Page protected with pending changes level 1

Sheikh Fazlollah Noori

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Sheikh Fazlollah Nouri

Sheikh Fazlollah Nouri from Kia'i dynasty (in Persian شیخ فضل‌الله نوری) Sheikh Fazlollah Nouri Tabarsi Mazandarani , Sheikh Nouri , born Dec. 24th, 1843, Mazandaran; died 31 July 1909, Tehran.

Life and times[edit]

Family[edit]

His 2000 years family dynasty list as:

Kavad Sassanid , Ferejdyn Shah, Iraj, Manouchehr, Yazdegerd II , Pirouz I (Peroz I), Jamasb, Nersi, Firouz, Gilan Shah, Badousian (Paduspanids) Dynasty, Khorzad, Badousian (Paduspanids Dynasty), Namavar, Souharb, Gharen, Ferejdyn Shirzad, Divband, Jamshid, Shahriar, Faramarz, Jelous, Baharab, Nasroddoleh, Namavar, Hezar, Asef, Kajkavous, Jostan, Zarin, Kamar, Bistun, Namavar, Mehr Agim Shah, Khosro, Gostaham, Kiomars, Kavous I (Kavus I), Khayr al-Nisa Begum , Kavous II, Malek, Keymarc II, Malek, Bistoun II, Malek Bahman I, Malek Kiomarc III (III ملک‌ کیومرث), Malek Azis, Malek Jahangre II, Malek Bahman II (Persian ملک بهمن دوم), Kejkhosro, Esfandiar, Bistun (Persian طبرستان در زمان صفویان), Mohammad Ali Biga(h) Bozorg (Tabarestan Governour), Mohammad Ali Biga(h) Kychak, Mirza Taghi "Minister" Mohammad Khan Qajar , Asieh Mojtahed (مجتهد cleric) Ryjani (from Nur county in Tabarestan) mother of Sheikh Fazlollah Nouri. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] and his father Sheikh Abbas Noori from Kia'i dynasty Kojur/Nur county in Tabrastan [7] [8]

Early life and education[edit]

Sheik Fazlullah was the son of Abbas Kojouri Pishnamaz (Abbas Nouri Tabrassi) and married Sakineh Nouri Tabrasi (Daughter of Mirza Husain Noori Tabarsi). After finishing primary education, he left Iran for Najaf and then Samara to study under Morteza Ansari , Mirza Shirazi , Mirza Husain Noori Tabarsi , Mirza Habibollah Rashti. He returned to Tehran in 1883 as an Islamic scholar.[citation needed].

Hajj Sheikh Fazlollah Kojuri known as Nouri, one of the great religious authorities (mojtaheds) and scholars at the threshold of constitutionalism was born in 1843. His father was Molla Abbas Mazandarani Kujuri known as liturgist. After his preliminary education and Sath (a level in religious studies), Sheikh Fazlollah headed to Iraq to learn the Islamic sciences in the classes of great scholars such as Ayatollah Mirza Hassan Shirazi and Ayatollah Habibollah Rashti. After his return to Iran, he acquired great influence and authority. Even his political opponents did not deny his scientific qualifications, and considered him superior to others. In addition to his great knowledge of religious matters, he enjoyed macro-depth understanding of the political benefits and political and social activities had the frequency, including tobacco, in the process of tobacco sanction, he stood by Mirza Hassan Ashtiani, and was one of the leaders of this movement.

Constitutional movement[edit]

On the rise of constitutionality and the justice seeking movement, he cooperated with. Ayatollah Seyyed Mohammd Tabatabi, and Ayatollah Seyyed Mohammad Behbahani. But after a while, as he saw the constitutionality against the religious rules, he demanded for religious constitutional government. The confrontation between the constitutionalists and Sheikh Fazlollah and his fans began so that the plot for the assassination of Sheikh was planned, and he was assassinated by Karim Davatgar in 9 Jan. 1909. Sheikh Fazlollah was shot by Karim Dvatgr on his foot, and the assailant shot himself on throat at the time of arrest, and he was injured. However, after spent he some time in prison, Sheikh forgave his assailant.

