Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport

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Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport

上海虹桥国际机场
ShanghaiAirports.png
Shanghai hongqiao airport (2).JPG
Summary
Airport typePublic
OperatorShanghai Airport Authority
ServesShanghai
LocationChangningMinhang, Shanghai
OpenedMay 1923 (98 years ago) (1923-05), (originally) April 1964 (57 years ago) (1964-04), ( reopening as international airport)
Hub for
Elevation AMSL3 m / 10 ft
Coordinates31°11′53″N 121°20′11″E / 31.19806°N 121.33639°E / 31.19806; 121.33639Coordinates: 31°11′53″N 121°20′11″E / 31.19806°N 121.33639°E / 31.19806; 121.33639
WebsiteHongqiao Airport
Maps
CAAC airport chart
CAAC airport chart
SHA/ZSSS is located in Shanghai
SHA/ZSSS
SHA/ZSSS
SHA/ZSSS is located in China
SHA/ZSSS
SHA/ZSSS
SHA/ZSSS is located in Asia
SHA/ZSSS
SHA/ZSSS
Runways
Direction Length Surface
m ft
18L/36R 3,400 11,155 Asphalt
18R/36L 3,300 10,827 Concrete
Statistics (2018)
Passengers44,628,004
Aircraft movements266,790
Freight (in tons)407,154.6
Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport
Simplified Chinese上海虹桥国际机场
Traditional Chinese上海虹橋國際機場

Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport (IATA: SHA, ICAO: ZSSS) is one of the two international airports of Shanghai and a significant airline hub of China. Hongqiao Airport mainly serves domestic and regional flights, although the airport also serves international flights. The airport is located near the town of Hongqiao in Changning District and Minhang District, 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) west of downtown, and is closer to the city center than the area's primary international airport, Shanghai Pudong.

Hongqiao Airport is a hub for China Eastern Airlines, Shanghai Airlines, Juneyao Airlines, and Spring Airlines. In 2016, Hongqiao Airport handled 40,460,135 passengers, making it the 7th busiest airport in China and the 45th busiest in the world.[2] By the end of 2011, Hongqiao Airport hosted 22 airlines serving 82 scheduled passenger destinations.[3] Shanghai Hongqiao Airport was also certified with the Skytrax 5-Star Airport Rating for facilities, terminal comfort and cleanliness, shopping, food & beverages, and staff service in 2019.[4]

History[edit]

Shanghai International Airport in January 1966.
Hongqiao Airport in January 1966 with a CAAC Ilyushin Il-18, shortly before the Cultural Revolution.
TWA at Shanghai Hongqiao Airport in March 1980.
Hongqiao Airport Old Terminal 1
Jimmy Choo store in Terminal 2

The construction of Hongqiao airport started in 1921. In May 1923, the airport opened for mixed civilian use. The Chinese Air Force deployed fighter-attack planes to Hongqiao in an operational response to the Shanghai Incident of 1932, and engaging Japanese carrier-based planes for the first time that day.[5] In 1937, Hongqiao was the site of the so-called 'Oyama Incident' in which a Japanese lieutenant was shot dead by Chinese Peace Preservation Corps soldiers in the lead-up to the Battle of Shanghai. Chinese ace-fighter pilot Lt. Yuan Baokang's Hawk III #2406 fighter-attack plane was damaged by anti-aircraft fire during the first air-battle over Shanghai metropolis at the beginning of the War of Resistance-World War II on 15 August 1937, and made a forced landing on Hongqiao.[6] After the Fall of Shanghai three months later, the airport was occupied by the Japanese and used as an air force base. Its military use continued after being handed over to the Republic of China government and, later, the People's Republic of China government. From late 1963, it was rebuilt for civilian use, and was re-opened in April 1964. A major expansion took place from March to September 1984, and another from December 1988 to December 1991.

In 1964, the original Terminal 1 and the control tower opened to public, then the first international flight to Hongqiao was Pakistan International Airlines Boeing 720 from Dhaka with a stopover from Guangzhou, making it the first non communist airline to fly into the already communist-country before its economic open up in the 1980s.

