Sharada Peeth

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Sharada Peeth
  • شاردا پیٹھ
  • शारदा पीठ
  • 𑆯𑆳𑆫𑆢𑆳 𑆥𑆵𑆜
Buddhist University - Sharda, Neelum Valley Pakistan.jpg
Ruins of Sharada Peeth
Religion
AffiliationHinduism
DistrictNeelam Valley
DeitySharada
RiteShaktism, Shaivism, Vedism, Buddhism
Location
LocationSharda, Azad Kashmir
CountryPakistan
Sharada Peeth is located in Azad Kashmir
Sharada Peeth
Sharada Peeth
Sharada Peeth is located in Pakistan
Sharada Peeth
Sharada Peeth (Pakistan)
TerritoryAzad Kashmir
Geographic coordinates34°47′31″N 74°11′24″E / 34.79194°N 74.19000°E / 34.79194; 74.19000
Architecture
StyleKashmiri[1][2]
Specifications
Width22 feet
Height (max)16 feet
Site area4 kanals (0.5 acre)[3]

Sharada Peeth (Urdu: شاردا پیٹھ‎; Kashmiri: शारदा पीठ (Devanagari), 𑆯𑆳𑆫𑆢𑆳 𑆥𑆵𑆜 (Sharada)) is an abandoned Hindu temple and ancient centre of learning in the Pakistani administered territory of Azad Kashmir. It is dedicated to the Hindu goddess of learning, Sharada. Between the 6th and 12th centuries CE, Sharada Peeth was one of the foremost temple universities of the Indian subcontinent,[4][5][6][7] hosting scholars such as Kalhana, Adi Shankara,[8] Vairotsana,[8] Kumarajiva,[8] and Thonmi Sambhota.[8] As a religious institution, it is one of the three famous tirthas, or holy sites, for Kashmiri Pandits, the other two being the Martand Sun Temple and the Amarnath Temple.[9] Sharada Peeth is one of 18 Maha Shakti Peethas, or "Grand Shakti Peethas" – highly revered temples throughout South Asia that commemorate the location of fallen body parts of the Hindu deity Sati.

History and etymology[edit]

Origins of Sharada Peeth[edit]

There are competing theories of when Sharada Peeth was built. Some historians believe that it was built under the Kushan Empire (30 CE-230 CE),[10] whereas some others hold that similarities between Sharada Peeth and the Martand Sun Temple suggest that it was built by Lalitaditya.[11] There is an alternative school of thought suggesting that it was built not at once, but in stages.[12] It has also been suggested that Sharada Peeth is more than 5,000 years old, but this may be a reference to the religious shrine rather than the centre of learning.[13] On this view, the site could not have been constructed by Indo-Aryans, who are estimated to have entered the Ganges River approximately 1,500 years before present era. It would have instead been constructed by Indo-Afghans, who are said to have been in Kashmir much earlier.[14]

Etymology[edit]

Sharada Peeth translates to "the seat of Sharada", the Kashmiri name for the Hindu goddess Saraswati.[15][16]

It has been suggested that as a proto-Nostratic term, "Sharada" could be related to "sarV", which means "flow or stream" and d/a/w (blow, tip or rock). Notably, Sharada Peeth is located at the confluence of three streams.[17]

References[edit]

Early references[edit]

The earliest available references to Sharada Peeth are found in the Nilamata Purana, an ancient text that detailed sacred places, rituals and ceremonies in Kashmir.[18] In Rajatarangini, Kalhana describes its importance to Hindus.[19] According to the Prabhāvakacarita, a Jain historical work dated 1277–78, the Śvetāmbara scholar Acharya Hemacandra requested king Jaisimha Siddharaj to send a team to the Sharda institution in Kashmir to bring back copies of the existing eight grammatical texts preserved here so he could compile his own grammar, the Siddha-hema Shabdanushasan, named jointly after the king and the author.[20]

References from other regions[edit]

There is believed to be an ancient tradition among South Indian Brahmins of prostrating in the direction of Sharada Peeth before beginning their education.[21] Saraswat Brahmin communities in Karnataka are also said to move seven steps towards Kashmir and retrace their steps when conducting the Yagnopavit ceremony.[22]

The Chinese Buddhist monk, Xuanzang, visited this learning centre in 632 CE.[23] He stayed there for two years and appreciated the mental gifts of priests and students of this learning centre.[23] Kalhana wrote that during Lalitaditya's reign in the 8th century CE, some followers of a king of Gauda in Bengal came to Kashmir under the pretext of visiting the shrine,[citation needed] highlighting the significance of the temple throughout South Asia.

