Shantisagar

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Charitra Chakravartin Acharya Shri
Shantisagar
Ji Maharaj
Acharya Shantisagar.jpg
Acharya Shantisagar
Religion Jainism
Sect Digambara
Personal
Born Satgauda
1873
Yalgud, Belgaum Karnataka
Died 18 September 1955(1955-09-18) (aged 82–83)
Cremation place Kunthalgiri, Maharashtra
Parents
  • Bhimagauda Patil (father)
  • Satyavati (mother)
Religious career
Successor Virasagar
Initiated Virasagar, Nemisagar
Initiation 1919
Yarnal
by Devendrakirti
Initiation 1915

Acharya Shri Shantisagar (1872 - 1955) was an Indian monk of the Digambara school of the Jain faith. He was the first Acharya (preceptor) and a leader of his sect in the 20th century. Shantisagar revived the teaching and practice of traditional Digambara practices in North India.

Early Life[edit]

Shantisagar was born in either 1872[1] or 1873 in Yelgud near Bhoj village, Belgavi district Karnataka, India.[2] His father either worked as a farmer[3] or was employed in the clothing business.[4] At age eighteen, having read religious texts and undergone several pilgrimages,[2] Shantisagar decided to dedicate his life to a religious order.

Shantisagar's parents died in 1912. He then traveled to the Jain holy place, Shravanabelagola, a town in Hassan district, Karnataka, India. In 1918, whilst in Shravanabelagola, Shantisagar was lustrated asa kshullaka into the Sangha (holy order) by Devappa (Devakirti) Swami.[4] He took his ailaka (religious vows) before an image of the Tirthankara Neminatha. In about 1920, Shantisagar became a full muni (monk) of the Digambara sect of Jainism.[3] In 1922, at Yarnal village, Belgaum district, Karnataka, he was given the name "Shanti Sagara" ("Ocean of Peace").[2][4]

He preached the principles of Jainism in various parts of India and became an Acharya.[2] His disciples also called him "Charitra Chakravarti" ("Emperor of good character").[4] He has also been called "muniraj" ("King among Ascetics"), and "silasindhi" ("Ocean of Observances").[3]

He began a hunger strike to oppose restrictions imposed on Digambara monks by the British Raj.[3]

His Vihara throughout India[edit]

Acharyas of the Shantisagar parampara, Virasagar, Shivsagar, Dharmsagar, Ajitsagar, Vardhmansagar, Posters at Paporaji

He was the first full Digambar monk and Acharya to wander throughout India. The wandering of a Jain monk is termed "Vihara" an old sramanic term.[5] Padmanabh Jaini writes:

Acharya Shantisagar took last breath on 18 September 1955 at 6:50 am at Kunthalgiri, Osmanabad district, Maharashtra, India.[4][7]

Based on the accounts given by Sumeruchandra Diwakar[8] and Dharmachanda Shastri,[9] Shantisagar was born in 1872 to Bhimagauda Patil and Satyavati at Bhoj Village in Belgavi dist., Karnataka, India.[2] His birth name was Satgauda. He was married at the age of nine. His wife died six months after the marriage. In 1905, he made a pilgrimage to Sammed Shikharji accompanied by his sister.[8]

In 1925, Shantisagar was present in Kumbhoj township. He attended the Mahamastakabhisheka (grand consecration) at Shravanbelgola, Karnataka. In 1926, he visited Nanded city, Maharashtra. In 1927, he visited Bahubali, Maharashtra and then Nagpur which was then the capital of the Central provinces.

Shantisagar then travelled in east India. He had a Panchakalyanaka blessing at Sammed Shikhar, Bihar, a Jain pilgrimage site. He also travelled to Champapur and Pavapur.

Central India[edit]

In 1928, Shantisagar visited central India.[8] He visited towns including Katni in Madhya Pradesh state, Jabalpur, Sleemanabad, Nohta, Kundalpur and Sagar. In Dronagir, Shantisagar encountered a tiger. By 1929, Shantisagar was in Lalitpur. In Sonagir, four ailaks (researchers). By 1929, Shantisagar was visiting Gwalior and Murena.

Northern India[edit]

Shantisagar travelled to north India.[8] In Rajakheda, Uttar Pradesh, Shantisagar was attacked by a violent crowd. Shantisagar visited Agra, Hastinapur and Firozabad. In 1930, Shantisagar visited Mathura and received a blessing. Shantisagar's presence in Delhi in 1931 is marked by a memorial at Lal Mandir.

Western India[edit]

In the 1930s, Shantisagar travelled through Western India.[8] He visited the Shri Mahaveer Ji temple, a Jain pilgrimage site. Shantisagar visited Jaipur in 1932, Byavur in 1933, Udaipur in 1934, Goral in Gujarat in 1935, Pratapgarh in 1936 and Gajpantha in Maharashtra in 1937. Around this time, Shri Shantisagar Charitr was written by Muni Kunthusagar in Sanskrit and in Gajpantha, Shantisagar was given the title, "Charitra Chakravarti". In 1938, Shantisagar visited Baramati, Indore city in Madhya Pradesh. In 1939, he visited Pratapgarh in Uttar Pradesh.

