In District of Takhtamukayskya reservoir which was built in 1952 was named on the Shapsug tribe (Russian: Шапсугское водохранилище) since the area was inhabited by the Shapsug tribe for thousands of years, and considered part of historical Shapsugia which was part of historical Circassia.
The Shapsugs used to make up one of the biggest groups of the Black Sea Adyghe (причерноморские адыги; today's Adyghe people). They inhabited the region between the Dzhubga (in Adyghe: Жьыбгъэ means "Winds" or "The Valley of Winds") River and Shakhe Rivers (the so-called Maly Shapsug, or Little Shapsug) and high-altitude mountainous areas of the northern slopes of the Caucasus Range along the Antkhir, Abin, Afips, Bakan, Ships and other rivers (Bolshoy Shapsug, or Greater Shapsug).
The Shapsugs were a very large tribe that occupied extensive territories of Black Sea coast and Kuban River. Different sources note that before the Caucasian war the number of Shapsugs was ranging from 150,000 to 300,000 people. They composed 2/3 of the Circassian population. Shapsugs had divisions of Big and Small Shapsug land, people of the later were very close with Natukhai tribe. Shapsugs took very active part in the Caucasian war. They had a reputation of invincible people and were the last to lay down their weapons under the pressure of tsarist troops in 1864. Some of Shapsoug troop still fought up to 1880s. After the end of the war the overwhelming majority of Shapsugs was forcefully evicted to Turkey and elsewhere in the Middle East. No more than 6,000 Shapsugs remained on their native land. Nowadays, they live on the territory of Krasnodarsky Krai and make about 20 villages of 15,000 people in total. From 1924 up to 1945, there was Shapsoug district which was abolished during the time of Stalin repressions.
Historically the Shapsugs controlled the ports of Dzhubga (Adyghe: Жьыбгъэ) and Tuapse to mountain Gorges, and they consisted of 5 aristocratic families and 81 (Adyghe: Фэкъул1) free clans and classified as an Adyghe democratic tribe, and were known to have supported the Adyghe in their struggle against the Crimean Khanate. During the Caucasian War, they were one of the most stubborn enemies of Imperial Russia, joining Shamil's alliance (which would last until 1859). In late 1860, a Majlis was assembled, which would unite the Shapsugs, Ubykhs, and Natuqais and considered (Adyghe: Шъачэ) Sochi the last capital of the Circassians resistance. In 1864, a major part of the Shapsugs and other Adyghes moved to the Ottoman Empire and other nearby regions of the Middle East due to the Russian army occupation of the region (Circassia), beside the regular tsars' policy during the era of the Russian Empire to cleanse the Circassian coast from Circassians (mainly physically then by expelling the remaining to the Ottoman Empire. After the end of Caucasian War (during the period of 1864-1870) almost a major part of the Shapsugs, who lived on the territory of Shapsugia, were either killed in the Circassian Genocide or expelled to the Ottoman Empire (see Muhajir). In the Ottoman Empire the Shapsugs were partially assimilated or blended into the Cherkess community. Some 3,000 Shapsyghs remained in the Caucasus.
The Shapsugs as an Adyghe tribe always appreciate and honor their immortals (heroes and fighters) who sacrifice their selves to keep Circassia independent in the battles and war with the Russian Empire during the Circassians resistance; by elegies such as the Elegy of the Shapsugs (Adyghe: Шапсыгъэ л1ыхъужъхэм ягъыбз)
The traditional Shapsug culture had much in common with the Adyghe culture. The Shapsugs were engaged in agriculture, cattle- and horse breeding, gardening, viticulture and bee keeping. In pre-Islamic times, the Shapsugs worshiped gods common among all the Adyghe peoples – Shible (god of thunder and lightning), Sozeresh (Adyghe: Созереш) (god of fertility), Yemish or Yemij (god of war), Akhin and Khakustash (protectors of cattle breeding), Tlepsh (god of blacksmithing), Keshkogwasaha (Adyghe: Хышхогуащэ) (god of the black sea), etc. The Shapsugs used to perform the Hantse Guashe (Adyghe: Хьэнцэ гуащэ) ceremony of rain calling during droughts by carrying a dressed doll through the aul and then drowning it in the river, and never getting it out before raining.
The Shapsug dialect (Adyghe: Шапсыгъэбзэ) is one of the Adyghe language dialects. There were two major dialects of Shapsug before the exile of the Circassians. When the Shapsugs scattered around the world, each Shapsug community developed its dialect differently.