In the year 1030 CE, the Muslim historian Al-Biruni visited Kashmir. According to him, there was a wooden idol of Sri Sharada Devi in the temple.[24] He compared the temple to the Multan Sun Temple, Vishnu Chakraswamin temple at Thanesar and Somnath temple.[citation needed]

In Rajatarangini the famous text describing Kashmir's history, composed by Kalhana in the year 1148 CE, there is a mention of the temple and its geographic location. During the reign of Akbar in the 16th century, Grand Vizier Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak, one of the famous Nava-Ratnas, wrote about the temple as being near the banks of river Madhumati, now known as the Neelum River, which is full of gold particles.[citation needed] Abu'l Fazl also wrote that one can experience miracles on every eighth day of the bright fortnight of the month here.[citation needed]

The temple had periodically fallen into disrepair by the 14th century. In the 14th century, the temple was attacked for the first time by Muslim invaders.[citation needed] After this attack, India started losing its contact with Krishanganga and Sharada Peeth. In the 19th century, Dogra king of Kashmir, Maharaja Gulab Singh, restored this temple.[25][26][27]

Following the brief 1947-1948 Kashmir war in the region between Pakistan and India, the site came under control of Pashtun tribesmen who invaded the region. Control was then passed to the newly formed government of Pakistan's Azad Kashmir. The site was heavily damaged in the 2005 Kashmir earthquake which struck the region, and has not been repaired since.

Music[edit]

This temple is referred to in the Carnatic music song "kalAvathi kamalAsana yuvathi" by the famous composer Sri. Mutthuswami Dikshithar. The song set in the rAga yAgapriyA, in praise of Saraswathi, describes her as "kashmira vihara, vara sharadha", meaning "the one who resides in Kashmir, Sharada".

Location[edit]

Sharada Peeth is about 150 kilometres from Muzaffarabad,[28] the capital of Pakistan-administered Kashmir and 130 kilometres from Srinagar, the capital of Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir.[29] It is about 10 kilometres from the Line of Control, which divides the Pakistani and Indian-controlled areas of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir. It is situated 1,981 metres above sea level,[30] along the Neelam River in the village of Sharda, in the valley of Mount Harmukh,[5] which is believed by Kashmiri Pandits to be the abode of Shiva.[31][32]

Sharada Peeth as an ancient centre of learning[edit]

Sharada Peeth is said to be where the texts written by Pāṇini[citation needed] and other grammarians were stored. It is said in the Prabhavakacarita that when Jain scholar Hemachandra was commissioned by Jayasimha, King of Gurjaradesa (present-day eastern Rajasthan and northern Gujarat) to write the Siddhahema.,[20] Hemachandra visited Sharada Peeth for access to previous works on grammar, as it was the only place with a library known to have all such works available in their complete form.[33][34][35] Kashmir was sometimes referred to as the Sharada Desh, or "Sharada country", because of the significance of the Sharada temple and the associated institution of learning.[36][37]

Adi Shankara[edit]

Adi Shankara who opened southern door of Sharada Peeth or Sarvajna peeth

It is at this temple that Sankaracharya received the right to sit on the Sarvanjnanapeetham or Sarvajna peetha(Throne of Wisdom).[citation needed] The first verse of 'Prapanchsar' composed by Adi Shankaracharya is devoted to the praise of the temple's goddess, Sri Śāradā Devi. The Śāradā image at Shringeri Sharadamba temple in South India was once said to have been made of sandalwood, which is supposed to have been taken by Sankaracharya from here.[citation needed]

The Vaishnava saint Swami Ramanuja traveled all the way from Srirangam to refer to Bodhayana's vritti on Brahma Sutras preserved here, before commencing work on writing his commentary on the Brahma sutras, the Sri Bhasya.

