The Shaw Prize is an annual award first presented by the Shaw Prize Foundation in 2004. Established in 2002 in Hong Kong, it honours "individuals who are currently active in their respective fields and who have recently achieved distinguished and significant advances, who have made outstanding contributions in academic and scientific research or applications, or who in other domains have achieved excellence. The award is dedicated to furthering societal progress, enhancing quality of life, and enriching humanity's spiritual civilization."
The prize is for recent achievements in the fields of astronomy, life science and medicine, and mathematical sciences; it is not awarded posthumously. Nominations are submitted by invited individuals beginning each year in September. The award winners are then announced in the summer, and receive the prize at the ceremony in early autumn. The winners receive a medal and a certificate. The front of the medal bears a portrait of Shaw as well as the English and the Traditional Chinese name of the prize; the back bears the year, the category, the name of the winner and a Chinese quotation of philosopher Xun Zi (制天命而用之, which means "Grasp the law of nature and make use of it"). In addition, the winner receives a sum of money, which is worth US$1.2 million from 1 October 2015.
As of 2012, 28 prizes have been awarded to 48 individuals. The inaugural winner for the Astronomy award was Canadian Jim Peebles; he was honoured for his contributions to cosmology. Two inaugural prizes were awarded for the Life Science and Medicine category: Americans Stanley Norman Cohen, Herbert Boyer and Yuet-Wai Kan jointly won one of the prizes for their works pertaining to DNA while British physiologist Sir Richard Doll won the other for his contribution to cancer epidemiology. Shiing-Shen Chern of China won the inaugural Mathematical Sciences award for his work on differential geometry.
Shaw Prize laureates
|2004||Peebles, P. James E.P. James E. Peebles||United States||for his contributions to cosmology|||
|2005||Marcy, GeoffreyGeoffrey Marcy||United States||for their contributions that led to the discovery of planetary systems|||
|Mayor, MichelMichel Mayor||Switzerland|
|2006||Perlmutter, SaulSaul Perlmutter||United States||for finding the expansion rate of the accelerating universe and the energy density of space|||
|Riess, AdamAdam Riess||United States|
|Schmidt, BrianBrian Schmidt||Australia|
|2007||Goldreich, PeterPeter Goldreich||United States||for his achievements in theoretical astrophysics and planetary sciences|||
|2008||Genzel, ReinhardReinhard Genzel||Germany||for demonstrating that the Milky Way's centre contains a supermassive black hole|||
|2009||Shu, Frank H.Frank H. Shu (徐遐生)||United States||for his lifelong contributions to theoretical astronomy|||
|2010||Bennett, Charles L.Charles L. Bennett||United States||for their contributions to the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe experiment, which helps to determine the geometry, age and composition of the universe|||
|Page Jr., Lyman A.Lyman A. Page Jr.||United States|
|Spergel, David N.David N. Spergel||United States|
|2011||Costa, EnricoEnrico Costa||Italy||for their leadership of space missions that enabled the demonstration of the cosmological origin of gamma ray bursts, the brightest sources known in the universe.|||
|Fishman, Gerald J.Gerald J. Fishman||United States|
|2012||Jewitt, DavidDavid Jewitt||United States||for their discovery and characterization of trans-Neptunian bodies, an archeological treasure dating back to the formation of the solar system and the long-sought source of short period comets.|||
|Luu, JaneJane Luu||United States|
|2013||Balbus, Steven A.Steven A. Balbus||United Kingdom||for their discovery and study of the magnetorotational instability, and for demonstrating that this instability leads to turbulence and is a viable mechanism for angular momentum transport in astrophysical accretion disks.|||
|Hawley, John F.John F. Hawley||United States|
|2014||Eisenstein, DanielDaniel Eisenstein||United States||for their contributions to the measurements of features in the large-scale structure of galaxies used to constrain the cosmological model including baryon acoustic oscillations and redshift-space distortions.|||
