|Owner||Shanghai Municipal Government|
|Locale||Shanghai and Kunshan, Jiangsu|
|Transit type||Rapid transit|
|Number of lines||14[note 1]|
|Number of stations||364[note 2]|
|Daily ridership||7.75 million (2014 avg.)
10.833 million (record)
|Annual ridership||2.828 billion (2014)|
|Began operation||May 28, 1993|
|Operator(s)||Shanghai Shentong Metro Group|
|System length||588 km (365.4 mi)[note 1]|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
|Electrification||DC1500V overhead line; (Line 16) DC1500V third-rail|
|Literal meaning||Shanghai Rail Transit|
|Commonly abbreviated as|
|Literal meaning||Shanghai Subway|
The Shanghai Metro is a rapid transit system in Shanghai, China, operating urban and suburban rail transit services to 14 of its 17 municipal districts (except Fengxian, Jinshan and Chongming) and to Huaqiao Town, Kunshan, Jiangsu Province. Opening in 1993 with full-scale construction extending back to 1986, Shanghai Metro is the third oldest rapid transit system in mainland China, after the Beijing Subway and the Tianjin Metro. It has seen substantial growth over the decades, especially during the years leading up to the 2010 Shanghai World Expo, and is still expanding, with its most recent expansions having opened in December 2015[update]. It is the largest component of the Shanghai metropolitan rail transit network, together with the Shanghai Maglev Train, the Zhangjiang Tram and the China Railway-operated commuter rail services to Jinshan and to Lingang New City in Pudong.
Currently, the Shanghai Metro system is the world's largest rapid transit system by route length and second largest by number of stations[note 2], with 14 lines[note 1] and 364 stations totaling 588 kilometres (365 mi).[note 1] It also ranks second in the world by annual ridership after Beijing, with 2.8 billion rides delivered in 2014. The daily ridership record was set at 10.833 million on December 31, 2015, while over 9 million people use the system on an average workday.
On 16 October 2013, with the extension of Line 11 into Kunshan, Jiangsu province, Shanghai Metro became the first rapid transit system in China to provide cross-provincial service. Further plans to connect the Shanghai Metro with the metro systems of Suzhou and Wuxi are under active review.
- 1 Lines and services
- 2 Stations
- 3 Timeline
- 4 Ticket system
- 5 Infrastructure
- 6 Future expansion
- 7 Incidents
- 8 See also
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Lines and services
Lines and services are denoted numerically as well as by characteristic colors, which are used as a visual aid for better distinction on station signage and on the exterior of trains, in the form of a colored block or belt.
Unlike in other systems such as the New York City Subway, most tracks in the Shanghai Metro system are served by a single service; thus "Line X" usually refers both to the physical line and its service. The only exception is the segment shared by Lines 3 and 4, between Hongqiao Road Station and Baoshan Road Station, where both services use the same tracks and platforms. Otherwise, transfers between intersecting lines are possible through in-station connecting passageways.
Partial service patterns
Partial service patterns exist on Lines 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 11, whereby some trains serve only a (usually busier) sub-segment of the entire physical line. In addition, Line 2 has a piecewise service pattern whereby the suburban segment between Guanglan Road Station and Pudong International Airport Station is served by a 4-car fleet separately. Passengers traveling across Guanglan Road on Line 2 must change trains across the platform at Guanglan Road.
Currently, all trains make all stops along its service route. Except for Line 16, express service is not physically possible. Line 16 is built with an express track. A rush-hour, peak-direction express service once existed on Line 16, making two intermediate stops at Xinchang Station and Huinan Station. However, due to concerns for overall capacity, the express service was discontinued on January 30, 2014.
All trains in the Shanghai Metro display destinations in Simplified Chinese and English, and make announcements in Standard Mandarin, English, and (on line 16 only) Shanghainese of stops, and to indicate direction as well as partial/full-length service patterns.
There are two types of transfer stations: physical transfer stations and transit-card only ones. In a physical transfer station, passengers can transfer between subway lines without exiting a fare zone. In a transit-card only transfer station, however, passengers have to exit and re-enter fare zones as they transfer from one subway line to another. In order to receive a discounted fare, passengers must use a Shanghai public transport card (SPTC) instead of Single-Ride tickets.
- Baoshan Road, Shanghai Railway Station, Zhongtan Road, Zhenping Road, Caoyang Road, Jinshajiang Road, Zhongshan Park, West Yan'an Road and Hongqiao Road are interchanges between Lines 3 and 4. This is where the two lines share tracks between Baoshan Road and Hongqiao Road.
