Shashi Tharoor

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Shashi Tharoor

Shashi Tharoor at MEDEF.jpg
Member of parliament, Lok Sabha
Assumed office
16 May 2009
Preceded byPannyan Raveendran
Minister of State for Human Resource Development
In office
28 October 2012 – 18 May 2014
Prime MinisterManmohan Singh
Preceded byDaggubati Purandeswari
Succeeded byUpendra Kushwaha
Minister of State for External Affairs
In office
28 May 2009 – 18 April 2010
Prime MinisterManmohan Singh
Preceded byAnand Sharma
Succeeded byE. Ahamed
Under Secretary General of the United Nations for Communications and Public Information
In office
1 June 2002 – 9 February 2007
Secretary GeneralKofi Annan
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byKiyotaka Akasaka
Personal details
Born (1956-03-09) 9 March 1956 (age 63)
London, England, UK
Political partyIndian National Congress
Spouse(s)Tilottama Mukherji (Divorced)
Christa Giles
(m. 2007; div. 2010)

Sunanda Pushkar
(m. 2010; died 2014)
ParentsChandran Tharoor
Sulekha Menon
EducationDelhi University (BA)
Tufts University (MA, MALD, PhD)
ProfessionWriter, Diplomat, Politician
WebsiteOfficial website

Shashi Tharoor (born 9 March 1956)[1] is an Indian politician, writer and a former international diplomat[2] who is currently serving as Member of Parliament, Lok Sabha from Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, since 2009. He was formerly Under-Secretary General of the United Nations, ad contested for the post of Secretary-General in 2006.

He also serves as Chairman of the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Information Technology[3] and All India Professionals Congress.[4] He formerly served as Chairman of the Parliamentary Standing Committee on External Affairs (2014 to 2019). In 2019, Shashi Tharoor received the Sahitya Academy Award for his book 'An Era of Darkness' in a non-fiction category in English language.[5][6]

Born in London, UK, and raised in India, Tharoor graduated from St. Stephen's College, Delhi in 1975 and culminated his studies in 1978 with a doctorate in International Relations and Affairs from the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University. At the age of 22, he was the youngest person at the time to receive such an honour from the Fletcher School. From 1978 to 2007, Tharoor was a career official at the United Nations, rising to the rank of Under-Secretary General for Communications and Public Information in 2001. He announced his retirement after finishing second in the 2006 selection for U.N. Secretary-General to Ban Ki-moon.[7] In 2009, Tharoor began his political career by joining the Indian National Congress and successfully represented the party from Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala by winning in the Lok Sabha elections and becoming a Member of Parliament. During the Congress-led UPA Government rule (2004–2014), Tharoor served as Minister of State for External Affairs[8] (2009–2010) and Minister of Human Resource Development (2012–2014).[8]

Tharoor is an acclaimed writer, having authored 18 bestselling works of fiction and non-fiction since 1981, which are centred on India and its history, culture, film, politics, society, foreign policy, and more related themes.[9][10] He is also the author of hundreds of columns and articles in publications such as The New York Times, The Washington Post, TIME, Newsweek, and The Times of India. He was a contributing editor for Newsweek International for two years. From 2010 to 2012, he wrote a column in The Asian Age, Deccan Chronicle and, for most of 2012, until his appointment as Minister, a column in Mail Today; he also writes an internationally syndicated monthly column for Project Syndicate. He also wrote regular columns for The Indian Express (1991–93 and 1996–2001), The Hindu (2001–2008), and The Times of India (2007–2009). In 2019, Dr. Shashi Tharoor got a Sahitya Academy Award for his book 'An Era of Darkness' in a non-fiction category in English language.

Early life and education[edit]

Shashi Tharoor was born on 9 March 1956 in London, United Kingdom to Chandran Tharoor and Sulekha Menon, a Malayali couple hailing from Palakkad, Kerala.[11] Tharoor has three sisters. His father, originally from Kerala, worked in various positions in London, Bombay, Kolkata (formerly called Calcutta) and Delhi, including a 25-year career (culminating as group advertising manager) for The Statesman. His paternal uncle was Tharoor Parameshwaran, the founder of Reader's Digest in India. Tharoor's parents returned to India when he was 2 years-old, where he joined the Montfort School, Yercaud, in 1962, subsequently moving to Bombay (now Mumbai) and studying at the Campion School (1963–68).[12] He spent his high school years at St. Xavier's Collegiate School in Kolkata (1969–71).