|Cole, ShaunShaun Cole||United Kingdom|
|Peacock, John A.John A. Peacock||United Kingdom|
|2015||Borucki, William J.William J. Borucki||United States||for his conceiving and leading the Kepler mission, which greatly advanced knowledge of both extrasolar planetary systems and stellar interiors.|||
|2016||Drever, Ronald W. P.Ronald W. P. Drever||United Kingdom||for conceiving and designing the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO), whose recent direct detection of gravitational waves opens a new window in astronomy, with the first remarkable discovery being the merger of a pair of stellar mass black holes.|||
|Thorne, Kip S.Kip S. Thorne||United States|
|Weiss, RainerRainer Weiss||United States|
|2017||White, Simon D. M.Simon D. M. White||Germany||for his contributions to understanding structure formation in the Universe. With powerful numerical simulations he has shown how small density fluctuations in the early Universe develop into galaxies and other nonlinear structures, strongly supporting a cosmology with a flat geometry, and dominated by dark matter and a cosmological constant.|||
Life science and medicine
|2004[d]||Cohen, Stanley N.Stanley N. Cohen||United States||for their contributions to DNA cloning and genetic engineering|||
|Boyer, Herbert W.Herbert W. Boyer||United States|
|Kan, Yuet-WaiYuet-Wai Kan||United States||for his works on DNA polymorphism|
|2004[d]||Sir Richard Doll||United Kingdom||for his contributions to the epidemiology of cancer|
|2005||Sir Michael Berridge||United Kingdom||for his works on calcium signalling, a process that regulate the activity of cells|||
|2006||Wang, XiaodongXiaodong Wang||United States||for his works on programmed cell death|||
|2007||Lefkowitz, RobertRobert Lefkowitz||United States||for his works on G protein-coupled receptor|||
|2008[e]||Campbell, Keith H. S.Keith H. S. Campbell||United Kingdom||for their works on the cell differentiation in mammals, a process that advances our knowledge of developmental biology|||
|Sir Ian Wilmut||United Kingdom|
|Yamanaka, ShinyaShinya Yamanaka||Japan|
|2009||Coleman, Douglas L.Douglas L. Coleman||United States||for their discovery of leptin|||
|Friedman, Jeffrey M.Jeffrey M. Friedman||United States|
|2010||Julius, DavidDavid Julius||United States||for his discovery of molecular mechanisms by which the skin senses painful stimuli|||
|2011||Hoffmann, Jules A.Jules A. Hoffmann||France||for their discovery of the molecular mechanism of innate immunity, the first line of defense against pathogens.|||
|Medzhitov, Ruslan M.Ruslan M. Medzhitov||United States|
|Beutler, Bruce A.Bruce A. Beutler||United States|
|2012||Hartl, Franz-UlrichFranz-Ulrich Hartl||Germany||for their contributions to the understanding of the molecular mechanism of protein folding. Proper protein folding is essential for many cellular functions.|||
|Horwich, ArthurArthur Horwich||United States|
|2013||Hall, Jeffrey C.Jeffrey C. Hall||United States||for their discovery of molecular mechanisms underlying circadian rhythms.|||
|Rosbash, MichaelMichael Rosbash||United States|
|Young, Michael W.Michael W. Young||United States|
|2014||Mori, KazutoshiKazutoshi Mori||Japan||for their discovery of the Unfolded Protein Response of the endoplasmic reticulum, a cell signalling pathway that controls organelle homeostasis and quality of protein export in eukaryotic cells.|||
|Walter, PeterPeter Walter||United States|
|2015||Bassler, Bonnie L.Bonnie L. Bassler||United States||for elucidating the molecular mechanism of quorum sensing, a process whereby bacteria communicate with each other and which offers innovative ways to interfere with bacterial pathogens or to modulate the microbiome for health applications.|||
|Greenberg, E. PeterE. Peter Greenberg||United States|
|2016||Bird, Adrian P.Adrian P. Bird||United Kingdom||for their discovery of the genes and the encoded proteins that recognize one chemical modification of the DNA of chromosomes that influences gene control as the basis of the developmental disorder Rett syndrome.|||
|Zoghbi, Huda Y.Huda Y. Zoghbi||United States|