In the late 1970s through the 1990s, immediately after the reform and economic opening up, it evolved to once one of the largest and busiest international hubs of China, along with Beijing-Capital. Many iconic international/foreign airlines such as CAAC Airlines, Aeroflot, Cathay Pacific, Thai Airways, Pakistan International Airlines, Northwest Airlines, United Airlines, Singapore Airlines, Virgin Atlantic,[7] Air France,[8] SwissAir,[9] Royal Nepal Airlines, Air India, Dragonair, KLM, Lufthansa, Malaysia Airlines, American Airlines, Garuda Indonesia, Pan Am, BOAC, British Airways, Alitalia, TWA, Air Canada, Philippine Airlines, Finnair, Canadian Pacific Airlines, Canadian Airlines, Qantas, Baikal Airlines, Iran Air,[10] Biman Bangladesh Airlines, once operated there.

Hongqiao Airport served as Shanghai's primary airport until the completion of Pudong International Airport in 1999 when almost all international flights were moved to Pudong. The original box-shaped control tower was hence demolished and rebuilt after Pudong's opening. By 27 October 2002, all international flights had moved to Pudong. The airport presently offers mainly domestic flights, as well as five international routes to central Tokyo's Haneda Airport, central Seoul's Gimpo International Airport, central Taipei Songshan Airport, Hong Kong International Airport, and Macau's Macau International Airport.

Since 1 January 2013, holders of valid passports issued by 45 countries have not needed a visa if transiting through Hongqiao Airport.

Domestic passenger flights gate of the Terminal 1
The check-in hall of the new Terminal 2

In preparation for the Shanghai Expo, on 16 March 2010, Hongqiao Airport completed a five-year 15.3-billion-yuan expansion project, which included a 3,300-meter second runway and the new Terminal 2, boosting Hongqiao's capacity to 40 million passengers a year.[11] Terminal 2 is four times the size of Terminal 1 and houses 90 percent of all airlines at the airport (Terminal 1 is now used only for international flights and Spring Airlines and XiamenAir). With the new runway, Shanghai became the first city in China to have five (now seven) runways for civilian use (Pudong and Hongqiao combined).

Starting from the end of 2014, Hongqiao Airport Terminal 1 underwent its biggest renovation since 1921. The entire project was scheduled for completion in 2017.[12] On 26 March 2017, Building A of Terminal 1 was fully renovated and reopened to the public.[13] The old Building B was closed for reconstruction, and it was expected to be revamped and open to the public in mid-2018.[13]

Airlines and destinations[edit]

Passenger[edit]