In these days the war between constitutionalists and autocrats ended by the conquest of Tehran by Guilan Mujahideen and Bakhtiari forces. Mohammad Ali Shah was ousted from throne, and the crown prince Ahmadmirza ascended the throne. Then Sheikh Fazlollah was suggested in order to save his life take refuge in the Russian embassy, but he refused to take resort to foreign powers, and preferred to give his life.

Some of his opponents went to his home to arrest Sheikh, and took him to the TupkhanehSquare. In a revolutionary court of which Sheikh Ibrahim Zanjani was a prosecutor, he was sentenced to death and the Armenian police chief, Yeprem Khan was in charge to implement the ruling and the Sheikh was hanged.

The late Sheikh Fazlollah was a great scholar who owned many works including Tazkaratalqafelin and Ershadaljahel, Sahifieh Mahdavieh. He wrote poetry too. He had written many long poems in the praise of Imams, and the holy prophet’s household. His writings are available in his own handwriting.

He played a role in the risings which led to the issuing of the firman of constitutionalism. He collaborated with the other constitutionalists including Seyyed Abdollah Behbahani. But his insistence on the compatibility of the constitution with what he believed to be Islamic principles led to a break with the followers of the movement.[citation needed] Nouri was one of the most vigorous opponents of the Iranian Constitutional Revolution, a movement to remove foreign influence from Iran, limit the power of the Shah and establish a national consultative assembly that would give the people a voice in the affairs of state. The movement was led principally by merchants, intellectuals and some clerics. Nouri initially gave restrained support to the uprising, but he soon became an extreme critic and enemy of the constitutionalists.

Terror Conspiracy based on Persian and Indo-German-Turkish mission[edit]

He was proponent of Anti-Revolutionary Anarchism (Anarchism, Terrorism , Extremism , Far-left politics, Nihilism, Materialism, Secret-Masonry) Act and Law for Persia, the similar Act as Sozialistengesetze (Anti-Socialist Laws) passed on October 19, 1878 by the German Reichstag. He opposed to remove of Religion from Social Politics and the separation of Religion and State. [9]

He was executed in result of a "Geheimdienst" operation of "Kaiserreich Deutschland" (covert spy operation of the German Empire during Niedermayer–Hentig Expedition) in the forming stage of the WW1. The late Jalal Al-e-Ahmad writes in his On the Services and Treasons of Intellectuals, “The hanged corpse of that honorable man is for me akin to the flag of domination of occidentosis raised above the country after 200 years of struggle.”[10] The aim of the terror operation was to build a political disability within the relationship of Kingdom of Persia and the Russian Empire. Today, he is considered a martyr (Shahid) by Shias in Iran.

Wilhelm Wassmuss ("the German Lawrence", 1880 – November 29, 1931) was a German Spy, known as "Wassmuss of Persia", later both Nazi and Stasi Hero : "the man who comes right after God". He attempted to foment trouble for the British and Russian in the Persian Gulf in the First World War. Wilhelm Wassmuss , Oskar von Niedermayer , Gauak , Max Freiherr von Oppenheim and Major Haase were the coordinators on the killing of Sheikh Fazlollah Noori (Book : Der Deutsche Lawrence büchergilde Gutenberg, Wilhelm Wassmuss, Berlin, 1938).

Wilhelm Wassmuss. Wilhelm Wassmuss the Lawrence of Persia and the coordinators on the killing of the Sheikh Fazlollah Noori

The "Political disorder" and "Social chaos" in result of interference and military adventure of "Wassmuss of Persia" in natural process of "Persian Peaceful Constitutiona Revolution" and against "Iranian-Britain-Russian neutral Axis" in the time period of 1909 to 1919 costs life of up to 8 to 9 million Iranian (25% to 50% of Iranian Population), known as "The Great Famine & Genocide in Iran" or first "Iranian Holocaust" and life of 1.5 million Armanian Known as Armenian Genocide (Armenian Holocaust). The forced to resign of Otto von Bismarck 1890, changing the foreign policy of "German Empire" to instigate Muslims for a Holy War against Britain-Russian was the start point of German Holocaustic interference in Persia and Irak internal political affairs. The Assassination of Mirza Mohammed Hassan Husseini Shirazi and Mirza Husain Noori Tabarsi in Najaf were the first Assassination Series of German-Osmania new mission.