- Lines 4 and 6 stop at two different stations both known as Pudian Road, but these two stations are not located together and interchanging is not possible.
- Longyang Road and Pudong International Airport stations also provide transfers to the Shanghai Maglev Train, though passengers have to make another payment if they board the Maglev train.
Transit-card only transfer stations
A transit-card only transfer station is a station where two lines meet, but unlike a physical interchange, there is no direct pathway between them within the paid fare area. Passengers wishing to interchange must exit the paid fare area for the first line, walk a short distance on the street, and re-enter the paid fare area for the second line. Since June 1, 2008, passengers interchanging using a Shanghai public transport card have their trip regarded as one journey and the distance will be accumulated for fare calculation. Passengers must exit a station and re-enter another within 30 minutes using the same Shanghai public transport card. Those using single-ride tickets cannot use virtual transfers and must purchase a new ticket.
In some cases virtual interchanges in place during a period of construction were superseded by physical interchanges at the completion of the construction. For example, Hongkou Football Stadium Station was previously a virtual interchange between Line 3 and Line 8. Another previously virtual interchange was South Shaanxi Road Station between Line 1 and Line 10; after the opening of an extension of line 12 to the station in December 2015 transfers among all three lines became a physical interchange.
The current virtual interchanges are:
- Shanghai Railway Station is a virtual interchange station between Line 1 and Line 3 / Line 4, but the transfer between Line 3 and Line 4 does not require re-entry.
- West Nanjing Road Station is a virtual interchange station among Line 2, Line 12 and Line 13.
- Longhua Station is a virtual interchange station among Line 11 and Line 12.
The busiest station in Shanghai Metro system is People's Square station (Lines 1, 2 and 8). As the interchange station for three lines, it is extremely crowded during peak hours. It remains busy during the rest of the day as it is located near major shopping and tourist destinations such as Nanjing Road (E.) Pedestrian Street as well as the Shanghai Museum, People's Park, the Shanghai Grand Theatre and Yan'an Park on People's Square. It has the second largest number of exits (totalling 17) in the stations of the metro system.
Xujiahui (Lines 1, 9 and 11) is located in the major Xujiahui commercial center of Shanghai. Six large shopping malls and eight large office towers are each within a three-minute walk of one of the station's exits, numbering a total of 18 since the addition of the four in the Line 9 part of the station that opened in December 2009. This is the largest number of exits of all the stations on the system. This station is also widely used as a pedestrian tunnel across the wide roads.
Lujiazui (Line 2) is the major station in Pudong area. It is situated in the heart of Lujiazui financial district, the financial center of Shanghai. The city's iconic landmarks, the Oriental Pearl TV Tower, Jin Mao Tower and Shanghai World Financial Centre are all within walking distance of the station. In contrast to Xujiahui and People's Square, Lujiazui is not particularly busy during off-peak hours or at weekends as it is located in financial district of Shanghai.
Shanghai Railway Station (Lines 1, 3 and 4) is a major transportation hub in Shanghai, containing the railway station, two subway lines and the stop for many city bus lines as well as interprovincial buses. These bus lines will soon be housed in a brand-new bus station. The line 1 platform is in the South square while platforms for line 3/4 are in the North square. These two platforms are technically separate stations, so interchange is only possible between lines 3/4. A transfer to the line 1 platform requires a SPTC or a new ticket.
Pudong International Airport (Line 2) is the eastern terminus of Line 2. It serves the airport of the same name in Shanghai. The station also provides a transfer with the Shanghai Maglev Train to Longyang Road.
- May 28, 1993 – Southern section of Line 1 (New Longhua/Shanghai South Railway Station – Xujiahui) enters operation (4.4 km).
- April 10, 1995 – Line 1 (Jinjiang Park – Shanghai Railway Station; including initial section, which opened 1993) enters operation  (16.1 km).
- December 28, 1996 – Southern extension to Line 1 (Xinzhuang – Jinjiang Park) enters operation (4.5 km).
- Sept 20, 1999 – Line 2 (Zhongshan Park – Longyang Road) enters operation (16.3 km).
- December 26, 2000 – Two lines enter operation:
- November 25, 2003 – Line 5 (Xinzhuang – Minhang) enters operation (17.2 km).
- December 28, 2004 – Northern extension to Line 1 (Shanghai Railway Station – Gongfu Xincun) enters operation (12.4 km).