AirlinesDestinations
Air China Beijing–Capital, Beijing–Daxing, Chengdu–Shuangliu, Chongqing, Guangzhou, Taipei–Songshan, Tianjin
Air Macau Macau
All Nippon Airways Tokyo–Haneda
Asiana Airlines Seoul–Gimpo
Chengdu Airlines Chengdu–Shuangliu, Yueyang
China Airlines Taipei–Songshan
China Eastern Airlines Anqing, Beijing–Capital, Changsha, Chengdu–Tianfu, Chongqing, Dali, Daqing, Diqing, Dunhuang, Enshi, Fuzhou, Ganzhou, Guangzhou, Guilin, Guiyang, Harbin, Hohhot, Hong Kong, Jiayuguan, Jieyang, Jinan, Kunming, Lanzhou, Lijiang, Lincang, Linyi, Liuzhou, Luoyang, Macau, Mangshi, Mudanjiang, Nanchang, Nanning, Pu'er, Qingdao, Seoul–Gimpo, Shenyang, Shenzhen, Taipei–Songshan, Taiyuan, Tengchong, Tianjin, Tokyo–Haneda, Ulanhot, Urumqi, Weihai, Wenshan, Wuhai, Wuhan, Wuyishan, Xiamen, Xi'an, Xining, Xinyang,[14] Yan'an, Yancheng, Yanji, Yantai, Yinchuan, Yulin, Zhengzhou, Zhuhai
China Southern Airlines Beijing–Daxing,[15] Chengdu–Shuangliu, Guangzhou, Guiyang, Nanning, Ordos, Shenzhen, Urumqi, Yining, Zhengzhou
China United Airlines Beijing–Daxing, Shijiazhuang, Tianjin
EVA Air Taipei–Songshan
Hainan Airlines Beijing–Capital, Guangzhou, Urumqi
Hebei Airlines Shijiazhuang
Hong Kong Airlines Hong Kong
Japan Airlines Tokyo–Haneda
Juneyao Airlines Beijing–Daxing,[16] Bijie, Changsha, Chengdu–Tianfu, Chizhou, Chongqing, Guangzhou, Guiyang, Kunming, Lanzhou, Nanning, Sanya, Seoul–Gimpo, Shenzhen, Taiyuan, Tokyo–Haneda, Urumqi, Wuhan, Xi'an, Zhuhai, Zunyi–Maotai
Korean Air Seoul–Gimpo
Lucky Air Kunming, Yichun
OTT Airlines Beijing–Capital[17]
Shandong Airlines Chongqing, Jinan, Qingdao, Xiamen, Yantai
Shanghai Airlines Beijing–Capital, Changsha, Chengdu–Shuangliu, Chongqing, Fuyang, Fuzhou, Guangzhou, Guilin, Guiyang, Haikou, Hailar, Hohhot, Hong Kong, Jiamusi, Jieyang, Jinggangshan, Jixi, Kunming, Lanzhou, Lianyungang, Macau, Nanchang, Nanning, Ordos, Qingdao, Qiqihar, Sanya, Seoul–Gimpo, Shenyang, Shenzhen, Taipei–Songshan, Taiyuan, Tianjin, Tokyo–Haneda, Urumqi, Wenzhou, Wuhan, Xiamen, Xi'an, Xishuangbanna, Yantai, Zhanjiang, Zhengzhou, Zhuhai
Shenzhen Airlines Guangzhou, Jingdezhen, Shenzhen
Spring Airlines Changde, Changsha, Chengde, Chengdu–Tianfu, Chongqing, Dongying, Enshi, Guangzhou, Guiyang, Hohhot, Huaihua, Jieyang, Kunming, Lanzhou, Qianjiang, Qingdao, Qingyang, Quanzhou, Shenzhen, Shijiazhuang, Urumqi, Xiamen, Xi'an, Xishuangbanna, Yinchuan, Zhangjiakou, Zhanjiang, Zhuhai, Zunyi–Xinzhou
Tianjin Airlines Tianjin
Tibet Airlines Chengdu–Shuangliu, Lhasa
XiamenAir Beijing–Daxing, Chongqing, Fuzhou, Quanzhou, Shenzhen, Xiamen

Other facilities[edit]

Entrance to the airport hotel

The airport has the head office of China Eastern Airlines, which is housed in the China Eastern Airlines Building,[18][19] and was the head office of China Cargo Airlines.[20]

Apron of Shanghai Hongqiao Airport in 2010.
Apron of Hongqiao Airport

Accidents and incidents[edit]

