Shenyang J-11

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J-11
Chinese Su-27.JPG
A Shenyang J-11 flies over Anshan Airfield in March 2007.
Role Air superiority fighter
Manufacturer Shenyang Aircraft Corporation
First flight 1998
Introduction 1998
Status Active service
Primary user People's Liberation Army Air Force
Produced 1998-Present
Number built 253+ (as of February 2014)[1][2]
Unit cost
US$ 30 million
Developed from Sukhoi Su-27SK (airframe for J-11)
Variants Shenyang J-15
Shenyang J-16

The Shenyang J-11 (Chinese: 歼-11) with NATO reporting name: Flanker B+ is a single-seat, twin-engine, jet fighter, whose airframe is based on the Soviet-designed Sukhoi Su-27 (NATO reporting name: Flanker) air superiority fighter. It is currently manufactured by the Shenyang Aircraft Corporation. The People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) of China (PRC) is the sole operator of the aircraft.

The base J-11/A is a fourth-generation jet fighter which, like its Sukhoi brethren, is intended as a direct competitor to Western fourth generation fighters such as the McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle, Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet, Eurofighter Typhoon, Dassault Rafale, and the General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon.[citation needed]

Development[edit]

Proposed J-11[edit]

In the 1970s, Shenyang Aircraft Factory proposed a light fighter powered by the British Rolls-Royce Spey 512 engine, but otherwise similar to the MiG-19 then in service. Known as the J-11, the project was abandoned due to difficulties in obtaining the engines.[3]

Modern J-11[edit]

The J-11 was finally born in 1995 as a Chinese version of the Soviet-designed Sukhoi Su-27SK air superiority fighter after China secured a $2.5 billion production agreement which licensed China to build 200 Su-27SK aircraft using Russian-supplied kits. Under the terms of the agreement, these aircraft would be outfitted with Russian avionics, radars and engines. However, in 2004, Russian media reported that Shenyang co-production of the basic J-11 was halted after around 100 examples were built. The PLAAF later revealed a mock-up of an upgraded multi-role version of the J-11 in mid-2002. The indigenous J-11B variant incorporates various Chinese material modifications and upgrades to the airframe with improved manufacturing methods in addition to the inclusion of domestic Chinese technologies such as radar, avionics suites and weaponry,[4][5][6][7] including anti-ship and PL-12 air-to-air missiles presumably for the role of a maritime strike aircraft. The alleged reason for the sudden stop in the production line of the J-11 was because it could no longer satisfy the PLAAF's requirements,[4] due to elements such as the obsolete avionics and radar, which were structured for aerial missions.[8]

The J-11/J-11B's legitimacy remains unproven, despite a wealth of information coming to light since 2007. In the course of a press conference at the 2009 Farnborough Airshow, Alexander Fomin, Deputy Director of Russia's Federal Service for Military-Technical Co-operation, reported that Russia had not so far tabled any questions to China with regard to "copying" military equipment. Fomin reported that Russia handed China the licences to manufacture the aircraft and its components, including an agreement on the production of intellectual property rights. Details of intellectual property rights, however have not been disclosed, fuelling speculation about a "secret" contract or parts of the original contract. The licence, at least officially, did not include an aircraft carrier version- Sukhoi Su-33 nor any variant of it, such as the Shenyang J-15.[9] At the MAKS 2009, Rosoboronexport's General Manager Anatoli Isaykin was quoted saying: "Russia is going to investigate the J-11B, as a Chinese copy of the Su-27 and Sukhoi Company is partaking in the process."[10] In 2010, Rosoboronexport announced via their official website that it was in talks with the Chinese side, regarding the ongoing production of weapons that Russia considers as un-licensed. In light of the ongoing investigations, Rosoboronexport expressed its concern over future sales of advanced Russian systems and components to China.[11][12]

Future[edit]

At the Zhuhai 2002 airshow, a photo was released allegedly depicting a J-11 modified for flight testing of a single WS-10 Taihang turbofan.[13] Andrei Chang, a military specialist on China reported that one J-11A was outfitted with the indigenously produced WS-10A turbofan engine, J-11B also uses WS-10A. However, Russian media reports also indicate that China still intends to upgrade the current J-11 fleet's engines with either Saturn-Lyulka or Salyut powerplants. Engines under consideration include the Saturn AL-31-117S (a development of the Lyulka AL-31F planned for the Russo-Indian Su-30MKIs), and the Salyut AL-31F-M1, an improved variant of the AL-31F engine.[14]

In 2002, Russian media reported that Shenyang Aircraft Corporation was looking into replacing Russian-made J-11/Su-27SK components with domestic, Chinese-made parts. Specifically, to replace the Russian-made NIIP N001 radar with a Chinese-made fire control radar based on the Type 147X/KLJ-X family, the AL-31F engine with WS-10A, and Russian R-77 AAM's with Chinese-made PL-9 and PL-12 AAM's. One J-11 was photographed with an AL-31F and a WS-10A engine installed for testing in 2002. However, it was not until 2007 when the Chinese government finally revealed information on the domestic J-11: the J-11 used to test WS-10 was designated as J-11WS, and it was when state television station CCTV-7 aired J-11B footages in mid-2007 when the existence of J-11 with domestic components was finally confirmed officially.

