Shanghai maglev train

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Shanghai maglev train line
上海磁浮示范运营线
Shanghai Maglev Train logo.svg
A maglev train coming out, Pudong International Airport, Shanghai.jpg
Shanghai maglev train
Overview
Other name(s)Shanghai Transrapid
Airport express line (with extension to Hongqiao Railway Station, not to be confused with Airport link)
Shanghai-Hangzhou maglev line
StatusOperational
OwnerShanghai Shentong Holdlings Co.,Ltd.
Shenergy (Group) Co.,Ltd.
Shanghai International Group Co.,Ltd.
Shanghai Baosteel Group Co.,Ltd.
Shanghai Automotive Industry (Group) Co.,Ltd.
Shanghai Electric (Group) Co.,Ltd.)
Shanghai Pudong Development Co.,Ltd
LocalePudong
Shanghai
TerminiLongyang Road
Pudong International Airport
Connecting lines 2   7   16   18 
Stations2
Websitewww.shmetro.com
www.smtdc.com/en/
Service
TypeMaglev
ServicesLongyang RoadPudong International Airport
Operator(s)Shanghai Maglev Transportation Development Co., Ltd.
Depot(s)Shanghai Maglev Train Maintenance Base located near Pudong International Airport Station
Rolling stock2 trains (Transrapid 08 SMT № 1 & № 2)
History
CommencedFebruary 28, 2001; 20 years ago (2001-02-28)
OpenedDecember 31, 2002; 18 years ago (2002-12-31) (tour only)
October 10, 2003; 17 years ago (2003-10-10) (normal operation)
Technical
Line length29 km (18 mi)[1]
Number of tracks2
CharacterElevated
ElectrificationMaglev levitation
Operating speed431 km/h (268 mph) Average speed: 249.5 km/h (155 mph) (duration: 7 minutes and 20 seconds)
300 km/h (186 mph) Average speed: 224 km/h (139 mph) (duration: 8 minutes and 10 seconds)
SignallingGoA2 / STO
Route map
Shanghai maglev route map.png
Layout of Shanghai Maglev track.jpg
( 7  to Meilan Lake Up arrow)
( 2  to East Xujing Right arrow)
(Left arrow  18  to Hangtou 18  to Kangning Road Right arrow)
Longyang Road
 2   7   16   18 
( 7  to Huamu Road Right arrow)
(Left arrow  16  to Dishui Lake)
(Left arrow  13  to Jinyun Road –  13  to Zhangjiang Road Right arrow)
Pudong Canal
Maglev Maintenance Base
 2  Pudong International Airport
Shanghai maglev train
Simplified Chinese上海磁浮示范运营线
Traditional Chinese上海磁浮示範運營線
Literal meaningShanghai Maglev Demonstration Operation Line

The Shanghai maglev train or Shanghai Transrapid (Chinese: 上海磁浮示范运营线) is a magnetic levitation train (maglev) line that operates in Shanghai. It is the oldest commercial maglev still in operation, and the first commercial high-speed maglev with cruising speed of 431 km/h (268 mph). It is also the fastest commercial electric train in the world.[2]

The train line connects Shanghai Pudong International Airport and Longyang Road Station (in the outskirts of central Pudong), where passengers can interchange to the Shanghai Metro to continue their trip to the city center. The line is not part of the Shanghai Metro network, which operates its own service to Pudong Airport from central Shanghai and Longyang Road Station. It cost $39.759 million per kilometer to build.[3] The line's balance of payments has been in huge deficit since its opening.

In its initial years of operation, the Shanghai Maglev Transportation Development Co. Ltd, the company which runs the line, had more than one billion RMB in losses.[4] Nevertheless, the line's lack of profitability derives from its construction to envision the future of China's rail infrastructure, such as converting its entire high-speed rail network into maglev, rather than a viable market solution to garner a profit from travelers.[5]

Background[edit]

The line runs from Longyang Road station in Pudong to Pudong International Airport; The Pudong International Airport station provides a transfer to Line 2, but the Longyang Road station provides access to Line 2, Line 7 and Line 16. At full speed, the journey takes 7 minutes and 20 seconds to complete the distance of 30 km (18.6 mi),[6] although some trains in the early morning and late afternoon take about 50 seconds longer. A train can reach 350 km/h (217 mph) in 2 minutes, with the maximum normal operation speed of 431 km/h (268 mph) reached thereafter.

Hans-Dieter Bott, vice president of Siemens that won the contract to build the rail link, stated that "Transrapid views the Shanghai line, where the ride will last just eight minutes, largely as a sales tool. This serves as a demonstration for China to show that this works and can be used for longer distances, such as Shanghai to Beijing".[7] However, the decision was eventually made to implement the Beijing–Shanghai high-speed railway with conventional high-speed technology. Plans for a shorter maglev extension from Longyang Road to Hangzhou, the Shanghai–Hangzhou maglev line, have been suspended.