Maharashtra[edit]

In the 1940s, Shantisagar travelled through Maharashtra state.[8] He visited Goral in 1940, Akluj in 1941, Korochi in 1942, Digraj in 1943, Kunthalgiri in 1944, Phaltan in 1945, and Kavalana in 1946. Then in 1947, at the time of Partition, Shantisagar was in Sholapur. In a miracle, in Shantisagar's presence, a mute young man began to speak. In 1948, Shantisagar was in Phaltan. He was in Kavlana in 1949.

In the 1950s, Shantisagar continued to travel in Maharashtra state. He was in Gajpantha in 1950, Baramati in 1951, Lonand in 1952, and Kunthalgiri in 1953. In 1953, Sumeruchandra Diwakar's book, Charitra Chakravarti was published. In 1954, there was preservation of the Dhavala books.[clarification needed]

Sallekhana Or Samadhi[edit]

In 1955, Shantsagar arrived in Kunthalgiri town.[8] On 18 September 1955, he commenced the practice of Sallekhana, a gradual reducing of intake of fluid and food leading to death. Sumeruchandra Diwakar, Bhattarakas Lakshmisen and Jinasen arrived in the town. Acharya shantisagar attained utkrushta samadhimaran in 35th / 36th day.The title of Acharya pada (teacher of philosophy) was awarded to Muni Virasagar.

Padmanabh Jaini writes about his Sallekhana:

His lineage (parampara)[edit]

He had handed over the leadership to the next Acharya Virasagar (1955-1957). He was followed by, in sequence, Acharya Shivasagar (1957-1969), Dharmasagar (1969-1987), Ajitasagar (1987-1990) and then Vardhamansagar (since 1990) who currently leads his sangha. There are numerous Digambar Jain monks who belong to this tradition.[10] Acharya Gyansagar, the guru of Acharya Vidyasagar, was initiated by Acharya Shivasagar.

Acharya Shantisagar Chhani[edit]

Acharya Shantisagar is sometimes termed Acharya Shantisagar (Dakshin) to contrast him with Acharya Shantisagar "Chhani" (North) (1988-1944). [11] Chhani is a district in Udaipur. They were thus contemporary.[12] Modern Acharya Gyansagar (born 1957) was initially initiated by Acharya Vidyasagar as a Kashullaka, later he was initiated as a full Digambar Muni by Acharya Sumatisagar belonging to the lineage of Acharya Shantisagar Chhani.[13]

Contemporary to both of them, there was a third Jain Muni Aadisagar Ankalikar (1809-1887). Late Acharya Vimalsagar, belonged to his lineage.[14][15]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Natubhai Shah 2004, p. 55.
  2. ^ a b c d e Dundas 2002, p. 185.
  3. ^ a b c d Natubhai Shah 2004, p. 56.
  4. ^ a b c d e Desjarlais & Eisenberg 1996, p. 82.
  5. ^ [The Jaina Path of Purification, Padmanabh S. Jaini, Motilal Banarsidass Publisher, 1998 p. 1]
  6. ^ a b Jaini 1998, p. 1.
  7. ^ Natubhai Shah 2004, p. 55-56.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Diwakar, Sumaruchandra (2006), Hemant Kala, ed., Charitra Chakravarti (8th ed.), Shri Bharatvarshiye Digambar Jain Mahasabha
  9. ^ Br. Dharmachanda Shastri, Ed., Charitra Chakravarti, 1989
  10. ^ Fluegel, Peter [ed.]. Studies in Jaina History and Culture: Disputes and Dialogues. London: Routledge, 2006, p.312-398
  11. ^ Praśamamūrti Ācārya Śāntisāgara Chāṇī smr̥ti grantha, Kastoor Chand Kasliwal, Ācārya Śāntisāgara Chāṇī Granthamālā, 1998
  12. ^ [https://vidyasagar.guru/pravachan/sankalan/guruon-ke-guru-acharya-shantisaagar/ चारित्र चक्रवतीं आचार्य श्री १०८ शान्तिसागर जी महाराज की ८२ वीं पुण्य तिथि पर परम पूज्य आचार्य प्रवर श्री विद्यासागरजी महाराज का उपदेश, November 17, 2017]
  13. ^ दिगंबर जैन साधु परिचय, Dharmachandra Shastri, Acharya Dharmashurta Granthmala, 1985
  14. ^ आचार्य श्री १०८ विमल सागर जी महाराज
  15. ^ Flügel, Peter, (ed.), Studies in Jaina History and Culture: Disputes and Dialogues. London and New York: Routledge (Taylor & Francis Group), 2006, pp. 312-398. (Routledge Advances in Jaina Studies)

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]