  • On 17 September 1982, an Japan Airlines Flight 792, a Douglas DC-8-61 bearing registration JA8048 en route to Tokyo Narita Airport, made an emergency landing, overran the runway and crashed into a drainage ditch after the hydraulic system and airbrake pressure failed. No one of the 124 passengers and crew was killed aboard the aircraft.[21]
  • On 15 August 1989, an China Eastern Airlines Antonov An-24, bearing the registration B-3417 and en route to Nanchang ,crashed on takeoff due to an engine failure. Of the 40 occupants, 6 survived.[22]
  • On 10 September 1998, China Eastern Airlines Flight 586, an MD-11 bearing registration B-2173, made an emergency landing at the airport after the landing gear had not retracted properly while en route to Beijing. Of the 137 occupants on board, no one was killed. The footage was subsequently uploaded to YouTube.[23] [24]
  • On 15 April 1999, Korean Air Lines Flight 6316, an MD-11F bearing registration HL7373, crashed shortly after takeoff from Hongqiao Airport to Seoul. After takeoff, the first officer contacted Shanghai Departure, which cleared the flight to climb to 1,500 metres (4,900 ft). When the aircraft climbed to 4,500 feet (1,400 m) in the corridor, the captain, after receiving two wrong affirmative answers from the first officer that the required altitude should be 1,500 ft (460 m), thought that the aircraft was 3,000 ft (910 m) too high. The captain then pushed the control column abruptly and roughly forward causing the plane to enter a rapid descent. Both crew members tried to recover from the dive but were unable. All three occupants onboard and five people on the ground were killed.[25]
  • On 13 August 2011, Qatar Airways Flight 888, a Boeing 777-300ER en route from Doha International Airport to Shanghai's other international airport, Shanghai Pudong International Airport declared a low-fuel emergency and elected to divert to Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport. Air traffic control at Hongqiao ordered Juneyao Airlines Flight 1112, en route from Shenzhen Bao'an International Airport to Hongqiao, to terminate its approach and allow the Qatar Airways Boeing 777-300ER to land. The pilot of Juneyao Airlines Flight 1112 ignored repeated orders to abort their landing and give Flight 888 priority, ultimately forcing the Qatar Airways flight to go-around. Both aircraft landed safely without injury or damage to the aircraft. The incident led to penalties to Juneyao Airlines and the crew of the Juneyao plane by the Civil Aviation Administration of China, including the permanent revocation of the pilot's license in China.[26]
  • On 7 June 2013, China Eastern Airlines Flight 2947, an Embraer EMB-145LI flying from Huai'an Lianshui Airport to Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport veered off of runway 18L at Hongqiao during landing. The plane came to a stop on an adjacent taxiway with its nose gear collapsed. No passengers or crew suffered any injuries, however, the plane received substantial damage.[27]
  • On 11 October 2016, China Eastern Airlines Flight MU5643, an Airbus A320 (Registration B-2337), nearly collided with Flight MU5106 of the same airline, an Airbus A330, when the former was taking off on runway 36L while the latter was crossing the same runway under wrong instruction. The former performed a TOGA takeoff, managed to climb over the latter, and avoided a collision.[28]

Ground transportation[edit]

A Shanghai rail transit map guides passengers to their destination in Shanghai.

Terminal 2 of the Hongqiao Airport (31°11′46″N 121°19′18″E / 31.19611°N 121.32167°E / 31.19611; 121.32167) is immediately adjacent to Shanghai Hongqiao Railway Station (31°11′46″N 121°18′58″E / 31.19611°N 121.31611°E / 31.19611; 121.31611), a major train hub served by the Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway, the Shanghai–Hangzhou High-Speed Railway and the Shanghai–Nanjing Intercity High-Speed Railway. The airport's other terminal, Terminal 1 (31°11′50″N 121°20′32″E / 31.19722°N 121.34222°E / 31.19722; 121.34222), is across the airfield from Terminal 2.

The airport and the railway station are served by three stations of the metro network:[29]