In 1975, Tharoor graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in history from St Stephen's College, University of Delhi, where he had been president of the student union and also founded the St. Stephen's Quiz Club.[13] Within the same year, Tharoor went to the United States to obtain an M.A. in International Relations at The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University in Medford. After obtaining his M.A. in 1976, Tharoor further obtained his Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy in 1977 and his PhD in International Relations and Affairs in 1978.[14] While he was pursuing his doctorate, Tharoor was awarded the Robert B. Stewart Prize for best student and was also the first editor of the Fletcher Forum of International Affairs.[13] At the age of 22, he was the youngest person to receive a doctorate in the history of the Fletcher School.[15]

Diplomatic career[edit]


Tharoor's career in the United Nations began in 1978 as a staff member of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in Geneva. From 1981 until 1984 he was head of the UNHCR office in Singapore, during the boat people crisis, leading the organisation's rescue efforts at sea and succeeding in resettling a backlog of Vietnamese refugees. He also processed Polish and Acehnese refugee cases.[16] After a further stint at the UNHCR headquarters in Geneva, during which he became the first chairman of the staff elected by UNHCR personnel worldwide, Tharoor left UNHCR. In 1989 he was appointed special assistant to the Under-Secretary-General for Special Political Affairs, the unit that later became the Peacekeeping Operations Department in New York. Until 1996, he led the team responsible for peacekeeping operations in the former Yugoslavia, spending considerable time on the ground during the civil war there.[17][18]

Assistant Secretary and Under Secretary-General at the UN[edit]

In 1996, Tharoor was appointed Director of Communications and Special Projects and Executive Assistant to Secretary-General Kofi Annan. On January 2001, Tharoor was appointed as Interim Head[2] of the Department of Public Information (DPI) at the Assistant-Secretary-General level.[2] He was subsequently confirmed as the Under-Secretary-General for Communications and Public Information (UNDPI) with effect from 1 June 2002.[2] In this capacity, he was responsible for the United Nations' communications strategy, enhancing the image and effectiveness of the organisation. In 2003 the Secretary-General gave him the additional responsibility of United Nations Coordinator for Multilingualism. During his tenure at the UNDPI, Tharoor reformed the department and undertook a number of initiatives, ranging from organizing and conducting the first-ever UN seminar on Anti-Semitism, the first-ever UN seminar on Islamophobia after the 11 September attacks, and launching an annual list of "Ten Under-Reported Stories the World Ought to Know about", which was last produced in 2008 by his successor.

On 9 February 2007, Tharoor resigned from the post of Under-Secretary-General and left the UN on 1 April 2007.[19][20][21]

Campaign for UN Secretary-General: 2006[edit]

In 2006, the government of India nominated Tharoor for the post of UN Secretary-General.[22] Had he won, the 50-year-old Shashi Tharoor would have become the second-youngest Secretary-General, after the 46-year-old Dag Hammarskjöld.[23] Although all previous Secretary-Generals had come from small countries, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and National Security Advisor M. K. Narayanan felt that Tharoor's candidacy would demonstrate India's willingness to play a larger role at the United Nations.[24]

Tharoor finished second, behind Ban Ki-moon of South Korea, in each of the four straw polls conducted by the UN Security Council.[25] In the final round, Ban emerged as the only candidate not to be vetoed by one of the permanent members, while Tharoor received one veto from the United States. U.S. Ambassador John Bolton later revealed his instructions from Condoleezza Rice: "We don't want a strong Secretary-General." Tharoor was a protégé of the independently minded Kofi Annan,[26] and a senior American official told Tharoor that the US was determined to have "No more Kofis."[24] After the vote, Tharoor withdrew his candidacy and declined Ban Ki-moon's invitation to remain in service beyond the expiry of his term as Under-Secretary-General.

Post-UN career[edit]

External video
"Why nations should pursue soft power", TED talk, November 2009

In February 2007, amidst speculation about his post-UN future, the Indian press reported that Tharoor might be inducted into Council of Ministers of Prime Minister Manmohan Singh as Minister of State for External Affairs. In the same month, an American gossip blog reported that Tharoor was a finalist for the position of dean of the USC Annenberg School for Communication in Los Angeles, but he withdrew his name from consideration at the final stage.[27] Instead, Tharoor became chairman of Dubai-based Afras Ventures,[28] which established the Afras Academy for Business Communication (AABC) in Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, the city in which he would go on to win a record three parliamentary elections. He also spoke around the world about India and Kerala, where he spent increasing amounts of time before moving for good to India in October 2008.

Prior to embarking on his political career, Tharoor also served on the board of overseers of the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, the board of trustees of the Aspen Institute, and the advisory boards of the Indo-American Arts Council, the American India Foundation, the World Policy Journal, the Virtue Foundation, and the human rights organisation Breakthrough.[29] At the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy in 1976, he founded and was the first chair of the editorial board of The Fletcher Forum of World Affairs, a journal examining issues in international relations.[30] Tharoor was an international adviser to the International Committee of the Red Cross in Geneva from 2008 to 2011. He served on the advisory council of the Hague Institute for International Justice[31] and was elected Fellow of the New York Institute for the Humanities during 1995–96.[32] He also supported various educational causes, including as Patron of GEMS Modern Academy in Dubai.[33]

Political career in India[edit]

13th President of India Pranab Mukherjee administering the oath as Minister of State to Shashi Tharoor at a Swearing-in Ceremony, at Rashtrapati Bhavan, in New Delhi on 2012.