Speculation that a line would be built from Shanghai to Beijing mounted in 2002. It would cover a distance of about 1,300 km (808 mi), at an estimated cost of £15.5bn.[8] The chief executive of ThyssenKrupp, Dr Ekkehard Schulz said he was certain that not only Germany, but many countries would follow the Chinese example. The German government along with a selection of German companies sought to win more projects for their maglev technology, and highlighted that a train between Shanghai and the Chinese capital, Beijing remained a possibility. However, no projects have been revealed as of 2014.[9]

History[edit]

Construction of the line began on March 1, 2001,[10] and public commercial service commenced on 1 January 2004. The top operational commercial speed of this train is 431 km/h (268 mph), making it the world's fastest train in regular commercial service since its opening in April 2004. During a non-commercial test run on 12 November 2003, piloted by Jonathan Texiera, a maglev train achieved a Chinese record speed of 501 km/h (311 mph).[11] The Shanghai Maglev has a length of 153 metres (502 ft), a width of 3.7 metres (12 ft), a height of 4.2 metres (14 ft) and a three-class, 574-passenger configuration.[12]

The train set model (SMT Transrapid) was built by a joint venture of Siemens and ThyssenKrupp from Kassel, Germany and based on years of tests and improvements of their Transrapid maglev monorail. The Shanghai Maglev track (guideway) was built by local Chinese companies who, as a result of the alluvial soil conditions of the Pudong area, had to deviate from the original track design of one supporting column every 50 metres to one column every 25 meters, to ensure that the guideway meets the stability and precision criteria. Several thousand concrete piles were driven to depths up to 70 metres to attain stability for the support column foundations. A mile-long, climate-controlled facility was built alongside the line's right of way to manufacture the guideways. The train was manufactured in Germany by Siemens-Thyssenkrupp JV (Joint venture).

The electrification of the train was developed by Vahle, Inc.[13] Two commercial maglev systems predated the Shanghai system: the Birmingham Maglev in the United Kingdom and the Berlin M-Bahn. Both were low-speed operations and closed before the opening of the Shanghai maglev train.

The train was inaugurated in 2002 by the German chancellor, Gerhard Schröder, and the Chinese premier, Zhu Rongji.[8] Initial opening was for tour only, providing a round trip. The train starts from Longyang Rd. Station, speed up to 431 km/h and arrives at Pudong Airport. After very short break, the train returns without opening the door. The price was 150 RMB for normal seats and 300 RMB for VIP seat. The normal operation started on 10 October 2003.

Operation[edit]

The line is operated by Shanghai Maglev Transportation Development Co., Ltd and runs from 06:45 to 21:30, with services every 15 to 20 minutes. A one-way ticket costs ¥50 (US$8), or ¥40 ($6.40) for those passengers holding a receipt or proof of an airline ticket purchase. A round-trip return ticket costs ¥80 ($12.80) and VIP tickets cost double the standard fare.

Following the opening, overall maglev train ridership levels were at 20% of capacity.[14] The levels were attributed to limited operating hours, the short length of the line, high ticket prices and that it terminates at Longyang Road in Pudong – another 20 min by subway from the city centre.[14]

  • In February 2003, the Shanghai Maglev train transported 18,000 guests during the first nine days of the Lunar New Year;
  • As of August 31, 2004, the total passenger capacity of Shanghai Maglev trains reached 1.45 million, and the total safe operation mileage reached 1.02 million kilometers;
  • As of the end of March 2006, the cumulative safe operating mileage of Shanghai Maglev trains exceeded 2.4 million kilometers, carrying 6.23 million passengers;
  • On October 1, 2007, the single-day passenger flow of Shanghai Maglev Train exceeded 20,000 for the first time;
  • As of September 5, 2017, Shanghai Maglev trains have transported a total of 50 million passengers and safely operated 16.88 million kilometers.[citation needed]
Daytime hours[15] 06:45–08:45 09:00–10:45 11:00–14:45 15:00–15:45 16:00–19:00 19:00–21:40
Journey time (minutes) 8:10 7:20 8:10 7:20 8:10 8:10
Maximum speed 300 km/h (186 mph) 431 km/h (268 mph) 300 km/h (186 mph) 431 km/h (268 mph) 300 km/h (186 mph) 300 km/h (186 mph)
Average speed 224 km/h (139 mph) 249.5 km/h (155 mph) 224 km/h (139 mph) 249.5 km/h (155 mph) 224 km/h (139 mph) 224 km/h (139 mph)
Interval 20 minutes 15 minutes 15 minutes 15 minutes 15 minutes 20 minutes

In addition to the above 57 daily two-way services, two additional one-way scheduled trains starts off at 10:15 pm and 10:40 pm from Pudong Airport to Longyang Road for about 8 minutes since October 2016.[16] Travel time was sped up considerably, as the 30 km (19 mi) journey takes 45 minutes by road.[8]

Stations[edit]

Station name Connections
(out-of system)
Distance Duration Location Opened Platform[17]
English Chinese km mi 431km/h 300km/h
Longyang Road 龙阳路  2   7   16   18  0 0h 0m Pudong 31 December 2002 Elevated Double Side & Island
Pudong International Airport Shanghai Pudong International Airport 浦东国际机场  2  30+12 18.95 7m 20s 8m 10s At-grade Side

Pricing[edit]

The price has not changed since the Maglev began operation.

