Sheikh Said

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Sheikh Said
Sheikh Sherif, Sheikh Said, Kasim, Sheikh Abdullah.jpg
Sheikh Said (at the bottom right)
Born1865
Died29 June 1925(1925-06-29) (aged 59–60)
NationalityKurdish
Parent
  • Sheikh Mahmud Fevzi (father)

Sheikh Said of Palu (Kurdish: شێخ سەعید, romanized: Şêx Seîd,[1][2] 1865 – June 29, 1925) was a Kurdish sheikh, the main leader of the Sheikh Said rebellion[3] and a Sheikh of the Naqshbandi order.[4][5]

He was born in 1865 in Palu to an influential family from the Naqshbandi order. He had five brothers. Still in his childhood, the family settled to Hınıs, Erzurum, where his grandfather was an influential Sheikh.[6] Sheikh Said studied religious sciences at the madrasa led by his father Sheikh Mahmud Fevzi as well from several Islamic scholars in the region.[7] Later he was involved in the local tekke set up by his grandfather Sheikh Ali.[6] His grandfather was a respected leader of the religious community and his grave was visited by thousands of pilgrims. He became the head of the religious community after his father Sheikh Mahmud died. In 1907 he toured the neighboring provinces in the east and he established contacts with officers from the Hamidiye cavalry.[6]

Civata Xweseriya Kurd (Society for Kurdish Independence)[edit]

The Azadî (English: Freedom), officially Civata Azadiya Kurd (Society for Kurdish Freedom), later Civata Xweseriya Kurd (Society for Kurdish Independence)[8] was a Kurdish secret organization.[9]

In 1923, he was approached by Yusuf Zia Bey, who wanted him to join the Kurdish secret organization Azadî.[10] He became the leader of the Azadî after Zia Bey and Halid Beg Cibran, the leader of the Azadî, were reportedly tipped off by the Yörük tribe and arrested.[7] The Azadi was to become a leading force in the Sheikh Said Rebellion[11] which began in February 1925 and starting from in Piran, soon spread as far as the surroundings of Diyarbakır.[12] The Turkish army then opposed the rebellion and he was captured in mid-April 1925 after having been surrounded by the Turkish troops.[13] He was condemned to death by the Independence Tribunal in Diyarbakır on the 28 June 1925 and hanged the next day in Diyarbakır with 47 of his followers.[14] His remains were buried in an anonymous mass grave in order to prevent his memorization by the Kurds.[15]

Family[edit]

His first wife was Amine Hanim, who died during the Russian-Turkish war. His second wife was Fatma Hanim, a sister of Halit Beg Cibran, the leader of the Azadî.[7]

His son Abdülhalik died after his deportation following the Sheikh Said rebellion.[16] His grandson Abdülmelik Fırat became a deputy of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey.[17] Fırat says that his ancestors were not involved in politics until his grandfather, for they had cordial relations with the Ottoman elite.

The actress Belçim Bilgin is his great grand niece.[18]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Şêx Seîd û hevalê ey Amed hetê PAKî ra amê yadkerdene Kaynak: Şêx Seîd û hevalê ey Amed hetê PAKî ra amê yadkerdene" (in Kurdish). Retrieved 22 December 2019.
  2. ^ "شۆڕشی شێخ سه‌عیدی پیران" (in Kurdish). Retrieved 22 December 2019.
  3. ^ Olson, Robert W. (1989). The emergence of Kurdish nationalism and the Sheikh Said Rebellion, 1880-1925. University of Texas Press. p. 107. ISBN 978-0-292-77619-7.
  4. ^ Özoğlu, Hakan (2004-02-12). Kurdish Notables and the Ottoman State: Evolving Identities, Competing Loyalties, and Shifting Boundaries. SUNY Press. p. 94. ISBN 978-0-7914-5993-5.
  5. ^ Olson, Robert W. (1989). The emergence of Kurdish nationalism and the Sheikh Said Rebellion, 1880-1925. University of Texas Press. p. 101. ISBN 978-0-292-77619-7.
  6. ^ a b c Olson, Robert W. (1989). The emergence of Kurdish nationalism and the Sheikh Said Rebellion, 1880-1925. University of Texas Press. p. 100. ISBN 978-0-292-77619-7.
  7. ^ a b c "Who's who in Politics in Turkey" (PDF). Heinrich Böll Stiftung. p. 250. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 December 2020. Retrieved 28 December 2020.
  8. ^ Olson, Robert (1989). The Emergence of Kurdish Nationalism and the Sheikh Said Rebellion, 1880–1925. University of Texas Press. p. 41. ISBN 0292776195.
  9. ^ Hamelink, Wendelmoet (2016-04-21). The Sung Home. Narrative, Morality, and the Kurdish Nation. BRILL. p. 176. ISBN 978-90-04-31481-8.
  10. ^ Behrendt, Günter (1993). Nationalismus in Kurdistan: Vorgeschichte, Entstehungsbedingungen und erste Manifestationen bis 1925 (in German). Deutsches Orient-Institut. p. 373. ISBN 978-3-89173-029-4.
  11. ^ Olson, Robert W. (1989). The emergence of Kurdish nationalism and the Sheikh Said Rebellion, 1880-1925. University of Texas Press. pp. 101–102. ISBN 978-0-292-77619-7.
  12. ^ Özoğlu, Hakan (2011-06-24). From Caliphate to Secular State: Power Struggle in the Early Turkish Republic: Power Struggle in the Early Turkish Republic. ABC-CLIO. p. 89. ISBN 978-0-313-37957-4.
  13. ^ Olson, Robert W. (1989). The emergence of Kurdish nationalism and the Sheikh Said Rebellion, 1880-1925. University of Texas Press. p. 116. ISBN 978-0-292-77619-7.
  14. ^ Üngör, Umut. "Young Turk social engineering : mass violence and the nation state in eastern Turkey, 1913- 1950" (PDF). University of Amsterdam. p. 243. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  15. ^ Üngör, Umut. "Young Turk social engineering : mass violence and the nation state in eastern Turkey, 1913- 1950" (PDF). University of Amsterdam. p. 350. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  16. ^ Üngör, Ugur Ümit (2012-03-01). The Making of Modern Turkey: Nation and State in Eastern Anatolia, 1913-1950. OUP Oxford. p. 160. ISBN 978-0-19-164076-6.
  17. ^ Kilic, Ecevit (2008-10-27). "CHP, dedemin gömüldüğü yere halkevi açtı". Sabah (in Turkish). Retrieved 2009-01-04.
  18. ^ ÇAPA, İzzet. "13 yaşında ölümle burun buruna geldim". www.hurriyet.com.tr (in Turkish). Retrieved 2020-04-16.