Tharoor once said that when he began his political career he was approached by the Congress, the Communists, and the BJP. He chose Congress because he felt ideologically comfortable with it.[34] In March 2009 Tharoor contested the Indian General Elections as a candidate for the Congress Party in Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala. His opponents included P. Ramachandran Nair of the Communist Party of India (CPI), Neelalohitadasan Nadar of the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), MP Gangadharan of the Nationalist Congress Party (NCP), and PK Krishna Das of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). Despite criticism that he was an "elite outsider",.[35]

Tharoor won the elections by a margin of 99,989. He was then selected as a Minister of State in the Council of Ministers of Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. On 28 May 2009, he was sworn in as Minister of State for External Affairs, in charge of Africa, Latin America, and the Gulf, including the Haj pilgrimage, and the Consular, Passports, and Visas services of the Ministry. As Minister of State for External Affairs, he re-established long-dormant diplomatic relationships with African nations, where his fluency in French made him popular with Francophone countries and their heads of state.

13th Prime Minister of India Manmohan Singh with Shashi unveiling the commemoration plaque of the offsite Campus of Central University of Kerala at Thiruvananthapuram, in Kerala.

Tharoor was a pioneer in using social media as an instrument of political interaction. He was India's most-followed politician on Twitter until 2013, when he was overtaken by Prime Minister Narendra Modi. Some of his Twitter posts have proved controversial in the past and were highlighted negatively by the opposition and press.

He was also the first Indian minister to visit Haiti after the devastating 2010 earthquake. He reformed the arrangements relating to the conduct of the Haj pilgrimage. He initiated new policy-planning activities on the Indian Ocean and represented India at various global events during his 11-month tenure as minister. In April 2010, he resigned from the position, following allegations that he had misused his office to get shares in the IPL cricket franchise. Tharoor denied the charges and, during his resignation speech in Parliament, called for a full inquiry. In a 2014 rejoinder he defended his position: "I was never involved in a scam of any sort in the IPL- I was brought down because...[I had] antagonised some powerful political cricketing interests" and added that he had "cooperated extensively with the detailed investigation conducted by the Enforcement Directorate into the entire issue", and no wrongdoing had been found.[citation needed]

Between 2010 and 2012 Tharoor remained active in Parliament and was member-convenor of the Parliamentary Forum on Disaster Management, a member of the Standing Committee on External Affairs, of the Consultative Committee of Defence, the Public Accounts Committee, and the Joint Parliamentary Committee on Telecoms. He participated in several important debates of the 15th Lok Sabha, including on the Lokpal Bill, the demand for grants of the Ministry of External Affairs and of the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, the black money debate, and so on. In the special debate on the 60th anniversary of the Indian Parliament, Tharoor was one of four members of the Congress Party, including party President Sonia Gandhi, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, and Leader of the House Pranab Mukherjee, to be invited to address the Lok Sabha.

In 2012 Tharoor was re-inducted into the Union Council of Ministers by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh with the portfolio of minister of state for HRD. In this role he took special interest in the problems and challenges of adult education, distance education and enhancing high-quality research by academic institutions. He was responsible for the ministry's written answers to Parliament's questions and responded to oral questions on education during the Lok Sabha's Question Hour. He addressed forums and conferences on education, explained a vision of India's educational challenges in the context of the country's demographic opportunities, and stressed that education was not only a socioeconomic issue, but also a national security issue.

As Member of Parliament for Thiruvananthapuram, Tharoor became the first elected representative in India to issue annual reports on his work as MP, including furnishing accounts of his MPLADS expenditure. In 2012 he published a half-term report followed in 2014 by a full-term report.

Shashi Tharoor at a march parade with NSUI President Hibi Eden and other Congress workers in Ernakulam, Kerala.