Sharada Peeth as a temple[edit]

Kashmiri Pandits believe that Sharada in Kashmir is a tripartite embodiment of the goddess Shakti: Sharada (goddess of learning), Saraswati (goddess of knowledge), and Vagdevi (goddess of speech, which articulates power).[38][39]

Historical origins[edit]

Kashmiri Pandits believe that rishi Śāṇḍilya prayed to the goddess Sharada with great devotion, and was rewarded when she appeared to him and promised to show him her real, divine form. She advised him to look for the Śāradā forest. His journey was filled with miraculous experiences. On his way, he had a vision of the god Ganesha on the eastern side of a hill. When he reached the Kishenganga, he bathed in it and saw half his body turn golden. Eventually, goddess revealed herself to him in her triple form of Sharada, Saraswati and Vagdevi, and invited him to her abode. As he was preparing for a ritual, he drew water from the Mahāsindhu. Half of this water transformed into honey, and became a stream, now known as the Madhumatī stream.[40]

A Sanskrit text Sharada Mahatmya, regarded to be a part of the Bringhisha Samhita, gives a mythological account of how the Sage Shandilya did tapa at the banks of the Madhumati river, and how goddess Sharada established here presence there. It also gives an account of the nearby sites and pilgrimage (to be undertaken on Bhadrapada Shukla Ashtami).[41]

A separate account holds that during a fight between good and evil, the goddess Sharada saved a mythical container of knowledge and hit it in a hole in the ground. She then transformed into a structure to protect this container. This structure is now Sharada Peeth.[42]

The pilgrimage[edit]

The Sharada Peeth pilgrimage parallels Muni Śāṇḍilya's mythological journey. Bathing in the confluence of the Kishenganga River and Madhumatī stream is said to cleanse the pilgrim of their sins.[43]

During the Dogra rule, the temple emerged as a regular pilgrimage site for the Kashmiri Pandits. In 1947, Swami Nand Lal Ji of Tikker Kupwara moved the stone idols from Sharda to Tikker, some of which are preserved in Devibal in Baramulla and in Tikker in Kupwara.[44]

In present day[edit]

In 2007, a group of Kashmiri Pandits who were permitted to visit Azad Kashmir were denied permission visit the temple.[45] On 25 March 2019, the Government of Pakistan approved a proposal aimed at allowing Hindu pilgrims from India to visit Sharada Peeth.[46]

In September 2009, the Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies recommended increased cross-border religious tourism between India and Pakistan, including allowing Kashmiri Pandits to visit Sharada Peeth, and Pakistani Muslims to visit the Hazratbal Shrine in Srinagar.[47]

There is a demand from certain section of Indian politicians that Pakistan should renovate this temple, in the same manner that it renovated the Katasraj Temple in Punjab.[48]

Pakistani Hindus rarely visit the temple, preferring to visit sites farther south in Sindh, Balochistan, and Punjab provinces. As such, restoration of the temple is not considered a priority in the manner that Katasraj Temple was regarded by the Pakistani government.

In 2018, Pakistan government opened the Kartarpur Corridor to allow Sikh pilgrims in India to visit the Gurdwara Darbar Sahib Kartarpur across the border. This has prompted calls by Kashmiri Pandits to the Pakistan government to open a corridor to Sharada Peeth site (Neelum valley, 30 km from Kupwara). The Peoples Democratic Party (PDP) chief and former Jammu and Kashmir chief minister Mehbooba Mufti, and Omar Abdullah have requested PM Modi to pursue this request.[49]

The Temple as a "Shakti Peeth"[edit]

Shakti Peethas are shrines or divine places of Shakti formed due to the falling of body parts of the corpse of Sati Devi, when Shiva carried it and wandered throughout Aryavartha in sorrow. There are 51 Shakti Peeth linking to the 51 alphabets in Sanskrit. Each temple has shrines for Shakti and Kalabhairava.