Serial manufacturing of the WS-10 and integration with the J-11, proved to be more difficult than expected. As a result, even though several related prototypes had been tested and at least one regiment converted to the Taihang powered J-11B version in 2007, these aircraft were later grounded for an extended period due to a poor operational reliability. A report in the Washington Times suggested that the Chinese engines lasted 30 hours before they needed servicing, compared to 400 hours for the Russian versions.[15] Defects were traced back to the engine manufacturer, Shenyang Liming Aircraft Engine Company employing sub-standard manufacturing and quality control procedures. Several subsequent batches temporarily reverted to the original, Russian AL-31F turbofans. The engines manufacturing problems had finally been solved by the end of 2009 and the WS-10A had reportedly proved mature enough to power the Block 02 aircraft.[9]

Operational history[edit]

In March 2011 a joint Sino-Pakistani exercise, Shaheen 1, was conducted at a Pakistan Air Force (PAF) base involving a contingent of Chinese aircraft and personnel from the PLAAF.[16] Information on which aircraft were used by each side in the exercise was not released, but photos of Pakistani pilots inspecting what appeared to be Chinese Shenyang J-11B fighters were released on the internet. The exercise lasted for around 4 weeks and was the first time the PLAAF had deployed to and conducted "operational" aerial maneuvers in Pakistan with the PAF.[17]

P-8 interception[edit]

Chinese Shenyang J-11B fighter intercepting an American P-8. The photo was taken by the crew of the P-8.
Underside view of the J-11BH, showing its air-to-air complement of two PL-8 and two PL-12 missiles.

On Aug. 19, 2014 a Chinese J-11B intercepted a U.S. Navy P-8 Poseidon anti-submarine warfare aircraft that was over the South China Sea.[18] At a press conference on August 22, 2014, Admiral John Kirby, the spokesperson for the U.S. Department of Defense told reporters that “On the 19th of August, an armed Chinese fighter jet conducted a dangerous intercept of a U.S. Navy P-8 Poseidon aircraft, patrol aircraft, that was on a routine mission. The intercept took place about 135 miles east of Hainan Island, in international airspace.”[19] He elaborated on the incident, saying that the Chinese jet: “crossed under the aircraft with one pass having only 50-100 feet separation. The Chinese jet also passed the nose of the P-8 at 90 degrees with its belly toward the P-8 Poseidon, believed to be displaying its weapons load-out. Afterwards, the J-11 flew directly under and alongside the P-8, bringing their wingtips, as I said, to within 20 feet. And then conducted a roll over the P-8, passing within 45 feet.”[19]

The Pentagon spokesman said that the U.S. had registered an official complaint with China through regular diplomatic channels. He also said that the Chinese pilot’s actions had been “unprofessional, it’s unsafe, and it is certainly not keeping with the kind of military-to-military relationship” that U.S. seeks to establish with China.[20][21] Moreover, in reference to the plane's proximity to China, the Pentagon said that, “Military activities may be conducted within the Exclusive Economic Zone of another nation as an exercise of the freedoms of navigation and overflight.”[18]

In response, the Chinese Ministry of National Defense spokesman Yang Yujun said that the relevant criticism made by the U.S. side was "totally groundless," as the Chinese pilot, with professional operation, kept the jet within a safe distance from the U.S. aircraft. He also said it was the U.S. massive and frequent close-in surveillance of China that endangered the two sides' air and marine security, and was the root of accidents. He added that China urged the U.S. side to abide by international law and international practice, respect concerns of the coastal countries, and properly deal with the differences between the two sides on air and marine security issues.[22]

Variants[edit]