- December 31, 2005 – Line 4 enters operation, except section between Lancun Road and Damuqiao Road that was delayed due to construction accident.
- December 18, 2006 – Northern extension to Line 3 (Jiangwan – North Jiangyang Road) enters operation (15.7 km).
- December 30, 2006 – Western extension to Line 2 (Songhong Road – Zhongshan Park) enters operation (6.15 km).
- December 29, 2007 – Five lines or sections enter operation on the same day:
- Second northern extension to Line 1 (Gongfu Xincun – Fujin Road) (3.4 km)
- Delayed section of Line 4 (Lancun Road – Damuqiao Road), completing the loop.
- Line 6 (Gangcheng Road – South Lingyan Road) (31.1 km)
- Line 8 (Shiguang Road – Yaohua Road)
- Line 9 (Songjiang New Town– Guilin Road)
- December 28, 2008 – Line 9 is extended from Guilin Road to Yishan Road, connecting with the rest of the metro network.
- July 5, 2009 – Southern extension to Line 8 (Yaohua Road – Shendu Highway) enters operation (14.4 km).
- December 5, 2009 – Line 7 (Shanghai University – Huamu Road) enters operation (34.4 km).
- December 31, 2009 – Two lines enter operation:
- February 24, 2010 – Short section of eastern extension of Line 2 (Longyang Road - Guanglan Road) enters operation. Zhangjiang Hi-tech Park station is rebuilt underground.
- March 16, 2010 – Second western extension to Line 2 (Xujing East – Songhong Road) enters operation, connecting Hongqiao Airport to the metro system.
- March 29, 2010 – Branch line of Line 11 (Jiading Xincheng- Anting) enters operation.
- April 8, 2010 – Eastern extension to Line 2 (Guanglan Road – Pudong International Airport) enters operation, connecting the two airports.
- April 10, 2010 – Line 10 (New Jiangwan City – Hangzhong Road) enters operation. Shanghai Metro becomes the longest metro system in the world after 15 years of breakneck growth.
- April 20, 2010 – Expo section of Line 13 (Madang Road – Shibo Avenue) enters temporary operation.
- July 1, 2010 – with the opening of Hongqiao Railway Station, its metro station of the same name on Line 2 enters operation.
- November 2, 2010 – With the end of Shanghai Expo, Expo section of Line 13 suspends service, to be reopened when the rest of the line is completed.
- November 30, 2010 – Section of Line 10 (Longxi Road – Hongqiao Railway Station) enters operation, connecting the two terminals of Hongqiao Airport.
- December 28, 2010 – The 10-km long northern extension to Line 7 (Shanghai University – Meilan Lake) enters operation.
- April 12, 2011 – Oriental Sports Center Station Opens
- April 26, 2011 – Line 11 East Changji Road Station opens.
- June 30, 2011 – Panguang Road and Liuhang Stations on Line 7 open.
- December 30, 2012 – Two lines enter operation:
- August 31, 2013 – The second phase of Line 11 (Jiangsu Road – Luoshan Road) enters operation.
- October 16, 2013 – The 6-km long branch extension of Line 11 (Anting – Huaqiao) enters operation. Shanghai Metro is extended into Jiangsu province.
- December 29, 2013 – The eastern section of Line 12 (Tiantong Road - Jinhai Road) and Line 16 (Luoshan Road - Dishui Lake) both enter operation.
- May 10, 2014 – Line 12 Extension to Qufu Road Station.
- December 28, 2014 – Extensions to Line 13 (Jinshajiang Road – Changshou Road) and Line 16 (Luoshan Road – Longyang Road) open 
- December 19, 2015 – Extensions to Line 11 (Luoshan Road – Kangxin Highway), Line 12 (Qufu Road - Qixin Road), Line 13 (Changshou Road – Shibo Avenue) open
Like many other metro systems in the world, Shanghai Metro uses a distance-based fare system. As of September 15, 2005, after Shanghai Municipal Government raised the price, fares range from 3 yuan for journeys under 6 km, to 10 yuan for journeys over 6 km.
As of December 25, 2005, Shanghai uses a "one-ticket network", which means that interchanging is possible between all interchange stations without the purchase of another ticket where available. In the event of riding beyond the value of one's ticket, the user may pay the difference at a Service Center near the main turnstiles.