Sharada Peeth is one of the 18 Maha Shakti Peetha. Devi's Right hand is said to have fallen here. The Shakti worshiped here is the goddess of knowledge and education, Saraswathi otherwise known as Sarada. The mythology of Daksha yaga and Sati's self immolation had immense significance in shaping the ancient Sanskrit literature and even had cultural impact in India during olden times. It led to the development of the concept of Shakti Peethas and there by strengthening Shaktism.

Enormous mythological stories in puranas took the Daksha yaga as the reason for its origin. It is an important incident in Shaivism and Shaktism.[50]

Structure[edit]

The temple is currently abandoned and lies in ruin.

The length of the temple in classical Kashmir style, is 142 feet and width is 94.6 feet. The outer walls of the temple are 6 ft. wide and 11 ft long. And there are arches with 8 ft. height. The structure is damaged and it is likely that a significant part of the material has been reused in nearby residential buildings.

Significance[edit]

It has been suggested that although the Sharada script did not originate in Kashmir, it was used extensively in Kashmir, and acquired its name both through Kashmiri veneration of the goddess Sharada and through its extensive academic use in Sharada Peeth.[51] This has fed the popular belief that Sharada was developed in Kashmir.[51]

Kashmir was once centre of learning of Hindu Vedic works until the people dwelling in that region converted to Islam. Prior to this, Kashmir was sometimes called Sharada Desh because of this temple and Sharada was called Kashmira Puravasini (resident of city of Kashmir).[citation needed] The temple is so ancient that Kashmir State was earlier known as 'Sharada Peeth'.

Kashmiri Hindus remain highly devoted towards this deity, and by extension, to the Sharada Peeth temple.[45] As part of their daily worship, Kashmiri Hindus and Sarasvat Brahmins in South India utter the phrase
नमस्ते शारदे देवि कश्मीरपुरवासिनि। त्वामहं प्रार्थये नित्यं विद्यादानं च देहि मे।।
𑆤𑆩𑆱𑇀𑆠𑆼 𑆯𑆳𑆫𑆢𑆼 𑆢𑆼𑆮𑆴 𑆑𑆯𑇀𑆩𑆵𑆫𑆥𑆶𑆫𑆮𑆳𑆱𑆴𑆤𑆴𑇅 𑆠𑇀𑆮𑆳𑆩𑆲𑆁 𑆥𑇀𑆫𑆳𑆫𑇀𑆡𑆪𑆼 𑆤𑆴𑆠𑇀𑆪𑆁 𑆮𑆴𑆢𑇀𑆪𑆳𑆢𑆳𑆤𑆁 𑆖 𑆢𑆼𑆲𑆴 𑆩𑆼𑇆
"namas te śārade devi kaśmīrapuravāsini. tvām aham prārthaye nityaṃ vidyādānaṃ ca dehi me"
(Salutations to you, O Sharada, O Goddess, O one who resides in Kashmir. I pray to you daily, please give me the charity of knowledge). It is also recited by other students hoping to do well in studies.[52]

The temple is set in a lush and verdant valley.
Architecturally similar Kashmir Temple in 1870s, perhaps Buniyar