In May 2014 Tharoor won his re-election from Thiruvananthapuram, defeating O. Rajagopal of the Bharatiya Janata Party by a margin of around 15,700 votes, and became a member of the 16th Lok Sabha, sitting in Opposition. He was named Chairman of the Parliamentary Standing Committee on External Affairs. Shashi Tharoor was dropped from the post of Congress spokesperson on 13 October 2014 after he praised statements of his party's opponent, Prime Minister Modi.[36]

In regards to Tharoor's removal from the post of congress spokesperson, Kolkata's The Telegraph opined, "For an Opposition MP to have and to exercise the freedom to appreciate a good thing done by the government and for a ruling party MP to speak and vote against the party line is not just legitimate parliamentary practice, it is the very essence of parliamentary democracy. Shashi Tharoor, from the ranks of the Congress has tried to do that; there is not one BJP MP who has matched him. Blind conformism is not loyalty, nor independent thinking, dissent."[37]

After the BJP victory of 2014, Tharoor was asked to help the treasury benches draft a statement condemning Pakistan for freeing Zaki-ur-Rehman Lakhvi, the Lashkar-e-Toiba commander, who masterminded the 2008 Mumbai attacks that killed 166 people. In January 2015, Tharoor asked not to debunk genuine accomplishments of Ancient Indian Science due to exaggerations of the Hindutva brigade,[38][39][40] amid 2015 Indian Science Congress ancient aircraft controversy.[41][42]

In March 2017, Tharoor called for the Victoria Memorial in Kolkata to be converted into a museum on atrocities by the United Kingdom during its rule in India. He wrote in an Al Jazeera column that British Empire "conquered one of the richest countries in the world (27 per cent of global gross domestic product in 1700) and reduced it to, after over two centuries of looting and exploitation, one of the poorest, most diseased and most illiterate countries on Earth by the time they left in 1947. ...Nor is there any memorial to the massacres of the Raj, from Delhi in 1857 to Amritsar in 1919, the deaths of 35 million Indians in totally unnecessary famines caused by British policy."[43]

Although many people want him to contest as the Prime Minister candidate in 2019 General Elections, he has disowned, downplayed, and humbly distanced himself from any such online campaigns run by his large number of followers.[44][45]

Tharoor has also tried to introduce a number of Private Members Bills in the Parliament. Notably, his efforts to amend Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code were voted out by the majority of parliamentarians on two occasions. Interestingly, the Apex court of India later ruled in favor of amending the controversial article in 2018, vindicating the views upheld by Tharoor, thereby.[46][47]


Tharoor is notable for his eloquence while speaking, as demonstrated by the popularity of his speeches on online platforms such as YouTube. For instance, his speech decrying British Colonialism, delivered at the Oxford Union in 2015, has amassed over 5 million views on one site alone, while simultaneously being praised as ground-breaking in various educational institutions in India. Further speeches such as those explaining the importance of "soft power" and analyzing the impacts of education in India have garnered over one million and two million views respectively.[48][49]

Additionally, Tharoor is known for his views on a number of topics including economics, history, governance, and geopolitics due to both his well-regarded educational attainment and his broad experience while at the United Nations. He is an outspoken supporter of the Campaign for the Establishment of a United Nations Parliamentary Assembly, an organisation which campaigns for democratic reformation of the United Nations, arguing that "United Nations needs to open its doors to elected representatives"[50] Many note that it is his combination of wit, charm, wry humor, and intelligence that make him accessible and held in high esteem, both in India and abroad.[51]


  • In September 2009, Tharoor and S. M. Krishna were accused of staying in lavishly 5-star hotels.[52] Tharoor said it was because of the delayed readiness of his official residence and that he had paid out of his own pocket for the accommodation.[53] Later, on Pranab Mukherjee's request,[54] Tharoor and Krishna moved out of the hotels.[55]
  • A controversy erupted when Tharoor, responding to the question as to whether he would travel in "Cattle class", replied that he would "out of solidarity with all our holy cows". This remark on Twitter (@ShashiTharoor), was alleged to equate the travelling public to cattle and taunt his party, the Indian National Congress over its austerity drive.[56] Tharoor's explanation that "cattle class" was a well-established phrase for economy class travel, and that it attacked the airlines and not the passengers, was ignored in the outcry. It was also reported that Congress may take action against him.[57][58] However, this was subsequently resolved when the then prime minister pointed out to the media that the statement was "a joke".[59]
  • Tharoor was in the news again for publicly criticising the new visa guidelines adopted by the Indian government in the wake of the gaps exposed by the arrest of 26/11 terror suspects, David Headley and Tahawwur Rana. For this he was criticised for breaking ranks with the official position of the government. He later met External Affairs Minister, S.M. Krishna, and explained his position on the issue. The rules were subsequently partly modified.[60]
  • In January 2010, Tharoor criticised Nehru for his conduct of Indian foreign policy in remarks that were distorted by the Indian media. The critique angered his party, the Indian National Congress. In the wake of this controversy, he held a press conference describing the report as "inaccurate" and "tendentious".[61]
  • In 2014, Tharoor expressed support for Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, a social campaign initiated by Prime Minister Narendra Modi. Following this, the Kerala Pradesh Congress Committee lodged a complaint against him to the Congress high command for his pro-Modi stance. Following this, Tharoor was dropped as the official spokesperson of the party.[62]
  • In 2016, while speaking at JNU on nationalism, Tharoor compared Kanhaiya Kumar with Bhagat Singh, an Indian independence fighter. This comparison generated a great public controversy, even the party distancing themselves with Tharoor's views.[63]
  • On 9 May 2017, Republic TV broadcast tapes of phone recordings between journalists and Tharoor's close aide Narayan, alleging that these implied Tharoor's involvement in the murder of his wife. Later, in a series of tweets, Tharoor claimed that the reports by Republic TV were "misinterpretations and outright lies." He also challenged broadcast journalist Arnab Goswami to prove the same in a court of law.
  • On 10 May 2017, The Huffington Post stated: "It's openly speculated that besides the desperate viewership game of any new TV channel, the motive behind the reemergence of the Tharoor story is to discredit him in the Thiruvananthapuram parliament constituency ahead of the 2019 elections. The needle of suspicion is on the co-promoter of the channel and BJP Rajya Sabha MP Rajeev Chandrasekhar, who was recently named the NDA vice chairman for Kerala."[64]