The proposed extension of the Shanghai Maglev Train from Longyang Road through Shanghai South railway station to Hongqiao would connect the two airports. At top speed, the maglev would take only 15 minutes to travel the 55 km route. Original plans called for completing the extension by 2010, in time for the Expo 2010; however, the Hongqiao extension has been indefinitely postponed due to protests.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2016年民航机场生产统计公报. CAAC. 24 February 2017.
  2. ^ ACI releases World Airport Traffic Report 2010
  3. ^ 民航局与上海市人民政府在沪签战略合作协议 (in Chinese). Carnoc. 6 April 2012.
  4. ^ "Shanghai Hongqiao international airport was certified as a Skytrax five star airport".
  5. ^ 航空知识 (3 September 2020). "从陈应明航空画中忆英雄风采!抗战胜利75周年,我们从未忘记". 澎湃号·媒体. 1932年“1·28”事变爆发后,中国派出9架各型军机调往上海虹桥机场增援,并与当日与日本发生空战,但战斗双方都无损失。
  6. ^ Hwang, Jack. "碧穹始戰三千日──八一四空軍作戰探析". Light's Blog. Retrieved 21 May 2021. 1420時,第5大隊24隊隊長劉粹剛率霍克三式驅逐機3架,各掛250公斤炸彈1枚,從揚州起飛轟炸虹口日本海軍特別陸戰隊司令部。1540時從1800英尺(550米)高度俯衝投彈,落彈離目標800米。此時,巡邏中的森澄夫發現空中有6架第2大隊的諾斯羅普伽瑪2E輕轟炸機及3架霍克三式驅逐機。他憑藉高度優勢,對左下方一架霍克三式驅逐機俯衝而下,佔位在後上方以機前固定的單挺7.7毫米機槍開火,從100米距離射擊至50米,霍克機隨即冒出黑煙落下。此機正是24隊副隊長梁鴻雲的2410號機,最後墜落於離上海20公里處,梁鴻雲重傷送醫不治。另外袁葆康的2406號霍克三式機的機輪機械被高射砲火擊傷不能放下,在虹橋機場迫降時翻覆,機毀人無恙。
  7. ^ "Aviation Photo #0053471: Airbus A340-3... - Virgin Atlantic Airways". Airliners.net. Retrieved 23 August 2021.
  8. ^ "Aviation Photo #0053472: Boeing 777-228/ER - Air France". Airliners.net. Retrieved 23 August 2021.
  9. ^ "Aviation Photo #0053473: McDonnell Douglas MD-11 - Swissair". Airliners.net. Retrieved 23 August 2021.
  10. ^ 映像記録保存館シリーズ(海外編01) 1989年11月撮影 ~懐かしの中国 上海・蘇州・無錫~, retrieved 30 August 2021
  11. ^ "Runway at Hongqiao ready for flight test". 10 January 2010. Archived from the original on 6 May 2010.
  12. ^ Yang, Jian (31 October 2014). "Airport renovation biggest since it opened in 1921". Shanghai Daily. Shanghai Daily. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
  13. ^ a b Yang, Jian (21 March 2017). "Hongqiao airport gets its biggest facelift since its opening in 1921". Shanghai Daily. Shanghai Daily. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
  14. ^ 嘿!2018年冬春新航季,来聊点航线新动态!. WeChat (in Chinese). China Eastern Shanghai sales. 12 October 2018. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
  15. ^ "China Southern to fly from Hongqiao to new mega Daxing airport".
  16. ^ "Juneyao Airlines adds Beijing Daxing service from late-Oct 2019". routesonline. Retrieved 24 September 2019.
  17. ^ Zhou, Cissy (29 December 2020). "China ramps up domestic jet development as OTT Airlines makes maiden flight with home-grown ARJ21 jet". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 31 December 2020.
  18. ^ "Exhibit B." p. 2. "2550 Hongqiao Road Hongqiao International Airport China Eastern Airlines Building" (Archive)
  19. ^ "China Eastern Airlines Corp. Ltd. (CEA)." Yahoo! Finance. Retrieved on 3 October 2009. "China Eastern Airlines Corp. Ltd. 2550 Hong Qiao Road Shanghai, 200335 China – Map"
  20. ^ "Directory:World airlines." Flight International. 25–31 March 2003. 45. "Hongqiao International Airport, Shanghai, 200335, China"
  21. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident McDonnell Douglas DC-8-61 JA8048 Shanghai-Hongqiao Airport (SHA)". aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 9 August 2021.
  22. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Antonov An-24RV B-3417 Shanghai-Hongqiao Airport (SHA)". aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 9 August 2021.
  23. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident McDonnell Douglas MD-11 B-2173 Shanghai-Hongqiao Airport (SHA)". aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 9 August 2021.
  24. ^ Raw Footage of China Eastern Airlines Flight 586 Emergency Landing 1998年,东航客机迫降上海虹桥机场实录!!, retrieved 10 August 2021
  25. ^ Accident summary, Korean Air HL7373. aviation-safety.net
  26. ^ Incident: Incident: Qatar B773 and Juneyao A320 near Shanghai on 13 August 2011, fuel emergency or not. The Aviation Herald. 24 August 2011.
  27. ^ Accident: China Eastern E145 at Shanghai on 7 June 2013, runway excursion, nose gear collapse. The Aviation Herald. 7 June 2013.
  28. ^ "Two China Eastern Jets in Runway Incursion at Shanghai Hongqiao Airport". China Aviation Daily. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
  29. ^ "Shanghai metro reaches Hongqiao Airport". Railway Gazette International. 16 March 2010.

External links[edit]

Media related to Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport at Wikimedia Commons