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Singh, Rajesh. "The Unexplored Medieval Stone Temples of Kashmir". Heritage India Magazine. Archived from the original on 25 September 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2018. However, a few still stand in different states of preservation at places like Martand, Avantipur, Pattan, Buniar, Pandrethan and Payar, reflecting not only the remarkable temple construction activity that once existed in Kashmir but also showcasing a distinct architectural style. This style, while being inspired by foreign elements (as Kashmir is strategically located on one of the arteries of the ancient Silk-Route), also assimilated the essential features of indigenous temple architectural styles.
  2. ^ Bangroo, Virender (July – September 2008). "Temple Architecture of Kashmir". Dialogue. 10 – via Astha Bharati.
  3. ^ Kumar, Ramesh (16 December 1998 – 15 January 1999). "Sarada Pilgrimage - its Socio-Historicity - I" (PDF). Kashmir Sentinel. 5: 16. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 September 2018.
  4. ^ Kulbhushan, Warikoo (April – June 1999). "Eco-cultural Heritage of Kashmir". Himalayan and Central Asian Studies. 3 (2): 40. For a long time, Kashmir along with Nalanda and Taxila shared fame as an important seat of learning and culture in India. Known as Sharda Peeth, its remains are still existing across the Line of Control inside Pak-occupied Kashmir.
  5. ^ a b Raina, Mohini Qasba (2013). Kashur: The Kashmiri Speaking People. Trafford Publishing. p. 191. ISBN 1490701656. The main centre of excellence was at Sharda Peeth - an ancient seat of learning on the banks of the river Kishenganga in the valley of Mount Harmukh.
  6. ^ Raina, Dina Nath (1994). Kashmir - distortions and reality. Michigan: Reliance Publishing House, University of Michigan. p. 37. ISBN 8185972524. during which Kashmir emerged as the "Sharda Peeth", a hallowed place for ancient learning.
  7. ^ Singh, Sahana (2017). The Educational Heritage of Ancient India. Chennai: Notion Press. pp. 22–23. ISBN 978-1-947586-53-6.
  8. ^ a b c d Raina, Mohini Qasba (2013). Kashur: The Kashmiri Speaking People. Trafford Publishing. p. 191. ISBN 1490701656.
  9. ^ Kumar, Ramesh (16 December 1998 – 15 January 1999). "Sarada Pilgrimage - its Socio-Historicity - I" (PDF). Kashmir Sentinel. 5: 16. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 September 2018.
  10. ^ ur Rehman, Faiz (31 December 2017). "Peace & Economy beyond Faith: A Case Study of Sharda Temple". Pakistan Vision. 18 (2): 1–14 – via academia.edu. Due to nonexistence of accurate evidence, the exact timeframe of the origins of Sharda Temple has been mysterious and a matter of debate amongst researchers and archaeologists. There is one conventional story that it was built during the rule of Kushans.
  11. ^ ur Rehman, Faiz (31 December 2017). "Peace & Economy beyond Faith: A Case Study of Sharda Temple". Pakistan Vision. 18 (2): 1–14 – via academia.edu. However, due to its close resemblance with Martand Temple8 in architecture, design, motives and construction style, some academics believed that Raja Lalitaditya was the builder of Sharda temple
  12. ^ Kaul, Rattan. "Abode of Goddess Sharda at Shardi". Kashmir Overseas Association, Inc. Archived from the original on 21 December 2018. Retrieved 21 December 2018.
  13. ^ Nazki, Ayaz Rasool (2009), "The most ancient known temple of Sharda is to be found in ruins in the Pakistan-occupied part of Kashmir, not far from Muzzafarabad. It is at the confluence of three rivers in the Jehlum valley. Dr. Nazki believes the site dates back at least 5,000 years and that there was established at the site a kind of ancient university.", International Seminar: Society, Culture and Politics in the Karakoram Himalayas, Sher-i-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences, p.  
  14. ^ Graves, Charles (January – March 2013). "Origins of Peoples of the Karakorum Himalayas" (PDF). Himalayan and Central Asian Studies. 17 (1): 11. Of course such a view preempts any consideration that the sites were erected by the Indo-Aryans who probably only entered the Ganges River valley c 1,500 BPE. But there were some original Indo-Afghan people in Kashmir much earlier, apparently.