Ticket type Price (RMB) Notes
Single trip ticket 50 Valid for the Ordinary single trip ticket of the day
Single trip ticket by presenting air-ticket of the same day 40 Favorable Single trip ticket for passenger who takes air plane at the same day
Single trip ticket and metro ticket 55 Subway is a one-day ticket
Round trip ticket 80 Valid for the ordinary round trip ticket in 7 days
Round trip ticket and metro ticket 85 Subway is a one-day ticket can be used separately within the validity period.
VIP single trip ticket 100 Valid for the VIP single trip ticket of the day
VIP round ticket 160 Valid for the VIP round trip ticket in 7 days

Operating costs[edit]

A 2007 statement by Transrapid USA said with 4 million passengers in 2006 the system was able to cover its operating costs. The ratio of costs were given as: 64%-energy, 19%-maintenance & 17%-operations/support services; no amount was given. The high proportion of energy costs was attributed to the short trip time and high operating speed.[18] However, according to Chinese media's report, due to the huge costs of operating and the lack of the passenger flow, Shanghai Maglev Transportation Company would lose 500 million to 700 million RMB every year.[19]

Shanghai maglev museum[edit]

Maglev Longyang Road Station offers Shanghai Maglev Transportation Science and Technology Museum, located at 2100 Longyang Road, Pudong New Area (Shanghai Maglev Train Longyang Road Station ground floor). Open from 09:00 to 17:00. It showcases Shanghai Maglev related content with an exhibition space of 1250 square meters, containing most of the history and technology of maglev train. The museum is composed of “Birth of Maglev”, “Maglev Shanghai Line”, “Maglev Technology”, “Maglev Superiorities” and “Prospects for Maglev”, totally five sections.

Construction[edit]

The Shanghai Transrapid project took ¥10 billion (US$1.33bn) and two and a half years to complete. The line is 30.5 km (18.95 mi) track and has a further separate track leading to a maintenance facility.

Extensions[edit]

In January 2006, the Shanghai–Hangzhou maglev line extension project was proposed by the Shanghai Urban Planning Administrative Bureau. The extension would continue the existing line towards Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport, running via Shanghai South railway station and the Expo 2010 site, with a possible continuation towards Hangzhou. The extension would allow transferring between the two airports—located 55 km (34 mi) apart—in approximately 15 minutes. The section between the two Shanghai airports is also referred to as Airport express line.

The plan for the extension to Hangzhou was first approved by the central government in February 2006, with a planned date of completion in 2010, to be built by Germany's Transrapid consortium (mainly ThyssenKrupp and Siemens). Work was suspended in 2008, owing to public protests over radiation fears[20] despite an environmental assessment by the Shanghai Academy of Environmental Sciences saying the line was safe and would not affect air and water quality, and noise pollution could be controlled.[21] In January and February 2008, hundreds of residents demonstrated in downtown Shanghai against the line being built close to their homes. The residents were reportedly concerned with potential health hazards, noise, and loss of property value. The Shanghai scheme has a buffer zone around the track that will be 22.5 m wide, which compares unfavourably with German standards that require houses to be 300 m away from the line.[22] Representatives of the residents filed a formal request to demonstrate with the Shanghai Public Security Bureau, which was rejected. According to China Daily, as reported on People's Daily Online 27 February 2009, the Shanghai municipal government was considering building the maglev line underground to allay the public's fear of electromagnetic pollution and the final decision on the maglev line had to be approved by the National Development and Reform commission.

The total length would have been 169 km (105 mi), of which 64 km (40 mi) would be within the City of Shanghai and 105 km (65 mi) in the province of Zhejiang. Four stations would be built: at the Expo 2010 site in east Shanghai; in south Shanghai; Jiaxing; and east Hangzhou. The proposed design speed was 450 km/h, which would allow the train to travel the distance in just 27 minutes. The total budget of the project was to be 35 billion RMB (about US$5.0 billion as of April 2008).

Another approval was granted in March 2010, with construction to begin in late 2010.[23] The new link was to be 199.5 km (124 mi) long, 24 km (15 mi) longer than the original plan. The top speed was expected to be 450 km/h (280 mph) but limited to 200 km/h (124 mph) in built-up areas.