July 2018, Shashi Tharoor said India will become a Hindu Pakistan if the BJP wins elections in 2019.[65][66][67] His party, Congress, distanced itself from the comment and advised its leaders on "responsible phraseology".[68]

  • In August 2018, Tharoor commented on Prime Minister Narendra Modi's unwillingness to wear a Muslim skull-cap, when he stated "Why does our PM, who wears all sorts of outlandish headgear whenever he goes around country, around the world... why does he always refuse to wear a Muslim skullcap? You see him in hilarious Naga head-dress with feathers, various kinds of extraordinary outfits, which is right thing for PM to do...Indira Gandhi has also been photographed wearing various kinds of costume."[69] This invited criticism from a lot of Ministers in the Central Government as well as Chief Ministers of the respective North-Eastern States. They accused Tharoor of being insensitive & racist towards the local tradition, culture of the people of North-East".[70] In a response to a tweet, Tharoor clarified that he had been "referring to the ceremonial headdress offered to visiting dignitaries, not daily wear", adding that "when PM wears all types of headgear...why does he avoid just one?"[69]
  • In July 2018, Tharoor, while delivering a speech in his constituency, Thiruvananthapuram, quoted Nehru and said that if the BJP won the General Elections, it could pave the way for the creation of a "Hindu Pakistan". Following this, an advocate in Kolkata filed a case alleging that Tharoor's comment created disharmony and was "a deliberate and malicious act intended to outrage religious feelings".[71][72] On 13 August 2019, an arrest warrant was issued by the Kolkata Court against him, after he or his lawyer failed to appear before the court. This was subsequently stayed by the Kolkata High Court on 22 August 2019.[73]

Saudi Arabia visit and controversy[edit]

In February 2010 when accompanying[74] Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on a three-day visit to Saudi Arabia, he said "We feel that Saudi Arabia has a long and close relationship with Pakistan, that makes Saudi Arabia even more a valuable interlocutor for us. When we tell them about our experience, Saudi Arabia listens as somebody who is not in any way an enemy of Pakistan, but a friend of Pakistan and, therefore, will listen with sympathy and concern to a matter of this nature". He was asked whether India expected Saudi Arabia, given its close ties with Islamabad, to help address the terror threat from Pakistan.[75] The remark about Saudi Arabia being a "valuable interlocutor" raised a strong reaction within the Indian political circle.[76] The Pakistani press even went on to report that he had proposed that Saudi Arabia play a mediator's role in improving India's relationship with Pakistan.[77] In response, Tharoor denied that 'interlocutor' meant 'mediator', and tweeted an explanation, saying, "An interlocutor is someone you speak to. If I speak to you, you are my interlocutor. I mentioned the Saudis as our interlocutors, i.e. the people we are here to speak to".[75]

Mehr Tarar's Twitter controversy and Sunanda Pushkar's death[edit]

On 15 January 2014, a series of intimate messages, supposedly sent by the Pakistani journalist Mehr Tarar to Tharoor, were posted on the latter's Twitter account.[78] The messages proclaimed Tarar's love for Tharoor. Tarar tried to downplay the incident by stating that her account had been hacked. However, Sunanda later stated that the account had not been hacked and that she had posted the messages to expose what she believed to be Tarar's stalking of her husband. She accused Mehr of being an ISI agent.[79] Later, she stated that she did not want to go public about the matter, especially in an election year.[80] The next day, a note titled as "Joint statement by Sunanda and Shashi Tharoor" was published on Shashi Tharoor's Facebook page. The note stated that the couple was happily married, and that some personal comments not intended for publication had been misrepresented after being posted to Twitter. The note also stated that Sunanda had been hospitalised after being ill, and was seeking rest.[81] She was being treated for Lupus erythematosus, a deadly immune disorder which damages healthy tissues.[82]