  15. ^ Raina, Mohini Qasba (2013). Kashur: The Kashmiri Speaking People. Trafford Publishing. p. 191. ISBN 1490701656. It is known as Sharda Peeth (the seat of Goddess Saraswati).
  16. ^ Raina, Dina Nath (1994). Kashmir - distortions and reality. Michigan: Reliance Publishing House, University of Michigan. p. 38. ISBN 8185972524. No wonder that from remote ages, Kashmir became the seat of learning and earned for itself the appropriate name of Sharda Peeth or the seat of Sharda, the Goddess of Learning and Fine Arts.
  17. ^ Graves, Charles (January – March 2013). "Origins of Peoples of the Karakorum Himalayas" (PDF). Himalayan and Central Asian Studies. 17 (1): 11. The word sharda might be analysed as other words above, namely with the language macrofamily delineations of the school developed at the Oriental Institute in Moscow. Sharda as a Proto-Nostratic (PN) term may be related to sarV (flow or stream) (cf. Sino-Caucasian sorV (stream)) and PN d/a/w (blow, tip or rock). As seen above, the Sharda site was at the confluence of three streams.
  18. ^ Raina, Dina Nath (1994). Kashmir - distortions and reality. Michigan: Reliance Publishing House, University of Michigan. p. 38. ISBN 8185972524. Earliest reference of this site can be found in the Purānas. The famous Nīlamata Purāna ofKashmir is an ancient Sanskrit work dealing with the Tīrathas (sacred places, peeth is also an alternative Hindi word), rituals and ceremonials of Kashmir (Kumari 1988: ii).
  19. ^ Raina, Dina Nath (1994). Kashmir - distortions and reality. Michigan: Reliance Publishing House, University of Michigan. p. 38. ISBN 8185972524. Kalhaṇa also referred this place as the seat of great veneration to Hindus.
  20. ^ a b Pollock 2006, pp. 588–89
  21. ^ Raina, Mohini Qasba (2013). Kashur: The Kashmiri Speaking People. Trafford Publishing. p. 191. ISBN 1490701656. Custom among South Indian Brahmans of prostrating in the direction of Sharda Peeth, in Kashmir, prior to initiation to formal education is still prevalent.
  22. ^ Kumar, Ramesh (16 December 1998 – 15 January 1999). "Sarada Pilgrimage - its Socio-Historicity - I" (PDF). Kashmir Sentinel. 5: 16. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 September 2018.
  23. ^ a b Chitkara (2002), p. 273.
  24. ^ Rashid, Salman (1 April 2018). "HERITAGE: GODDESS OF THE MOUNTAINS". DAWN. Retrieved 3 April 2018.
  25. ^ [1] Archived 11 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  26. ^ "Sharda Temple Photo Gallery by Gharib Hanif at". Pbase.com. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
  27. ^ "National : Kashmiri Pandits want to visit Sharda Peeth in Pakistan Occupied Kashmir". The Hindu. 27 February 2005. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
  28. ^ Rehman, Faiz ur (31 December 2017). "Peace & Economy beyond Faith: A Case Study of Sharda Temple". Pakistan Vision. 18 (2): 1–14 – via academia.edu. Located in the isolated village of Sharda in Neelum Valley in Azad Jammu & Kashmir (shortly Azad Kashmir),1 at a distance of around 140 Kilometers from Muzaffarabad, (the capital city) and nearly 30 km from Kupwara (a town in Indian Held Kashmir), it lies few miles from the Line of Control (LoC) in a very sensitive military zone.
  29. ^ Godbole, Sanjay. "The Sharda Temple of Kashmir". Kashmiri Pandit Network / Kashmir Sentinel. Archived from the original on 21 December 2018. Retrieved 21 December 2018.
  30. ^ YUSUF JAMEEL (16 July 2017). "Kashmiri Pandits want reopening of Sharda Peeth in PoK, plan to approach PM". Deccan Chronicle.
  31. ^ Ashraf, Mohammad (9 May 2007). "Haramukh and Gangabal, a historical perspective". Kashmir First. Archived from the original on 25 September 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2018. There used to be seventeen temples of various ages and dimensions here which had been built by different Kings of ancient Kashmir from time to time in honour of S’iva who according to legend, had taken residence here as Bhutesa.
  32. ^ Rehman, Faiz ur (31 December 2017). "Peace & Economy beyond Faith: A Case Study of Sharda Temple". Pakistan Vision. 18 (2): 1–14 – via academia.edu. its water originates from Sarasvati lake which is located on the top of Narda peak, the another holy place for Hindus because it is considered to be the birth place of Shivajee
