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|Khaz'al Bin Jabir|
Khaz'al in military uniform
|Emir of Mohammerah|
|Monarchy||June 1897 - April 1925|
|Predecessor||Maz'al Jabir al-kaabi|
|Sheikh of Sheikhs of Banu Kaab tribe|
|House||Al Bu Chassib|
18 August 1863|
|Died||24 May 1936
Tehran, Imperial State of Iran
|Occupation||Emir of Mohammerah|
Khaz'al bin Jabir bin Merdaw al-Ka'bi (Arabic: الشيخ خزعل بن جابر بن مرداو الكعبي) (18 August 1863 – 24 May 1936), GCIE, KCSI, Muaz us-Sultana, and Sardar-e-Aqdas (Most Sacred Officer of the Imperial Order of the Aqdas), was the independent Emir of the Sheikhdom of "Mohammerah", located today in the Khuzestan province of Iran.
In early 1920s, the southern part of Khuzestan, with its large Arab population, was semi-autonomous under the rule of Sheikh Khaz'al. An ambitious local Arab leader, Khaz'al was nominally under the jurisdiction of the Qajar king. In reality, he was protected and controlled by the British, whose 10,000-man army, the South Persia Rifles, operated with immunity in southern Iran. The British, without notifying Iran, were also providing Khaz'al with meager shares of the Anglo-Persian Oil Company. They even considered Khazal as a possible king for Iraq or for an independent principality in southern Persia. Khaz'al was also the darling of many Sunnite Iraqi nationalists, who sought to foment dissent among Iran’s Arab population by referring to Khuzestan as Arabestān and glorifying Khaz'al as its independent “Sultan”.
The tribal leaders of the Bani Kaab, an Arab tribe which had originally come from the area of what is now Kuwait in the 16th century, had often been the Imperial-appointed tax farmers for the entire province for many years after the fall of the Mshashaiya. The Bani Kaab were the largest and most powerful tribe in the province. In the early 19th century the Bani Kaab had dissolved into a number of rival clans that often clashed and feuded with each other.
Of these factions, the Muhaisin clan, led by Jabir al-Kaabi, became the strongest and under his leadership the Bani Kaab were reunified under a single authority, the capital of the tribe being moved from the village of Fallahiyah to the flourishing port city of Mohammerah. Unlike previous leaders of the Bani Kaab, Jabir maintained law and order, and established Mohammerah as a free port and sheikhdom, of which he was Sheikh. Jabir also became the Imperial-appointed governor-general of the province.
Rise to power
After Jabirs death in 1881, his elder son, Mazal, took over as tribal leader and Sheikh of Mohammerah, as well as the provincial governor-general, which was confirmed by an Imperial firman (executive order). However, in June 1897 Mazal was killed. Some accounts state that he was assassinated by his younger brother, Khazal, while others state that this was done by a palace guard under orders from Khazal.
Thereafter Khazal assumed his position as Sheikh of Mohammerah, proclaiming himself not only the leader of the Bani Kaab, but also the ruler of the entire province. He then appointed his sons to the governorships of the various cities, towns and villages within his control, including Naseriyeh.
Relations with the Qajars and tribal leaders
Khazal established and maintained close relations with the Qajar court, who had accepted Khazal as the neighbour government. The rest of the province (the eastern and northern regions) remained under the domination of Bakhtiari Khans, Lur tribal leaders, and Persian groups. Several of the Bakhtiari Khans, in particular, had entered into alliances with Khazal. The Qajar Shah made him an Officer of the Nishan-e-Aqdas (Imperial Order of the Aqdas) in 1920.
The Anglo-Persian Oil Company
Following the discovery of oil in Mohammerah-controlled territory, the British moved quickly to establish control over the vast oil resources in the province, which culminated in the foundation of the Anglo-Persian Oil Company in 1909. The British established a treaty with Khazal, whereby in exchange for their guaranteed support and protection against any external attack, he would also guarantee to maintain internal security and not interfere with the process of oil extraction. As part of the treaty they were given a monopoly of drilling in the province in return for an annual payment to Khazal, though the profits of the company vastly exceeded the annual payments.
British influence in southern Persia mainly derived from the relationships which had been established between the British government and various tribal leaderships, including especially Khaz'al and the Bakhtiari khans, and also, though less importantly, the Qawāmis of Shiraz and many of the minor khans of the Persian Gulf littoral.
Khaz'al as an important tribal leader was a member of South Persia Rifles. and when he asked for British support against central government of Iran, the answer was "... you remain faithful to the Shah and act in accordance with our advice".