Since June 1, 2008, users of the Shanghai public transport card can interchange at Shanghai Railway Station, and Hongkou Stadium without paying another base fare. (see section on virtual interchange stations above).
- For most lines, the base fare is 3 yuan for journeys under 6 km, then 1 yuan for each additional 10 km. As of December 2013, the highest fare is 15 yuan.
- For journeys exclusively on Line 5 (Xinzhuang – Minhang Development Zone), the fare is 2 yuan for journeys under 6 km and all other journeys are 3 yuan (though the total length of this line is a bit longer than 16 km).
- Users of the Shanghai public transport card get a 10% discount for the rest of the calendar month after paying 70 yuan. The discount is applied only for journeys after the payment; it is not retroactively applied to previous journeys.
- Users of the Shanghai public transport card as part of the "Air-conditioned Bus Transfer Discount" get a 1 yuan discount when transferring to the metro within 90 minutes. (The 10% monthly discount may be applied after the transfer discount) This discount also applies for bus to Metro and bus to bus transfers and can accumulate over multiple transfers. For example, to get from Zhenbei Rd/Meichuan Rd to Xiuyan Rd/Hunan Rd would normally cost 8 yuan each way (947 bus to line 4 to 451 bus) but only costs 6 RMB with the card (947 bus discounted transfer to line 4, discounted transfer to 451 bus). Depending on the time spent at the destination the discount will be applied at the start of the return trip as well, making the cost of a round-trip 11 yuan instead of the 16 yuan that would normally be charged without the card.
- Seniors over 70 years of age can take the metro for free (except during rush hours, 7–9am and 5–7pm on weekdays) by using their social security cards (also RFID-embedded) at a special turnstile at each metro station.
Single Journey ticket
Single-ride tickets can be purchased from ticket vending machines, and at some stations, at a ticket window. Single-ride tickets are embedded with RFID contactless chips. When entering the system riders tap the ticket against a scanner above the turnstile, and on exit they insert the ticket into a slot where it is stored and recycled.
In addition to a Single-Ride ticket, fare can be paid using a Shanghai public transport card. This RFID-embedded card can be purchased at selected banks, convenience stores and metro stations with a 20-yuan deposit. This card can be loaded at ticket booths, Service Centers at the metro stations as well as many small convenience stores and banks throughout the city. The Shanghai Public Transportation Card can also be used to pay for other forms of transportation, such as taxi or bus.
A one-day pass was introduced for the Expo 2010 held in Shanghai. The fare for the calendar day was set at 18 yuan, for unlimited travel within the metro system. This is not available through vending machines, but has to be purchased at Service Centers at metro stations.
A three-day pass is available for Shanghai Metro. The fare for three days was set at 45 yuan, for unlimited travel within the metro system. This is not available through vending machines, but has to be purchased at Service Centers at metro stations.
Standard gauge is used throughout the network, allowing new train equipment to be transported over the Chinese rail network which uses the same gauge.
Almost all stations, except elevated sections and Line 2, have platform screen doors with sliding acrylic glass at the platform edge. The train stops with its doors lined-up with the sliding doors on the platform edge and open when the train doors open, and are closed at other times. These screens are also being retrofitted on existing lines, starting with Line 1 whose core stations had doors by the end of 2006. On Line 2 and elevated sections(Line 3 and partly 4), the platform has sliding safety doors that reach only halfway up from the ground called Automatic platform gates.
|This section does not cite any sources. (April 2015)|
Train sets used by the Metro system:
- 134 Bombardier Movia 456 six car sets(AC04) - Lines 9, 7 and 12
- 61 German Shanghai Metro Group (GSMG) six cars units (Coded as AC01 for those using Alternating Current or DC01 for those using Direct Current for Line 1, AC02 for Line 2) – Line 1 and 2 (all reformed to eight car units)
- 53 Alstom Metropolis eight car sets(Coded as AC06) – Line 1 and 2
- 16 Alstom Metropolis four car sets(AC06) - Section of Line 2
- 17 Alstom Metropolis four car sets - Line 5
- 21 Alstom Metropolis four car sets(AC06) - Line 6
- 28 Alstom Metropolis six car or seven car sets - Line 8
- 29 CNR Changchun Railway Vehicles Co., Ltd. four car sets - line 6
- 38 CNR Changchun Railway Vehicles Co., Ltd. seven car sets - line 8
- 28 Alstom Metropolis six car sets(AC03) – Line 3
- 86 Siemens & CSR Zhuzhou six car sets(AC05) - Line 4 and 11
- 41 Shanghai Electric-Alstom/Nanjing Puzhen Rolling Stock Co., Ltd. six car sets – Line 10
- 24 Nanjing Puzhen Rolling Stock Works six car sets - Line 13
- 46 Siemens & CSR Zhuzhou three car sets - Line 16
Most lines currently use 6 car sets, exceptions include:
- Lines 5, 6, and a section of line 2 which use 4 car sets.