|2017||Gibbons, Ian R.Ian R. Gibbons||United States||for their discovery of microtubule-associated motor proteins: engines that power cellular and intracellular movements essential to the growth, division, and survival of human cells.|||
|Vale, Ronald D.Ronald D. Vale||United States|
|2004||Chern, Shiing-ShenShiing-Shen Chern (陳省身)||China||for his initiation and pioneering of global differential geometry|||
|2005||Wiles, Andrew JohnAndrew John Wiles||United Kingdom||for his proof of Fermat's Last Theorem|||
|2006||Mumford, DavidDavid Mumford||United States||for his contributions to pattern theory and vision research|||
|Wu, WentsunWentsun Wu (吳文俊)||China||for his contributions to mathematics mechanisation|
|2007||Langlands, RobertRobert Langlands||United States||for the development of the Langlands program, a program that connects prime numbers with symmetry|||
|Taylor, RichardRichard Taylor||United Kingdom|
|2008||Arnold, VladimirVladimir Arnold||Russia||for their contributions to mathematical physics|||
|Faddeev, LudwigLudwig Faddeev||Russia|
|2009||Donaldson, Simon K.Simon K. Donaldson||United Kingdom||for their contributions to the geometry of 3 and 4 dimensions|||
|Taubes, Clifford H.Clifford H. Taubes||United States|
|2010||Bourgain, JeanJean Bourgain||United States||for his work in mathematical analysis and its application to fields ranging from partial differential equations to theoretical computer science|||
|2011||Christodoulou, DemetriosDemetrios Christodoulou||Switzerland||for their highly innovative works on nonlinear partial differential equations in Lorentzian and Riemannian geometry and their applications to general relativity and topology.|||
|Hamilton, Richard S.Richard S. Hamilton||United States|
|2012||Kontsevich, MaximMaxim Kontsevich||France||for his pioneering works in algebra, geometry and mathematical physics and in particular deformation quantization, motivic integration and mirror symmetry.|||
|2013||Donoho, David L. David L. Donoho||United States||for his profound contributions to modern mathematical statistics and in particular the development of optimal algorithms for statistical estimation in the presence of noise and of efficient techniques for sparse representation and recovery in large data-sets.|||
|2014||Lusztig, George George Lusztig||United States||for his fundamental contributions to algebra, algebraic geometry, and representation theory, and for weaving these subjects together to solve old problems and reveal beautiful new connections.|||
|2015||Faltings, GerdGerd Faltings||Germany||for their introduction and development of fundamental tools in number theory, allowing them as well as others to resolve some longstanding classical problems.|||
|Iwaniec, HenrykHenryk Iwaniec||United States|
|2016||Hitchin, Nigel J.Nigel J. Hitchin||United Kingdom||for his far reaching contributions to geometry, representation theory and theoretical physics. The fundamental and elegant concepts and techniques that he has introduced have had wide impact and are of lasting importance.|||
|2017||Kollár, JánosJános Kollár||United States||for their remarkable results in many central areas of algebraic geometry, which have transformed the field and led to the solution of long-standing problems that had appeared out of reach.|||
|Voisin, ClaireClaire Voisin||France|
- a The form and spelling of the names in the name column is according to shawprize.org, the official website of the Shaw Prize Foundation. Alternative spellings and name forms, where they exist, are given at the articles linked from this column.
- b Countries mentioned above refer to the sites of the work places of the Laureates at the time of the award.
- c The rationale for each award is quoted (not always in full) from shawprize.org, the official website of the Shaw Prize Foundation.
- d Two prizes were awarded for the life science and medicine category in 2004: Stanley N. Cohen, Herbert W. Boyer and Yuet-Wai Kan jointly received one of the prizes (half went to Cohen and Boyer; the other half went to Kan). Richard Doll received the other prize.
- e Half of the 2008 life science and medicine prize went to Keith H. S. Campbell and Ian Wilmut; the other half went to Shinya Yamanaka.