  • J-11A - Chinese/Russian assembled Su-27SK from Russian-made kits. 104 were built. They were later upgraded with MAWS. Unconfirmed upgrades include improved cockpit displays, and fire control systems for R-77 or PL-10 missiles.[23] It is also called J-11.[24]
  • J-11B - Indigenously-produced version using Chinese technology,[23] and the first J-11 variant to use the WS-10A turbofan.[25] The airframe is slightly lighter due to greater use of composites.[26] It has new avionics, a glass cockpit, MAWS, and onboard oxygen generator system.[27] Upgrading to AESA radar may have been planned.[26]
  • J-11BS - A twin-seat version of the J-11B.[23] In 2012, the number of J-11B and J-11BS in service was over 120.[28]
  • J-11BH - Naval version of the J-11B.[26][29] It was first sighted in May 2010.[26][30]
  • J-11BSH - Naval version of the J-11BS.[26][29]
  • J-15 - Carrier-based version based on the J-11B, incorporating structural elements from the Sukhoi Su-33 prototype purchased from Ukraine in 2001. It uses avionics from the J-11B.[31]
  • J-16 - Twin-seat strike fighter[23] based on Russian Sukhoi Su-30MKK sold to China in 2000.[32] It is claimed to be a variant of the J-11BS.[33][34]
  • J-11D - Variant with fixed electronically scanned array radar, IRST, and capability to fire heavier imaging/infrared (IIR) air-to-air missiles. The airframe makes greater use of composite materials, especially in the engine intakes for lower radar observability. The wings have three hardpoints each. Unconfirmed reports claim it has a new fly-by-wire control system, glass cockpit, improved EW systems, and an improved version of the WS-10A engine.[35]

Operators[edit]

 People's Republic of China

Specifications (J-11A)[edit]

Data from SinoDefense.com.[36][37][38]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 1
  • Length: 21.9 m (71 ft 10 in)
  • Wingspan: 14.70 m (48 ft 3 in)
  • Height: 5.92 m (19 ft 6 in)
  • Wing area: 62.04 m² (667.8 ft²)
  • Empty weight: 16,380 kg[39] (36,115 lb)
  • Loaded weight: 23,926 kg (52,747 lb)
  • Max. takeoff weight: 33,000 kg (73,000 lb)
  • Powerplant: 2 × Lyulka AL-31F or Woshan WS-10A "Taihang" turbofans
    • Dry thrust: 75.22 kN / 89.17 kN (16,910 lbf / 20,050 lbf) [40] each
    • Thrust with afterburner: 123 kN / 132 kN (27,495 lbf / 29,700 lbf) [41] each
  • Fuel capacity: 9,400 kg (20,724 lb) internally[42]

Performance

Armament

Avionics

  • Fire-control radar: NIIP Tikhomirov N001VE Myech coherent pulse Doppler radar. J-11B to be equipped with AESA radar.[26]
  • OEPS-27 electro-optic system
  • NSts-27 helmet-mounted sight (HMS)
  • Gardeniya ECM pods

See also[edit]

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

References[edit]