On 17 January 2014, a day after the Twitter controversy, Sunanda was found dead in room number 345 of the Leela Palace hotel in Chanakyapuri, New Delhi, where the couple had shifted to, as their house was being renovated and painted.[83] Shashi Tharoor discovered her body, when she did not wake up from her sleep in the evening. He informed the Delhi Police, who recovered the body from the hotel and sent it for postmortem. According to initial reports, Sunanda was suspected to have committed suicide. Later reports stated that the cause of death was unnatural; the doctors at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences gave a preliminary autopsy report that revealed injury marks on her body. They said that these injuries may not be the cause of death.[84] The autopsy indicated that she died of drug overdose, most likely a combination of sedatives, other strong medicines and probably alcohol.[85] An investigation has been ordered by the Sub-Divisional Magistrate to examine the cause of poisoning and to ascertain if it was murder or suicide.[86] Her body was cremated at Lodhi Crematorium in South Delhi.[87]

Doctors at KIMS Hospital Trivandrum, where she had been hospitalized for three days a few days earlier said that Sunanda did not have serious health problems.[88][89] However, Sunanda had hinted about her death, hours before her body was recovered from the hotel.[90] On 1 July 2014, controversy over her death deepened when AIIMS doctor Sudhir Gupta claimed that he was pressured to give a false report in the case.[91] On 10 October, the medical team probing her death concluded that she died of poisoning.[92] On 6 January 2015, the Delhi Police reported that Sunanda was murdered and filed FIR in the regard.[93][94]

Subramanian Swamy, a politician of the BJP, has tried to fight this case against Tharoor in January 2015. On 20 May 2015 a trial court allowed the Delhi Police to conduct lie detector test on three suspects related to her death.[95] The case became a talking point again in 2017 after the release of a series of secret video tapes by the television channel Republic TV in connection to Sunanda's death.[96] Key alleged claims included: (a) Sunanda's body was moved from room No. 307 to 345 of Leela indicating that the murder scene and body was tampered with before the investigation began. (b) Shashi Tharoor had re-visited the hotel after leaving it at 6.30 am, and had hid this piece of information when investigated. (c) Taped evidence emerged of Shashi and Sunanda having "fought all night" on the day of her murder[96] (d) On 10 October 2014, Tharoor tried to influence the 'HM' through Rajan Rao, a Delhi-based operative. Rajan Rao is the same individual who had previously claimed that he was Shashi Tharoor's "friend" and had also claimed that Shashi Tharoor's ex-OSD had called him on the day Sunanda was found dead.[97] Tharoor denied all these allegations and sued Republic TV and its anchor Arnab Goswami for defamation.[98]

In May 2018, Tharoor was charged with abetment to suicide of his wife and marital cruelty under sections 306 and 498A of the Indian Penal Code.[99] If convicted, Tharoor could serve up to 10 years in jail.[100]

Literary career[edit]

Tharoor has written numerous books in English.[101]

Tharoor has been a columnist in each of India's three best-known English-language newspapers,[102] most recently for The Hindu (2001–2008) and in a weekly column, "Shashi on Sunday," in the Times of India (January 2007 – December 2008). Following his resignation as Minister of State for External Affairs, he began a fortnightly column on foreign policy issues in the Deccan Chronicle. Previously he was a columnist for the Gentleman magazine and the Indian Express newspaper, as well as a frequent contributor to Newsweek International and the International Herald Tribune. His op-eds and book reviews have appeared in the Washington Post,[103] the New York Times[104] and the Los Angeles Times,[105] amongst other papers.[citation needed] His monthly column, "India Reawakening", distributed by Project Syndicate, appears in 80 newspapers around the world.[106]

Tharoor began writing at the age of 6,[107] and his first published story appeared in the Sunday edition of The Free Press Journal, in Mumbai at age 10.[108] His World War II adventure novel Operation Bellows, inspired by the Biggles books, was serialised in the Junior Statesman starting a week before his 11th birthday.[citation needed] Each of his books has been a bestseller in India.[citation needed] The Great Indian Novel had had 43 reprints as of October 2014, and a Silver Jubilee special edition was issued on the book's 25th anniversary in October 2014, by Viking Penguin India.The Elephant, the Tiger and the Cellphone has also undergone several hardback re-prints.[109] [110] President Bill Clinton cited Shashi Tharoor's book India From Midnight to the Millennium in his speech to the Indian parliament in 2000.[111]