- Some trains on line 8 use 7 car sets.
- Line 1 and line 2 used 8 car sets.
- Line 16 will use 3 car sets
On Line 2, Siemens Transportation Systems equipped the line with an overhead contact line (cantilever material: galvanized steel) and 7 DC traction power supply substations.
Passenger information systems
Plasma screens on the platforms show passengers when the next two trains are coming, along with advertisements and public service announcements. The subway cars contain LCD screens showing advertisements and on some lines, the next stop, while above-ground trains have LED screens showing the next stop. The LED screens are being phased in on Line 1 and are also included in lines 7 and 9, two underground lines. There are recorded messages stating the next stop in Mandarin, English and (on line 16 only) Shanghainese, but the messages stating nearby attractions or shops for a given station (a form of paid advertising) are in Mandarin only. The metro operating company is resistant to expanding use of Shanghainese for announcing stops, on the basis that, on most lines, the majority of passengers can understand either Mandarin or English.
The Shanghai Metro system is one of the fastest growing metro systems in the world. Four lines were under construction at the end of 2014, and nine other lines or sections will begin construction in 2015. By the end of 2020, the network will comprise 18 lines spanning 800 kilometres (497 mi). In addition, there are long-term plans to connect the Shanghai Metro with the Suzhou Rail Transit and Wuxi Metro in neighbouring Jiangsu province.
|Planned opening date||Route||Name||Terminals||Length (km)||Stations||Status||Notes|
|2017||Line 5||South Extension||Dongchuan Road||Nanqiao New City||17||8||Under construction|||
|Line 8||3rd Phase||Shendu Highway||Huizhen Road||6.644||6||Under construction|||
|Line 9||3rd Phase Eastern Section||Middle Yanggao Road||Caolu||13.8||9||Under construction|||
|Line 17||Hongqiao Railway Station||Shanghai Oriental Land||35.3||13||Under construction|||
|2018||Line 10||2nd Phase||Xinjiangwancheng||Huandong No.1 Avenue||10||6||Under construction|||
|Line 13||3rd Phase||Shibo Avenue||Zhangjiang Road||25.5||12||Under construction|||
|2020||Line 14||Fengbang||Guiqiao Road||38.5||31||Under construction|||
|Line 15||Gucun Park||Zizhu Science-Based Industry Park||42.3||30||Under construction|||
|Line 18||Changjiang South Road||Hangtou Station||36.8||26||Under construction|||
- December 22, 2009—at about 5:50 am, an electrical fault in the tunnel between South Shaanxi Road Station and People's Square Station caused a few trains to stall. While the track was under repair, a low-speed collision occurred between two trains on Line 1, trapping scores of passengers underground for up to two hours and affecting millions of early commuters. Nobody was injured, but the front of the train was badly damaged. Service resumed at around 12:15 pm.
- July 5, 2010—at the Zhongshan Park Station a woman died after trying to crowd into a subway train as the doors were closing. With her wrist trapped in the doors, she was dragged into the railings when the train started moving.
- July 29, 2011—at 7:06 pm, during a signaling system upgrade a train on Line 10 bound for the Hangzhong Road Station branch took the wrong direction and went into the branch bound for Hongqiao Railway Station. No injuries.
- September 27, 2011—at 2:51 pm, two trains on Line 10 collided between Yuyuan Garden Station and Laoximen Station, injuring 284 - 300 people. Initial investigations found that train operators violated regulations while operating the trains manually after a loss of power on the line caused its signal system to fail. No deaths were reported.
- This figure excludes Maglev line and Line 22, both often included in Shanghai Metro maps but not considered part of the system.
- 337 is the number of stations if interchanges on different lines are counted separately, with the exception of the 9 stations shared by Lines 3 and 4 on the same track. The stations on the Maglev line and Line 22 are not included.
- Kangxin Highway to Disney Station included
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Shanghai Metro.|
- Official website
- Shanghai Metro Club
- Shanghai Subway Information on UrbanRail
- Shanghai Metro Map - real distances