Shar-Kali-Sharri

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Shar-Kali-Sharri
𒊬𒂵𒉌 𒈗𒌷
Impression of an Akkadian cylinder seal with inscription The Divine Sharkalisharri Prince of Akkad Ibni-Sharrum the Scribe his servant.jpg
Impression of a cylinder seal of the time of Akkadian King Sharkalisharri, with central inscription: "The Divine Sharkalisharri Prince of Akkad, Ibni-Sharrum the Scribe his servant". The long-horned buffalo is thought to have come from the Indus Valley, and testifies to exchanges with Meluhha, the Indus Valley civilization. Circa 2217-2193 BC. Louvre Museum.[1][2][3]
King of the Akkadian Empire
Reignc. 2217  BC – 2193  BC
PredecessorNaram-Sin
SuccessorIgigi
SpouseTutasharlibish[4]
DynastyDynasty of Akkad
FatherNaram-Sin of Akkad
Ceremonial mace head in the name of Shar-Kali-Sharri (Akkadian: 𒊬𒂵𒉌 𒈗𒌷), in a dedication to the temple of Shamash at Sippar: "Macehead dedicated to Shamash, the Sun-God, by Shar-Gani-sharri, king of Agade". Anciently attributed to Sargon of Akkad.[5].
Akkadian language cuneiform for Sharkalisharri. The star symbol "𒀭", the "Dingir", is a silent honorific for "Divine".

Shar-Kali-Sharri (𒊬𒂵𒉌 𒈗𒌷, Shar-Gani-Sharri;[6] reigned c. 2217-2193 BC middle chronology, c. 2153-2129 BC short chronology) was a king of the Akkadian Empire.

Rule[edit]

Succeeding his father Naram-Sin in c. 2217 BC, he came to the throne in an age of increasing troubles. The raids of the Gutian hill peoples of the Zagros mountains that began in his father's reign were becoming more and more frequent, and he was faced with a number of rebellions from vassal kings against the high taxes they were forced to pay to fund the defence against the Gutian threat.[7] Contemporary year-names for Shar-kali-sharri of Akkad indicate that in one unknown year of his reign, he captured Sharlag, king of Gutium, while in another year, "the yoke was imposed on Gutium".[8]

Sumer also suffered from a terrible drought during Shar-Kali-Sharri's reign in about c. 2200 BC, leading to the complete abandonment of some cities. This is complementary to Egyptian records, which suggest there was a drought around the same time during the reign of king Pepi II.[9] After Shar-Kali-Sharri’s death in c. 2193 BC, Sumer fell into anarchy, with no king able to achieve dominance for long.[10] The king list states:

"Then who was king? Who was not the king? Igigi, Imi, Nanum, Ilulu: four of them ruled for only 3 years."

Loss of Lagash[edit]

Rival Puzer-Mama took control of Lagash during Shar-kali-sharri’s reign, when troubles with the Guti left the Sargonic king with only “a small rump state whose center lay at the confluence of the Diyala and Tigris river.”[11] Puzer-Mama started the 2nd Dynasty of Lagash.

Out of the 24 years of his reign, names survive for some 18 of them, and indicate successful campaigns against the Gutians, Amorites, and Elamites, as well as temple construction in Nippur and Babylon.[12] Shar-Kali-Sharri reported defeating the Elamites at Akshak.[13][14]

Legacy[edit]

The next recorded king of Akkad to rule for any reasonable amount of time was Dudu, who is said by the king list to have reigned for 21 years. However, by this time the Akkadian empire was no more, and Dudu most likely controlled no more than Akkad itself, meaning Shar-Kali-Sharri was the last Akkadian king to actually have an empire under his control.

In the 1870s, Assyriologists thought Shar-Kali-Sharri was identical with the Sargon of Agade of Assyrian legend, but this identification was recognized as mistaken in the 1910s.[15]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Cylinder Seal of Ibni-Sharrum". Louvre Museum.
  2. ^ "Site officiel du musée du Louvre". cartelfr.louvre.fr.
  3. ^ Brown, Brian A.; Feldman, Marian H. (2013). Critical Approaches to Ancient Near Eastern Art. Walter de Gruyter. p. 187. ISBN 9781614510352.
  4. ^ Elisabeth Meier Tetlow (2004). Women, Crime, and Punishment in Ancient Law and Society: The ancient Near East. Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-8264-1628-5. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
  5. ^ BM 1883,0118.700
  6. ^ written šar-ka3-li2-šar-ri2 𒊬𒂵𒉌𒊬𒌷 in later manuscripts of the Sumerian King List, but šar-ka3-li2 LUGAL-ri2 𒊬𒂵𒉌 𒈗𒌷 in royal inscriptions even though the LUGAL ("king") sign did not have the phonetic value of šar in Sumerian (Laurence Austine Waddell, The Makers of Civilization 1968, p. 529)
  7. ^ John Haywood (2015-06-04). Chronicles of the Ancient World. Quercus Publishing Ltd. ISBN 978 1 84866 896 6.
  8. ^ Year-names for Sharkalisharri
  9. ^ John Haywood (2015-06-04). Chronicles of the Ancient World. Quercus Publishing Ltd. ISBN 978 1 84866 896 6.
  10. ^ John Haywood (2015-06-04). Chronicles of the Ancient World. Quercus Publishing Ltd. ISBN 978 1 84866 896 6.
  11. ^ Frayne, Douglas R. (1993). Sargonic and Gutian Periods p. 186, Toronto, Buffalo, London. University of Toronto Press Incorporated
  12. ^ Year-names of Sharkalisharri
  13. ^ Carter, Elizabeth; Stolper, Matthew W. (1984). Elam: Surveys of Political History and Archaeology. University of California Press. p. 15. ISBN 9780520099500.
  14. ^ Potts, D. T. (2015). The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge University Press. p. 188. ISBN 9781316586310.
  15. ^ "But it is now evident that Sharganisharri was 'not confused with Shargani or Sargon' in the 'tradition' (p. 133), but only by the moderns who insisted on connecting the Sharganisharri of contemporary documents with the Sargon of the Legend" D. D. Luckenbill, Review of: The Civilization of Babylonia and Assyria by Morris Jastrow, Jr., The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures Vol. 33, No. 3 (Apr., 1917), pp. 252-254.