Tharoor has lectured widely on India,[112] and is often quoted for his observations,[citation needed] including, "India is not, as people keep calling it, an underdeveloped country, but rather, in the context of its history and cultural heritage, a highly developed one in an advanced state of decay."[113] He also coined a comparison of India's "thali" to the American "melting pot": "If America is a melting pot, then to me India is a thali – a selection of sumptuous dishes in different bowls. Each tastes different, and does not necessarily mix with the next, but they belong together on the same plate, and they complement each other in making the meal a satisfying repast".[114]

Shashi Tharoor's non-fiction work An Era of Darkness, published in the UK as Inglorious Empire: What the British Did to India, arising out of a speech he delivered at the Oxford Union, was published in 2016. It sold over 50,000 copies in eight hardback reprints within six months of publication. The UK edition rose to Number 1 in the London Evening Standard bestseller lists. Since then, he has published two other non-fiction books: Why I Am A Hindu (2018) and The Paradoxical Prime Minister (2018), both of which have been published in the Indian subcontinent by Aleph Book Company.[115][116]

Victor Mallet in the Financial Times said Tharoor "wants us to understand the origins of the difficulties that confronted India after 1947", attributing most of that to colonialism.[117] New Statesman said it was especially important to read as sardonic talk of "Empire 2.0" came up post-Brexit.[118] Tharoor has called for Britain to pay reparations to India for the lasting toll that colonial rule exacted on the country.[119]

His latest book, The Hindu Way – An Introduction, is another addition to his expanding list of publications, in line with his research into Hindu culture and ways of life of late.[120]

Personal life[edit]

Tharoor's first wife was Tilottama Mukherji, a half-Bengali and half-Kashmiri academic,[121] and the granddaughter of politician Kailashnath Katju.[122] Tharoor and Tilottama had been college sweethearts[123] and were married in 1981. After their marriage, Tilottama took her husband's last name and began teaching English at the Ngee Ann Polytechnic university and also worked as a freelance writer.[124] Their twin sons,[125] Kanishk and Ishaan, were born prematurely in 1984 at the KK Hospital in Singapore.[126][127] Ishaan is a former senior editor at Time magazine, and now writes on foreign affairs for The Washington Post. Kanishk is a former editor at Open Democracy and is the author of the highly praised short story collection Swimmer Among The Stars.[128][129] Tilottama is currently a professor of humanities at New York University.[130]

Following his split with Tilottama, Tharoor married Christa Giles, a Canadian diplomat working at the United Nations in 2007.[131] After their subsequent divorce soon after his return to India, Tharoor married businesswoman Sunanda Pushkar in his ancestral home in Elavanchery village in Kerala's Palakkad district on 22 August 2010. On 17 January 2014, Pushkar (aged 51) died at The Leela Hotel in Chanakyapuri, New Delhi, under mysterious circumstances.[132]

Tharoor is a vegetarian and he "abhors the idea of consuming the corpses of animals," although he claimed that he does not have a problem with those who do. He has stated that he is "very proud of being a Hindu" and that he's a "worshipping" and "believing Hindu". Tharoor also claims to have read a "fair amount" of the Upanishads.[133]

In April 2019, Tharoor met with an accident when praying during a Thulabaram ritual at a temple in Thiruvananthapuram . After being discharged, he sought a probe by the government in to the incident.[134]

Honours and awards[edit]

Ambassador of Spain to India Gustavo de Aristégui conferreing Civilian Honour by Government of Spain on the occasion of the National Day of Spain to Tharoor and Farooq Abdullah.
  • 1976 – Rajika Kripalani Young Journalist Award for the Best Indian Journalist under 30.[135]
  • 1990 – Federation of Indian Publishers' Hindustan Times Literary Award for the Best Book of the Year for The Great Indian Novel.[136]
  • 1991 – Commonwealth Writers' Prize for the Best Book of the Year in the Eurasian Region, for The Great Indian Novel[135]
  • 1998 – Excelsior Award for excellence in literature, Association of Indians in America (AIA)[citation needed] and the Network of Indian Professionals (NetIP).[135]
  • 1998 – Global Leader of Tomorrow, World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland[137]
  • 2004 – Pravasi Bharatiya Samman, India's highest honour for non-resident Indians (accepted 2007[138])
  • 2009 – Zakir Hussain Memorial "Pride of India" Award.[139]
  • 2009 – Inspiration of the Year Award at GQ's Man of the Year Awards.[140]
  • 2009 – Hakim Khan Sur Award for National Integration, Maharana of Udaipur.[141]
  • 2010 – Sarva Deshiya Prathibha Award, Pazhassiraja Charitable Trust, Kozhikode.[142]
  • 2010 – "New Age Politician of the Year" Award, at NDTV's Indian of the Year awards.[143]
  • 2010 – Fifth IILM Distinguished Global Thinker Award, New Delhi.[144]
  • 2010 – Digital person of the year, Indian Digital Media Awards (IDMA), for popularising the digital medium in India.[145]
  • 2012 –  Spain : Order of Charles III - Sash of Collar.svg Commander of the Order of Charles III by King of Spain
  • 2013 – First Sree Narayan Guru Global Secular and Peace Award at Thiruvananthapuram.
  • 2013 – PETA's "Person of the Year".[146]
  • 2019 – Sahitya Akademi Award for his book, An Era of Darkness: The British Empire in India.[147]