Max von Oppenheim in Arab-style dress, c. 1896

Opinions of opponents and Iranian opposition[edit]

According to Iranian opposition and opponents of Sheikh Fazlollah noori such as Maryam Rajavi (the leader of an Islamist-Marxist group)[11] Abbas Malekzadeh Milani (co-director of the Iran Democracy Project) and many others he (Sheikh Fazlollah noori) fought against the Iranian Constitutional Revolution and was executed for treason by Constitutionalists as a result. Today he is considered a martyr (shahid) in the fight against democracy by Islamic conservatives in Iran.[12][13][14]

He believed that the parliament (majlis) was not empowered to make laws since laws of society are set by the sharia under Islam. He wanted a majlis that would nullify all un-Islamic laws passed since the Constitutional Revolution, and would serve only as a forum for consultation to the Shah.[15]

Noori opposed the constitutional movement and an elected parliament as a danger to Islam, separating religion and state, and colonial intervention (he believed) in the affairs of Qajar Iran.[15][16]

He authored pamphlets and incited mobs against constitutionalism and constitutionalists preaching that they would bring vice to Iran. He issued a fatwa declaring all members of the new parliament and government "apostates", "atheists," "secret Freemasons" and koffar al-harbi (warlike pagans) whose blood ought to be shed by the faithful.[17][16]

According to the Islamic Revolution Document Center, Nouri "played a prominent role in the victory of Constitutional movement, but upon seeing its deviation he began to oppose Westernized Policy" and "was among the first Muslim scholars who found out colonial conspiracy to replace Islam with secularism in the disguise of constitutionalism and constitution and so endeavored to prevent nationalism from surpassing Islamism as well as to obstruct domination of western licentiousness and immorality in the society under the name of democracy and freedom."[18] (On colonial power, Britain supported the Constitutionalist movement. Another, Iran's large neighbor Russia, opposed it.)

Hanging of Fazlollah Nuri - Photo from "Major Haase"

Sheikh Fazlollah noori was a prominent Shia Muslim cleric in Qajar Iran during the late 19th and early 20th century and founder of Political Islam in Iran.

Execution[edit]

Nouri allied himself with the new Shah, Mohammad Ali Shah, who, with the assistance of Russian troops staged a coup against the Majlis (parliament) in 1907. In 1909, however, constitutionalists marched onto Tehran (the capital of Iran). Nouri was arrested, tried and found guilty of "sowing corruption and sedition on earth,"[16] and in July 1909, Nouri was hanged as a traitor. According to the Islamic Revolution Document Center, Nouri might have been saved by taking of refuge in the Russian Embassy or putting the Russian flag above his house, but his principles would not allow it. He allegedly told his acolytes: “Islam never goes under the banner of evasion ... Is it allowable that I go under the banner of evasion after 70 years of struggle for the sake of Islam?” Then, (according to the Islamic Revolution Document Center) "he demanded his companions to empty the house in order to be immune from any harm".[18]

Influence[edit]

According to Ali AbolHassani (Monzer), author of Sheikh Fazlolah Nouri and the Chronological School of Constitutionalism, “... The study of constitutionality is not possible without the study of intellectual and political attitudes of Hajj Sheikh Fazlollah Nouri. He has been influential in various phases of the process and if constitutionality is the first real ground for the serious confrontation between religion and modernism, in those days, Sheikh sided for the defense of religion and paid a great expense for it…” [19] The Islamic Revolution Document Center quotes author Jalal Al-e-Ahmad as calling Nouri an "honorable man", and comparing his hanged corpse to "the flag of domination of occidentosis raised above the country after 200 years of struggle".[20][18]