Conflict with Reza Khan
Main article: Sheikh Khazal rebellionThe palace of Khazal in Shadegan In 1921, realizing the threat posed by Reza Khan Mirpanj (Reza Shah), who had just staged a coup detat with Seyyed Ziaeddin Tabatabaee, Khaz'al proceeded to take steps in order to protect himself. He attempted to form an alliance with all the Bakhtiari, Lur, and Khamseh tribes, in order to prevent Reza Khan from gaining too much power. His ultimate aim was that through this tribal alliance the Zagros Mountains would become a nearly impenetrable barrier against the forces of the central government. However, the various tribal groups often clashed with each other and were unable to come to agreements, and his proposal failed.
Later that spring Reza Khan made two attempts to convince Khazal to meet him in Tehran to discuss his position in the new government. However, Khazal was suspicious of Reza Khans motives and refused to go there himself, instead stating that he would send an emissary.
A few weeks later in April, Reza Khan ordered one of his commanders, who had a friendly relationship with Khazal, to meet Khazal, ostensibly to convince him to journey to Tehran. The commander, General Fazlollah Zahedi, accompanied by several government officials, met with Khaz'al and spent an evening with him onboard his yacht, anchored in the Shatt al-Arab river by his palace in the village of Fallahiyah near the city of Mohammerah.
Later that evening a gunboat, sent by Reza Khan, stealthily made its way next to the yacht, which was then immediately boarded by fifty Persian troops. The soldiers arrested Khaz'al and took him by motorboat down the river to Mohammerah, where a car was waiting to take him to the military base in Ahwaz. From there he was taken to Dezful, accompanied by his son, and then to the city of Khorramabad in Lorestan, and then eventually to Tehran.
Upon his arrival, Khaz'al was warmly greeted and well received by Reza Khan, who assured him that his problems would be quickly settled, and that in the meantime, he would be treated very well. However, many of his personal assets in Iran were quickly liquidated and his properties eventually came under the domain of the Imperial government after Reza Khan was crowned the new Shah. The sheikhdom was abolished and the provincial authority took full control of regional affairs.
Khazal spent the rest of his life under virtual house arrest, unable to travel beyond Tehrans city limits. He was able to retain ownership of his properties in Kuwait and Iraq, where he was exempted from taxation. He died in May 1936 while alone in his house, as earlier in the day his servants had been taken to court by the police. It is said that he did not die of natural causes, but that he was murdered by one of the guards stationed outside his house under direct orders from Reza Shah.
- Order of the August Portrait (Nishan-i-Aqdas) of Persia
- Order of the Lion and Sun 1st Class of Persia
- Wolff Medal-1899
- Knight 1st Class of the Order of St. Stanislaus of Russia-1904
- Knight Commander of the Order of the Star of India (KCSI)-1914
- Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire (GCIE)-1916 (KCIE-1910)
- Permanent 7-gun salute from the British with a personal 13-gun salute-1922 (11-gun personal salute-1909)
- "Sardar Aghdas". Dehkhoda Dictionary. Retrieved 28 June 2012.
- "'File 53/75 (D 156) Shaikh Khazal's Claim against Kuwaiti Merchants' [13r] (34/140)". British Archives. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
- MILANI, MOHSEN M. "IRAQ vi. PAHLAVI PERIOD, 1921-79". Retrieved 30 November 2011.
- Cronin, Stephanie. "Great Britain v. British influence during the Reżā Shah period, 1921-41". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 2011-06-15.
- Safiri, Floreeda. "SOUTH PERSIA RIFLES". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 2011-06-15.
- Wright, Denis. "HARDINGE, ARTHUR". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 2011-06-15.
- Tarikh-e Pahnsad Saal-e Khuzestan (Five Hundred Year History of Khuzestan) by Ahmad Kasravi
- Jang-e Iran va Britannia dar Mohammerah (The Iran-British War in Mohammerah) by Ahmad Kasravi
- Tarikh-e Bist Saal-e Iran (Twenty Year History of Iran) by Hossein Maki (Tehran, 1945–47)
- Hayat-e Yahya (The Life of Yahya) by Yahya Dolatabadi (Tehran, 1948–52)
- Tarikh-e Ejtemai va Edari Doreieh Qajarieh (The Administrative and Social History of the Qajar Era) by Abdollah Mostofi (Tehran, 1945–49) ISBN 1-56859-041-5 (for the English translation)
- Amin al-Rayhani, Muluk al-Arab, aw Rihlah fi al-bilad al-Arabiah (in two volumes, 1924–25), Vol 2, part 6 on Kuwait.
- Ansari, Mostafa -- The History of Khuzistan, 1878-1925, unpublished PhD. dissertation, University of Chicago, 1974
- Genealogy of the Sheikhdom of Mohammerah (with picture of Khaz'al)
- Article about Khaz'al with photos (in Persian)
- History of the Al-Sabah Dynasty of Kuwait