1937). 中国绘画史（下册）. Shanghai: The Commercial Press. p. 196.
- Sahr Johnny, "Cybercity – Sahr Johnny's Shanghai Dream" That's Shanghai, October 2005; quoted online by  Archived 14 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- "3 New Museums to Look Out for in 2018". Archived from the original on 16 January 2018. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
- hermesauto (5 January 2018). "Shanghai releases blueprint for becoming global cosmopolis by 2035". Archived from the original on 15 January 2018. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
- "Museums in Shanghai". shanghaitourmap.com. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2013.
- "Museums in Shanghai – SmartShanghai". smartshanghai.com. Archived from the original on 20 January 2018. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
- "Free Art in Shanghai". BBC. 18 December 2011. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
- "China Art Museum". Travel China Guide. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
- 【文化】小编带你走进上海崧泽遗址博物馆. 绿色青浦 (in Chinese). 22 July 2018. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
- 朴槿惠在沪为"大韩民国临时政府旧址"展馆更新启用剪彩. Xinhua News (in Chinese). 22 July 2018. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
- "THE SHANGHAI POST OFFICE MUSEUM". www.mytravels.asia. 23 August 2017. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
- 看懂上海：上海本帮菜. 看看新闻 (in Chinese). 4 May 2014. Archived from the original on 4 July 2014. Retrieved 31 August 2014.
- "A Brief Intro to Shanghai "Hu" Cuisine". theculturetrip.com. Archived from the original on 28 August 2019. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- Pan, Junxiang; Duan, Lian (2007). 顺应上海人口味的海派西餐. 话说沪商. 中华工商联合出版社. p. 136. ISBN 9787801934925.
- 上海故事“吃西菜到红房子”：海派西餐那些事. The Paper (in Chinese). 19 November 2018. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
- "Shanghai Food". Travel China Guide (in Chinese). Retrieved 6 August 2020.
- 崔庆国 (9 April 2009). 松江画派：价格与地位不符. 《鉴宝》 (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 4 September 2019. Retrieved 5 September 2019.
- 上海通志>>第三十八卷文化艺术（上）>>第六章美术、书法、摄影>>节 (in Chinese). Office of Shanghai Chronicles. Archived from the original on 27 September 2015. Retrieved 20 April 2012.
- 《上海地方志》>>1989年第五期>>"松江画派"源流 (in Chinese). Office of Shanghai Chronicles. Retrieved 20 April 2012.
- 單國霖 (May 2005). 董其昌與松江畫派 (PDF). mam.gov.mo (in Chinese). Retrieved 5 September 2019.
- 海上画派的艺术特点及对后世的影响. sohu.com (in Chinese). 18 March 2019. Archived from the original on 5 September 2019. Retrieved 5 September 2019.
- 171年前一个西班牙人来到上海，西洋绘画由此传播开来. sohu.com (in Chinese). 17 July 2018. Archived from the original on 5 September 2019. Retrieved 5 September 2019.
- "三毛"最早诞生于1935年7月28日《晨报》副刊. Jiefang Daily (in Chinese). 29 July 2010. Archived from the original on 23 August 2017. Retrieved 20 April 2012.
- 上海中国画院. 今日艺术 (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 27 November 2010. Retrieved 12 March 2011.
- 钱雪儿 (22 November 2018). 特稿｜11月的上海，何以成为全球最热的当代艺术地标. The Paper (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 5 September 2019. Retrieved 5 September 2019.
- 钱雪儿 (10 November 2018). 现场｜第12届上海双年展开幕：进退之间，无序或矛盾. The Paper (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 5 September 2019. Retrieved 5 September 2019.
- 王无能. 易文网. 30 November 2006. Archived from the original on 12 January 2012. Retrieved 20 April 2012.
- 历史上的今天 3月2日. 中国网. Archived from the original on 22 April 2012. Retrieved 20 April 2012.
- 梅兰芳的几次出国演出(附图). 上海档案信息网. 27 February 2008. Archived from the original on 9 November 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2012.
- 怀想当年"越剧十姐妹"绍兴将共演《山河恋》. Sohu Entertainment. 1 February 2007. Archived from the original on 5 March 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2012.
- Stock, Jonathan (2003). Huju: Traditional Opera in modern Shanghai. Oxford; New York : Published for the British Academy by Oxford University Press. ISBN 0197262732.
- 所属院团. Shanghai Center of Chinese Operas. Archived from the original on 3 December 2017. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
- 剧变沧桑：第1集 舞台西洋风. 文明网. 21 February 2009. Archived from the original on 11 February 2017. Retrieved 20 April 2012.