Honorary degrees[edit]




  • Reasons of State (1985)[153]
  • India: From Midnight to the Millennium (1997)[154]
  • Nehru: The Invention of India. Arcade Publishing (2003). New York. First edition. ISBN 9781559706971[155]
  • Bookless in Baghdad (2005)[156]
  • The Elephant, the Tiger, and the Cell Phone: Reflections on India – The Emerging 21st-Century Power (2007)[157]
  • Shadows Across the Playing Field: Sixty Years of India-Pakistan Cricket (2009) (with Shaharyar Khan)[158]
  • Pax Indica: India and the World of the 21st Century (2012)[159]
  • India: the Future is Now (Editor)(2013)[160]
  • India Shastra: Reflections on the Nation in our Time (2015)
  • An Era of Darkness: The British Empire in India (2016): The British Empire in India (2016)[161] UK edition – Inglorious Empire: What the British Did to India (2017)[162]
  • Why I Am A Hindu (2018)[163]
  • The Paradoxical Prime Minister (2018)
  • The Hindu Way (2019)
  • The New World Disorder and the Indian Imperative (2020), co-authored with Samir Saran. [164]

Illustrated books[edit]

See Also[edit]


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  149. ^ Tharoor, Shashi (1993). The Great Indian Novel. Arcade Publishing. p. 423. ISBN 1-55970-194-3.
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  151. ^ Tharoor, Shashi (18 April 2011). Show Business. Skyhorse Publishing Inc. p. 320. ISBN 978-1-61145-407-9.
  152. ^ Tharoor, Shashi (2001). Riot. Arcade Publishing. p. 272. ISBN 1-55970-605-8.
  153. ^ Tharoor, Shashi (1982). Reasons of state: political development and India's foreign policy under Indira Gandhi. Vikas Pub. House. p. 438. ISBN 0-7069-1275-6.
  154. ^ Tharoor, Shashi (2006). India: From Midnight to the Millennium and Beyond. Arcade Publishing. p. 420. ISBN 1-55970-803-4.
  155. ^ Tharoor, Shashi (2003). Nehru: The Invention of India. Arcade Publishing. p. 282. ISBN 1-55970-697-X.
  156. ^ Tharoor, Shashi (April 2012). Bookless in Baghdad: Reflections on Writing and Writers. Skyhorse Publishing Inc. p. 288. ISBN 978-1-61145-408-6.
  157. ^ Tharoor, Shashi (2007). The Elephant, the Tiger, and the Cell Phone: Reflections on India – The Emerging 21st-Century Power. W W Norton & Company Incorporated. p. 512. ISBN 978-1-61145-393-5.
  158. ^ Tharoor, Shaharyar Mohammed Khan, Shashi (2009). Shadows Across the Playing Field: 60 Years of India-Pakistan Cricket. Roli Books. p. 189. ISBN 978-81-7436-718-1.
  159. ^ Tharoor, Shashi (2012). Pax Indica: India and the World of the 21st Century. Penguin Books India. p. 456. ISBN 9780670085743.
  160. ^ Bhattacharyya, Barsali (1 May 2013). "The politics of the future: MPs launch book on how young people can make a difference". Daily Mail. London.
  161. ^ Sheikh, Aminah (23 October 2016). "New release: An Era of Darkness: The British Empire in India by Shashi Tharoor".
  162. ^ Singh, kanwal (3 March 2017). "New release: Inglorious Empire by Shashi Tharoor".
  163. ^ "Why I am a Hindu". 28 December 2017. Retrieved 15 May 2018.
  164. ^ Haidar, Suhasini (25 February 2020). "Book review: The New World Disorder and the Indian Imperative by Shashi Tharoor and Samir Saran". The Hindu.
  165. ^ Tharoor, Maqbul Fida Husain, Shashi. Kerala, God's own country. Books Today. p. 57. ISBN 81-87478-43-8.

Shashi Tharoor Charged With Abetting Suicide In Sunanda Pushkar Death Case

External links[edit]

Lok Sabha
Preceded by
Pannyan Raveendran
Member of Parliament
for Thiruvananthapuram

Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Not sure
Under Secretary General of the United Nations for Communications and Public Information
Succeeded by
Kiyotaka Akasaka