In October 2010 the non-maglev Shanghai–Hangzhou High-Speed Railway was opened, bringing travelling time between the two cities down to 45 minutes. Consequently, plans for a Maglev link have been suspended again.[24]

In addition, a new express Airport Link line (机场联络线), which began construction in June 2019[25] and is due for completion in 2024, would likely stop any future extension.

Incidents[edit]

On 14 February 2016, the Shanghai maglev line had an equipment failure which affected operation for more than 1 hour. Due to the use of single-line operation during this time, the train interval was extended.[26]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 5号线南延伸和13号线二、三期12月30日起试运营 (in Chinese). Shanghai Metro. 28 December 2018. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  2. ^ Hunt, Hugh (2017-01-19). "How we can make super-fast hyperloop travel a reality". Independent. Retrieved 19 January 2017.
  3. ^ Antlauf, Walter; Bernardeau, François; Coates, Kevin (November 2004). "Fast Track". Civil Engineering Magazine. Archived from the original on 2006-05-08. Retrieved 2017-12-22.
  4. ^ Zhang Feng'an (张凤安); Li Peng (李芃) (2008-01-15). 磁悬浮经济账:上海磁浮公司三年亏损超10亿. 《21世纪经济报道》. Retrieved 2017-01-20.
  5. ^ Coates, Kevin (May 2005). "Shanghai's maglev project–levitating beyond transportation theory" (PDF). Engineering World. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2006-05-08. Retrieved 2017-12-27. Rather than just deploying the high-speed rail systems of Japan or Europe to shorten long distance travel times, the Chinese decided to investigate the possibility of leap-frogging existing high speed rail technology by first deploying the German-designed Transrapid maglev system as a demonstration line. This way, the Chinese engineers could accumulate and analyse data from actual commercial operations of a new electronic transportation system.
  6. ^ "Maglev (Magnetic Levitation Train) Shanghai". maglevgps.yolasite.com.
  7. ^ McDonald, Joe (January 23, 2001). "Germans win bid to build China's futuristic rail link". The Independent. London. Retrieved May 23, 2010.
  8. ^ a b c "China claims train blue riband". Retrieved 27 December 2014.
  9. ^ "Shanghai welcomes high speed train". Cnn business. Retrieved 27 December 2014.
  10. ^ Chronicle of Events Archived 2012-08-09 at the Wayback Machine, Shanhai Maglev Transportation Development Co., Ltd.
  11. ^ "Shanghai Maglev Train (431 km/h) - High Definition Video". shanghaichina.ca.
  12. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-12-08. Retrieved 2015-03-20.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  13. ^ "VAHLE Chronicle" (PDF). Vahle Konkret Special: Chronicle of a Century. Paul Vahle GmbH & Co. May 2012. p. 9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 May 2013. Retrieved 31 December 2012.
  14. ^ a b Wu Zhong (2007-06-13). "China's dented image projects". Asia Times. Archived from the original on 2007-06-14.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  15. ^ Train Info. Archived 2015-02-17 at the Wayback Machine, Shanghai Airport Transportation maglev reference
  16. ^ "浦东机场磁浮线夜间增开两个班次 比平时便宜10元". 东广新闻台fm90.9. 2016-10-10. Retrieved 2017-01-20.
  17. ^ 乘车指南 > Station信息. Shanghai Metro Official Site. Retrieved 2015-12-17. Instructions: 点击相应线路,选择Station,点击"站层图"可查看相应Station的站台结构。
  18. ^ "Transrapid Shanghai Maglev Project Update" (PDF). May 2007. Retrieved 2014-05-22.
  19. ^ 王珏磊、徐太岳 (2009-02-26). "上海磁悬浮项目酝酿地上转地下 示范线年亏几亿". 《时代周报》. Retrieved 2017-01-20.
  20. ^ "Report: China suspends work on magnetic levitation train over radiation fears". International Herald Tribune.
  21. ^ "Hundreds protest Shanghai maglev rail extension". Reuters. Jan 12, 2008.
  22. ^ "Hundreds protest Shanghai maglev rail extension". Reuters. 12 January 2008.
  23. ^ "Report: Maglev extension given green light". Shanghai Daily.
  24. ^ "Report: Maglev link plan is suspended". Shanghai Daily. January 19, 2011. Retrieved February 16, 2011.
  25. ^ "上海机场联络线共设9站 可与多条轨交和市域铁路同站换乘". 2019-06-29.
  26. ^ 李继成 (2016-02-14). "上海磁浮线今晨出故障 影响运营1个多小时". 澎湃. Retrieved 2017-04-27.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 31°12′14″N 121°33′14″E / 31.20389°N 121.55389°E / 31.20389; 121.55389