- 话剧百年 "兰心"之韵. 城市经济导报 (in Chinese). 11 March 2001. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- Group, SEEC Media. "Shanghai Film Museum". timeoutshanghai.com. Archived from the original on 2 June 2016.
- 中國電影史｜孤兒救祖記. 繪琳美育 (in Chinese). 4 April 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
- 上海电影对香港电影的影响 [The influence of Shanghai film on Hong Kong film]. 香港电影论文 (in Chinese). 31 August 2013. Archived from the original on 3 October 2019. Retrieved 3 October 2019.
- "Setting His Tale Of Love Found In a City Long Lost". The New York Times. 28 January 2001. Archived from the original on 15 February 2017. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- 历届回顾 COLLECTION. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
- Leisa Barnett (27 October 2008). "Aminaka Wilmont to show in Shanghai (Vogue.com UK)". Vogue. UK. Archived from the original on 18 October 2010. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
- "Photos of Shanghai Fashion Week – Scene Asia – Scene Asia – WSJ". The Wall Street Journal. 21 October 2010. Archived from the original on 16 December 2011. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
- "绿地宣布接手申花 朱骏时代宣告终结" (in Chinese). sports.163.com. 1 February 2014. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- 新王登基！上港终夺中超冠军 再也不是"千年老二". Sina Sports (in Chinese). 7 November 2018. Archived from the original on 11 November 2018. Retrieved 12 November 2018.
- 上海哔哩哔哩篮球俱乐部官方网站. Shanghai Sharks.
- Passa, Dennis. "Chinese great Yao Ming retires from basketball". Yahoo! Sports. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 12 December 2011.
- Will Lingo (2007). Baseball America 2007 Almanac: A Comprehensive Review of the 2006 Season. p. 361. ISBN 978-1932391138.
- "About the Shanghai Cricket Club". Shanghai Cricket Club. Archived from the original on 11 April 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
- "Liu sets new world hurdles record". BBC Sport. BBC News. 11 July 2006. Retrieved 12 October 2019.
- "Wang Liqin others also retire from the nat". Table Tennis Master. December 2013. Retrieved 21 July 2020.
- 南方都市报：王仪涵是下一站天后? (in Chinese). China News. 26 September 2008. Retrieved 19 March 2009.
- "Grand Prix Shanghai Set to Go". China.org.cn. 22 October 2002. Archived from the original on 13 May 2011. Retrieved 4 October 2010.
- "European Tour, CGA unveil BMW Masters". China Daily. 25 April 2012. Archived from the original on 26 April 2012. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
- "Kings defeat Canucks in shootout to sweep China Games". National Hockey League. 23 September 2017. Archived from the original on 1 September 2019. Retrieved 1 September 2019.
- 上海概览2019 [Shanghai Overview 2019] (PDF) (in Chinese). Shanghai Municipal Government. 2019. p. 63. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
- Zhu, Jing (17 September 2020). "Stroll into history along a street full of delights". Shanghai Daily. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
- Melvin, Sheila (5 July 2010). "A Polish 'Nationalist' Whose Music Also Resonates Across China". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
- 中山公园 [Zhongshan Park]. Shanghai Changning Government (in Chinese). 20 August 2019. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
- 从外商私家花园到24小时向市民开放，这座公园见证上海百年变迁. Shanghai Changning Government (in Chinese). 27 August 2019. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
- 徐家汇公园新添一群黑天鹅宝宝！-新华网. Xinhua News (in Chinese). 27 May 2019. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
- 2011-01-23:亚洲最大温室建成九千种植物齐聚 辰山植物园全面开放. Office of Shanghai Chronicles. 24 January 2011. Archived from the original on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- "The Walt Disney Company Reaches Another Major Milestone on Shanghai Theme Park Project". Walt Disney Company. 3 November 2009. Archived from the original on 27 November 2010. Retrieved 28 January 2011.
- "Disneyland Shanghai to open 2016". The Independent. 8 April 2011. Archived from the original on 19 November 2014. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
- Barboza, David; Barnes, Brooks (7 April 2011). "Disney to Open Park in Shanghai". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 1 July 2017. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- "Shanghai Disney Resort Hosts a Spectacular First Anniversary Celebration". The Walt Disney Company. 16 June 2017. Retrieved 1 January 2020.
- "Shanghai Warns Children to Stay Indoors on Haze, PM2.5 Surge". Bloomberg News. 25 December 2013. Archived from the original on 26 December 2013. Retrieved 25 December 2013.
- "Flights delayed as air pollution hits record in Shanghai". Reuters Editorial. 6 December 2013. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2017.