Citations
  1. ^ a b International Institute for Strategic Studies: The Military Balance 2014, p.236
  2. ^ a b International Institute for Strategic Studies: The Military Balance 2014, p.235
  3. ^ Collins, Jack. "Chinese Fighter Development". China-defence.com. Retrieved 2007-01-16. 
  4. ^ a b "China copies Su-27 fighter, may compete with Russia - paper". RIA Novosti. 
  5. ^ "Chinese version of Russian jet endangers bilateral relations". Rt.com. Retrieved 2011-05-12. 
  6. ^ "Chinese Aircraft - J-11 (Sukhoi Su-27)". Globalsecurity.org. 
  7. ^ SIPRI Yearbook 2009:Armaments, Disarmament, and International Security. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. 2009-09-15. ISBN 978-0-19-956606-8. 
  8. ^ "J-11A cockpit". Retrieved 2011-05-12. 
  9. ^ a b Andreas Rupprecht. December 2011. "China's 'Flanker' gains momentum. Shenyang J-11 update". Combat Aircraft Monthly. Vol. 12, No. 12, p. 40–42.
  10. ^ "Lenta.ru: "Рособоронэкспорт" пообещал разобраться с китайскими копиями Су-27". Retrieved 4 February 2015. 
  11. ^ obsessed. "МАКС 2011". Retrieved 4 February 2015. 
  12. ^ http://www.roe.ru/news/lenty/lenta_10_11_17.html
  13. ^ Richard D. Fisher, Jr. (2003-10-07). "New developments in Russia-China Military Relations". United States-China Economic and Security Review Commission. Retrieved 2007-01-16. 
  14. ^ "Su-27 Modernisation Programme". Sinodefence. 2006-11-30. Archived from the original on 2007-01-11. Retrieved 2007-01-16. 
  15. ^ Pomfret, John (25 December 2010). "Military strength eludes China, which looks overseas for arms". Washington Post. 
  16. ^ "Pak Air force conducts joint exercise with China". Times of India. Mar 19, 2011. Retrieved 23 May 2011. 
  17. ^ Zambelis, Chris (May 20, 2011). ""Shaheen 1" Exercise Signals Expansion of China-Pakistan Alliance". China Brief Volume: 11 Issue: 9. The Jamestown Foundation. Retrieved 23 May 2011. 
  18. ^ a b Capaccio and Greiling Keane, Tony and Angela (August 22, 2014). "Chinese Jet Barrel-Rolls Over U.S. Plane Bringing Protest". Bloomberg. 
  19. ^ a b Keck, Zachary (August 23, 2014). "China's 'Dangerous Intercept' of US Spy Plane". The Diplomat. 
  20. ^ Zachary Keck, The Diplomat. "China's 'Dangerous Intercept' of US Spy Plane". The Diplomat. Retrieved 4 February 2015. 
  21. ^ "Defense.gov Transcript: Department of Defense Press Briefing by Admiral Kirby in the Pentagon Briefing Room". Retrieved 4 February 2015. 
  22. ^ "China urges U.S. to stop close-in surveillance". Xinhua. 23 August 2014. Retrieved 8 March 2015. 
  23. ^ a b c d Fisher, Richard D., jr. (11 March 2015). "Images suggest upgrades to China's early series J-11s". IHS Jane's 360. Retrieved 17 December 2015. 
  24. ^ Wong, Kelvin (12 November 2014). "Airshow China 2014: AVIC unveils FC-31 export fighter concept". IHS Jane's 360. Retrieved 17 December 2015. 
  25. ^ Fisher, Richard D. Jr. (4 September 2015). "China showcases new weapon systems at 3 September parade". IHS Jane's 360. Retrieved 18 December 2015. 
  26. ^ a b c d e f Parsons, Ted (10 May 2010). "Chinese naval J-11s spotted in the open". IHS Jane's 360. Archived from the original on 11 May 2010. Retrieved 18 December 2015. 
  27. ^ Kopp, Carlo (27 January 2014). "Shenyang J-11B/BH/BS/BSH Flanker B/C+". ausairpower.net. Retrieved 19 December 2015. 
  28. ^ Richard D. Fisher, Jr. (2012-03-19). "China Modernizes Air Force On Dual Tracks". Aviation Week & Space Technology. Archived from the original on 14 July 2012. Retrieved 2012-07-10. 
  29. ^ a b Yeo, Mike (2 November 2015). "PLAN holds snap drills in South China Sea". IHS Jane's 360. Retrieved 17 December 2015. 
  30. ^ https://news.usni.org/2016/07/18/analysis-can-china-enforce-south-china-sea-air-defense-identification-zone
  31. ^ Fulghum, David A. (27 April 2011). "New Chinese Ship-Based Heavy Fighter Readied For Flight Tests". Aviation Week Network. Retrieved 17 December 2015. 
  32. ^ "Chinese Counterfeiters Nail Another Russian Jet Fighter". strategypage.com. Retrieved 6 April 2015. 
  33. ^ John Pike. "J-16 (Jianjiji-16 Fighter aircraft 16) / F-16". Retrieved 4 February 2015. 
  34. ^ http://www.ausairpower.net/APA-PLA-Flanker-Variants.html
  35. ^ Fisher, Richard D., jr. (5 May 2015). "Images show J-11D variant with possible new radar". IHS Jane's 360. Retrieved 17 December 2015. 
  36. ^ "Su-27 Specifications". Sinodefence.com. 2006-11-04. Retrieved 2007-01-16. 
  37. ^ Sukhoi Su-27SK. KNAAPO.
  38. ^ "Sukhoi Company (JSC) - Airplanes - Military Aircraft - Su-27SК - Aircraft performance". Sukhoi.org. Retrieved 2011-05-12. 
  39. ^ "Sukhoi Su-27 Flanker Specifications". Sinodefence.com. Retrieved 2011-12-22. 
  40. ^ Originally measured as 7,600 kgf.
  41. ^ Originally measured as 12,500 kgf.
  42. ^ "Sukhoi Company (JSC) - Airplanes - Military Aircraft - Su-27SÊ - Aircraft performance". Retrieved 4 February 2015. 
  43. ^ "Sukhoi Su-27 Flanker". Fighter-planes.com. Retrieved 2011-05-12. 
Bibliography
  • Golan, John (2006). "China's Hidden Power: The First Half Century of PLAAF Fighter Aviation". Combat Aircraft. 7. 
  • International Institute for Strategic Studies (2014). Hacket, James, ed. The Military Balance 2014. Oxfordshire: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-85743-722-5. 
  • Wei, Bai (2012). "A Flanker by any other name". Air Forces Monthly. 5. 

External links[edit]