  33. ^ Pollock, Sheldon (2006). The Language of the Gods in the World of Men. Los Angeles: University of California Press. p. 182. ISBN 0520245008. ...accordingly, being stored in its most perfect form in the temple of the Goddess of Speech in the far-off land of Kashmir, from where Hemacandra acquired his supremely authoritative exemplars, grammar was at the same time clearly a precious cultural good, one that could be imported and whose very possession secured high prestige for its possessor.
  34. ^ Suri, Chandraprabha. Prabhavakacharita.
  35. ^ Singh, Sahana (2017). The Educational Heritage of Ancient India. Chennai: Notion Press. p. 23. ISBN 978-1-947586-53-6. Hemachandra is noted to have requested for a copy of all the earlier grammar works that had been written until then, and which were only available in their complete form in the library of Sharada university.
  36. ^ Indian literature: personal encounters, Umāśaṅkara Jośī, Papyrus, 1988, p. 54
  37. ^ Raina, Mohini Qasba (2013). Kashur The Kashmiri Speaking People: Analytical Perspective. Singapore: Partridge Publishing. ISBN 978-1490701653. Goddess Sharda is the presiding deity of Kashmir and that is the reason why Kashmir is referred to as Sharda desha and also Sharda peeth (seat of Sharda).
  38. ^ Kumar, Ramesh (16 December 1998 – 15 January 1999). "Sarada Pilgrimage - its Socio-Historicity - I" (PDF). Kashmir Sentinel. 5: 16. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 September 2018.
  39. ^ Raina, Mohini Qasba (2013). Kashur the Kashmiri Speaking People: Analytical Perspective. Singapore: Partridge Publishing. ISBN 9781482899474. Goddess Sharda is believed to be the earliest representation of Shakti in the valley, which is embodying three separate manifestations of energ y, i.e. goddess of learning, fine arts and beauty.
  40. ^ Kalhana (1900). Kalhaṇa's Rājataraṅginī: A Chronicle of the Kings of Kaśmīr. Translated by Stein, Marc Aurel. Westminster: Archibald Constable and Company, Ltd. ISBN 9788120803718.
  41. ^ Shri Sharada Mahatmya, Tr. Brij Nath Tikkoo
  42. ^ "Sharada Peeth: All you need to know". India Today. 30 November 2018. Retrieved 1 January 2019. Nazki says that one of the legends associated with the shrine is that once, during the fight between good and evil, Goddess Sharada saved the container of knowledge and hid it in a hole in the ground. She then turned herself into a structure to cover the pot. The structure now stands as Sharada Peeth.
  43. ^ Kalhana (1900). Kalhaṇa's Rājataraṅginī: A Chronicle of the Kings of Kaśmīr. Translated by Stein, Marc Aurel. Westminster: Archibald Constable and Company, Ltd. ISBN 9788120803718.
  44. ^ PoK Muslims send sacred soil to Kashmiri Pandits, Ishfaq-ul-Hassan, jan 11, 2017
  45. ^ a b "Pandits denied entry into temple in Pakistan Occupied Kashmir". The Hindu. 3 October 2007. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
  46. ^ "Pakistan approves plan to open ancient Sharda Peeth corridor in PoK". The New Indian Express. 25 March 2019. Archived from the original on 25 March 2019.
  47. ^ Chandran, D Suba (September 2009). "Expanding Cross-LoC Interactions: Perspectives from India" (PDF). India-Pakistan Dialogue on Conflict Resolution and Peace Building. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 January 2019. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  48. ^ Zee, News (2 May 2007). "Pak should renovate Sharada Temple in Pakistan Occupied Kashmir: Advani". Zee News.com. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
  49. ^ Sharada Peeth: All you need to know, IndiaToday, November 30, 2018
  50. ^ "Kottiyoor Devaswam Temple Administration Portal". Kottiyoordevaswom.com/. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
  51. ^ a b Qazi, Junaid Ahmad; Samad, Abdul (January 2015). -, Shakirullah; Young, Ruth (eds.). "Śarda Temple and the Stone Temples of Kashmir in Perspective: A Review Note". Pakistan Heritage. Hazara University Mansehra-Pakistan. 7: 111–120 – via Research Gate. One, on the account of many terms in some ancient works, associating Śāradā to Kashmir, it seems that it was not the name of script. However, it was given to primary script of Kashmir for being in the peak time for the veneration of the goddess of learning and words.
  52. ^ परीक्षा के दिनों में पढ़ें मां सरस्वती के यह विशेष मंत्र

References[edit]

External links[edit]