- Liu Chenyao. 中国出现入冬以来最大范围雾霾 局地严重污染 [Smog levels in China reach record levels since the end of 2013; surrounding areas severely polluted] (in Chinese). China news agency. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- 上海今日PM2.5均值超600 高楼在雾霾中若隐若现. People's Daily. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
- "Archived copy" 新闻晨报：释疑——重度污染为何不发霾红色预警. 上视新闻频道-上海早晨栏目. Archived from the original on 10 December 2013. Retrieved 18 April 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Shanghai grinds to a halt as smog nears top of air pollution scale". South China Morning Post. 7 December 2013. Archived from the original on 24 March 2014. Retrieved 24 March 2014.
- 上海将采取三大措施治理空气污染 [Three main measures will be taken against Shanghai's air pollution]. cnstock.com (in Chinese). 24 January 2014. Archived from the original on 17 August 2018. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
- Qiu, Jane. Fight against smog ramps up (Nature Archived 8 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine, 18 February 2014).
- 2013年大气环境保护情况统计数据 [Atmospheric environmental protection data 2013] (in Chinese). Shanghai Municipal Bureau of Ecology and Environment. 15 October 2014. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
- 2018年上海市大气环境保护情况统计数据 [Atmospheric environmental protection data of Shanghai 2018] (in Chinese). Shanghai Municipal Bureau of Ecology and Environment. 21 November 2019. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
- Grescoe, Taras (26 November 2016). "Shanghai's Suzhou Creek cleans up its act". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
- Ouyang, Tianjun (28 March 2012). 沉睡百年的苏州河黑臭底泥首次大规模疏浚完工. China Water (in Chinese). Retrieved 15 November 2020.
- "Environmental Protection in China's Wealthiest City". The American Embassy in China. July 2001. Archived from the original on 30 October 2007. Retrieved 11 May 2008.
- "Shanghai Businesses to Comply with New Waste Management Norms from July 1". China-briefing. 25 June 2019. Archived from the original on 30 June 2019. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
- 垃圾分类新风｜上海分类后的垃圾到底去哪儿了？. The Paper (in Chinese). 12 September 2018. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
- Walravens, Hartmut (2003). "German Influence on the Press in China". Newspapers in International Librarianship: Papers presented by the Newspapers at IFLA General Conferences. Walter de Gruyter. p. 95. ISBN 978-3-11-096279-6.
- "Gelbe Post : ostasiatische Halbmonatsschrift. (Shanghai, China : 1939–1940.)". Internet Archive. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
- "The Shanghai gazette". Library of Congress. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
- "The Shanghai Mercury". Library of Congress. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
- Walravens, Hartmut; King, Edmund (2003). Newspapers in International Librarianship. IFLA Publications. p. 94. ISBN 3-598-21837-0.
- "Archived copy" 市级友好城市 (in Chinese). wsb.sh.gov.cn. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 8 March 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Partnerská města HMP" [Prague – Twin Cities HMP]. Portál "Zahraniční vztahy" [Portal "Foreign Affairs"] (in Czech). 18 July 2013. Archived from the original on 25 June 2013. Retrieved 5 August 2013.
- "Consulates in Shanghai, China". www.embassypages.com. Retrieved 13 October 2020.
- Danielson, Eric N. (2010). Discover Shanghai. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish.
- Danielson, Eric N. (2004). Shanghai and the Yangzi Delta. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish/Times Editions. ISBN 978-981-232-597-6.
- Elvin, Mark (1977). "Market Towns and Waterways: The County of Shang-hai from 1480 to 1910". In Skinner, G. William (ed.). The City in Late Imperial China. Stanford, Cal.: Stanford University Press. pp. 441–474. ISBN 978-0-8047-0892-0. OCLC 2883862.
- Erh, Deke; Johnston, Tess (2007). Shanghai Art Deco. Hong Kong: Old China Hand Press.
- Haarmann, Anke. Shanghai (Urban Public) Space (Berlin: Jovis, 2009). 192 pp. online review
- Horesh, Niv (2009). Shanghai's Bund and Beyond. New Haven: Yale University Press.
- Johnson, Linda Cooke (1995). Shanghai: From Market Town to Treaty Port. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
- Johnson, Linda Cooke (1993). Cities of Jiangnan in Late Imperial China. Albany, NY: State University of New York (SUNY). ISBN 978-0-7914-1424-8.
- Scheen, Lena (2015). Shanghai Literary Imaginings: A City in Transformation. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. ISBN 978-90-8964-587-6.
- Yan Jin. "Shanghai Studies: An evolving academic field" History Compass (October 2018) e12496 Historiography of recent scholarship. online