- "The Shaw Laureates (2004 – 2017)". shawprize.org.
- "Introduction". shawprize.org. Retrieved December 10, 2010.
- "Jackson Laboratory scientist wins Shaw Prize, "Nobel of the East"". The Jackson Laboratory. June 16, 2009. Retrieved October 26, 2009.
- "Berkeley Lab’s Saul Perlmutter Wins Shaw Prize in Astronomy". Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. June 21, 2006. Retrieved November 20, 2009.
- "$1 million ‘Nobel of the East’ awarded to Sir Michael Berridge, Emeritus Fellow at the Babraham Institute". Babraham Institute. July 18, 2005. Retrieved November 20, 2009.
- "Solana Beach: Astronomy researcher gets $1 million Shaw Prize". North County Times. June 17, 2009. Retrieved November 20, 2009.
- "Medal". shawprize.org. Retrieved December 10, 2010.
- "Rules of Procedures" (PDF). shawprize.org. Retrieved December 10, 2010.
- Shaw Prizes 2004
- "Shaw Prize awarded to six scientists". Government of Hong Kong. September 7, 2004. Retrieved October 31, 2009.
- Shaw Prizes 2005
- Sanders, Robert (September 1, 2005). "Planet hunter Geoffrey Marcy shares $1 million Shaw Prize in astronomy". UC Berkeley. Retrieved October 31, 2009.
- Shaw Prizes 2006
- "Berkeley physicist Perlmutter wins Shaw Prize for work on expansion of universe". UC Berkeley. June 22, 2006. Retrieved October 31, 2009.
- Shaw Prizes 2007
- "Caltech Astrophysicist Peter Goldreich Wins $1 Million International Shaw Prize". California Institute of Technology. June 12, 2007. Retrieved October 31, 2009.
- Shaw Prizes 2008
- Viñas, Maria José (June 10, 2008). "6 Professors to Share $1-Million Shaw Prizes". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved October 31, 2009.
- Shaw Prizes 2009
- Beja, Marc (June 16, 2009). "$1-Million Shaw Prizes Go to 5 Researchers". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved October 31, 2009.
- Shaw Prizes 2010
- Shaw Prizes 2011
- Shaw Prizes 2012
- Shaw Prizes 2013
- Shaw Prizes 2014
- Shaw Prizes 2015
- Shaw Prizes 2016
- Shaw Prizes 2017
- "$1 million ‘Nobel of the East’ awarded to Sir Michael Berridge, Emeritus Fellow at the Babraham Institute". Babraham Institute. July 18, 2005. Retrieved October 31, 2009.
- "Xiaodong Wang Wins $1 Million Shaw Prize". Howard Hughes Medical Institute. June 22, 2006. Retrieved October 31, 2009.
- "Robert J. Lefkowitz Wins $1 Million Shaw Prize". Howard Hughes Medical Institute. June 12, 2007. Retrieved October 31, 2009.
- Sanders, Robert (December 6, 2004). "Renowned mathematician Shiing-Shen Chern, who revitalized the study of geometry, has died at 93 in Tianjin, China". UC Berkeley. Retrieved October 31, 2009.
- "Institute For Advanced Study Congratulates 2005 Shaw Prize Laureate Andrew Wiles". Institute for Advanced Study. June 7, 2005. Retrieved October 31, 2009.
- "UT Southwestern biochemist wins $1 million research prize for cell death, cancer insights". UT Southwestern Medical Center. June 21, 2006. Retrieved October 31, 2009.
- "Two Faculty Members Named 2007 Shaw Prize Laureates". Institute for Advanced Study. June 13, 2007. Retrieved October 31, 2009.
- "Shaw Laureates Chart (2004 – 2017)" (JPG). shawprize.org. Retrieved May 23, 2017.
- "The Shaw Laureates (2004 – 2009)" (PDF). shawprize.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 November 2009. Retrieved October 29, 2009.
- "Press release of the 2004 Shaw Prize announcement". shawprize.org. Archived from the original on 13 October 2008. Retrieved October 29, 2009.