According to Afshin Molavi, "Sheikh Fazlollah Nouri's heirs - Iran's ruling conservative clerics - have taken up his cause in the early 21st century" in the fight against democratic reform movement.[13] He is "hailed as a champion who had fought against corrupt Western values", in Tehran a major expressway is named after him, and features "a huge mural commemorating him".[14]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ نقل از تاریخ التدوین فی احوال جبال شروین
  2. ^ نقل از تاریخ طبرستان و رویان و مازندران
  3. ^ ضبط انساب علیمحمد مستوی
  4. ^ ناسخ التواریخ
  5. ^ سنگ مزار ملک کیومرت در محل امام زاده یالرود
  6. ^ نگاهي اجمالي به تاريخ مازندران غربي(رويان و رستمدار) - قسمت اول / قسمت ششم 8- اقوام ، طوايف و خاندانهاي رويان و رستمدار برخي از علما و مشاهير کجور در عصر قاجاريه عبارتند از : ...
  7. ^ مأمن فرزانگان فراموش شده /شگفتی آیت الله مکارم شیرازی از وجود عالمان مبرز در بخش کوچک کجور - گزارش: حسن قمی
  8. ^ گاهي اجمالي به تاريخ مازندران غربي(رويان و رستمدار) - قسمت اول / قسمت ششم 8- اقوام ، طوايف و خاندانهاي رويان و رستمدار برخي از علما و مشاهير کجور در عصر قاجاريه عبارتند از : ...
  9. ^ (ر. ک: رسائل، اعلامیه‌ها... ، ترکمان، ص ۷۴)
  10. ^ The martyrdom of Sheikh Fazlollah Nouri, the leader of Iran’s constitutional movement-www.irdc.ir/en/
  11. ^ Marjam Rajavi - 100 year constitutional Revolution
  12. ^ Molavi, Afshin (2002). Persian Pilgrimages: Journeys Across Iran. W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 192–. Retrieved 1 June 2015. The Tehran billboard of Nouri, erected shortly after the revolution by the Islamic Republic of Iran, presents a different story, one of martyrdom. ... The message is not subtle: the Unjustly hanged Sheikh Fazlollah Nouri, ... was martyred for his defense of Islam against democracy and representative government. 
  13. ^ a b Molavi, Afshin (April 20, 2001). "Popular Frustration in Iran Simmers as Conservative Crackdown Continue". Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  14. ^ a b Basmenji, Kaveh (2005). Tehran Blues: Youth Culture in Iran. Saqi. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  15. ^ a b Jahanbegloo, Ramin (2004). Iran: Between Tradition and Modernity. Lexington Books. p. 82. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  16. ^ a b c Abrahamian, Ervand, Tortured Confessions by Ervand Abrahamian, University of California Press, 1999 p.24
  17. ^ Taheri, Amir, The Spirit of Allah by Amir Adler and Adler (1985), p.45-6
  18. ^ a b c "The martyrdom of Sheikh Fazlollah Nouri, the leader of Iran’s constitutional movement". Islamic Revolution Document Center. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  19. ^ "Sheikh Fazlolah Nouri and the Chronological School of Constitutionalism". Institute for Iranian Contemporary Historical Studies. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  20. ^ On the Services and Treasons of Intellectuals, Jalal Al-e-Ahmad

Further reading[edit]

  • Ahmad Kasravi, Tārikh-e Mashruteh-ye Iran (تاریخ مشروطهٔ ایران) (History of the Iranian Constitutional Revolution), in Persian, 951 p. (Negāh Publications, Tehran, 2003), ISBN 964-351-138-3. Note: This book is also available in two volumes, published by Amir Kabir Publications in 1984. Amir Kabir's 1961 edition is in one volume, 934 pages.
  • Ahmad Kasravi, History of the Iranian Constitutional Revolution: Tārikh-e Mashrute-ye Iran, Volume I, translated into English by Evan Siegel, 347 p. (Mazda Publications, Costa Mesa, California, 2006). ISBN 1-56859-197-7