|Role||Air superiority fighter|
|Manufacturer||Shenyang Aircraft Corporation|
|Primary user||People's Liberation Army Air Force|
|Number built||440 (as of 2019[update])|
|Developed from||Sukhoi Su-27|
|Developed into||Shenyang J-15|
The Shenyang J-11 (Chinese: 歼-11, NATO reporting name Flanker-L) is a twin-engine jet fighter whose airframe is based on the Soviet-designed Sukhoi Su-27. It is manufactured by the Shenyang Aircraft Corporation (SAC). The aircraft is operated by the People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) and the People's Liberation Army Naval Air Force (PLANAF).
In the 1970s, the PLAAF initiated a project to development a replacement for its MiG-19s. The Shenyang Aircraft Factory proposal, designated J-11, was a new light fighter powered by the British Rolls-Royce Spey 512 engine, with better maneuverability than the MiG-19 and better climb rate than the MiG-21. The project was abandoned due to difficulties in obtaining the engines.[better source needed]
The actual J-11 comes from 1996, when China bought 200 Su-27s through Rosoboronexport for US$2.7 billion under a coproduction scheme. By the agreement, SAC would assemble aircraft from kits manufactured by Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aircraft Plant (KnAPPO), and fit them with Russian subsystems (avionics, radars and engines) which would not be coproduced. Production began in 1997. The first two were poorly assembled and required Russian assistance to rebuild. Five were built by 2000, and another 20 by 2003, by which time production was of high quality and incorporated local airframe parts; Russia did not object to local airframe parts, which allowed KnAPPO to reduce the contents of the kits. By late-2004, KnAPPO delivered 105 kits, and 95 J-11s were delivered to the PLAAF. Coproduction of the Su-27s ended in 2004 because China was developing the J-11B - a variant with domestic subsystems - in violation of the coproduction agreement. China's official reason for violating the agreement was that the J-11 no longer satisfied PLAAF requirements. From 2008 through 2011, China engaged in smuggling Su-27 parts from Russia.
The J-11B is a multirole variant of the J-11 incorporating Chinese subsystems. It was conceived as a way to remove the J-11's dependency on Russia. SAC unveiled a J-11B mockup in mid-2002. Three prototypes were delivered to the PLAAF for testing in 2006. The two-seater J-11BS followed two years after the J-11B. By 2011, reportedly 90% of the J-11B was based on subsystems and parts designed in China, with the engine presumably being a major part of the remainder. Many domestic subsystems are improvements of those found on the Su-27SK.
Chinese subsystems on the J-11B include Type 1474 radar, 3-axis data system, power supply system, emergency power unit, brake system, hydraulic system, fuel system, environment control system, molecular sieve oxygen generation systems, digital flight control system, and glass cockpit. The IRST is a Chinese copy of the Russian OEPS-27. The airframe is slightly lighter due to greater use of composites.
By 2004, the J-11 was being tested with the Shenyang WS-10. Testing may have started as early as 2002; an image from the 2002 China International Aviation & Aerospace Exhibition allegedly depicted a J-11 with one engine replaced with a WS-10. WS-10 development proved difficult. One regiment converted to WS-10-powered J-11Bs in 2007, but was grounded for an extended period due to poor operational reliability. The WS-10A reportedly matured enough after 2009 to power the J-11B Block 02 aircraft, and Jane's reported the J-11B as powered by the WS-10 in 2014.
At the 2009 Farnborough Airshow, Alexander Fomin, Deputy Director of Russia's Federal Service for Military-Technical Co-operation, reported that Russia had not asked China about the "copying" of military equipment, and that China had licences to manufacture the aircraft and its components, including an agreement on the production of intellectual property (IP) rights. The undisclosed IP agreement fuelled speculation about secret contracts or clauses in the original contract. The licence does not officially include carrier-capable aircraft (eg. Sukhoi Su-33) or variants (eg. Shenyang J-15.) At MAKS 2009, Rosoboronexport's General Manager Anatoli Isaykin said Russia and Sukhoi would "investigate the J-11B, as a Chinese copy of the Su-27". In 2010, Rosoboronexport reported it was talking with China about the ongoing unlicensed production of Russian weapons. In light of the ongoing investigations, Rosoboronexport expressed concerns over future sales of advanced Russian systems and components to China.
In March 2011 a joint Sino-Pakistani exercise, Shaheen 1, was conducted at a Pakistan Air Force (PAF) base involving a contingent of Chinese aircraft and personnel from the PLAAF. Information on which aircraft were used by each side in the exercise was not released, but photos of Pakistani pilots inspecting what appeared to be Chinese Shenyang J-11B fighters were released on the internet. The exercise lasted for around 4 weeks and was the first time the PLAAF had deployed to and conducted "operational" aerial maneuvers in Pakistan with the PAF.
The U.S. Department of Defense released details at a press conference on 22 August 2014 with Admiral John Kirby as spokesperson. According to Kirby, the incident occurred 135 miles east of Hainan Island, in international airspace. The Chinese jet "crossed under the aircraft with one pass having only 50–100 feet separation. The Chinese jet also passed the nose of the P-8 at 90 degrees with its belly toward the P-8 Poseidon, believed to be displaying its weapons load-out. Afterwards, the J-11 flew directly under and alongside the P-8, bringing their wingtips, as I said, to within 20 feet. And then conducted a roll over the P-8, passing within 45 feet." He said the "unprofessional" and "unsafe" actions of the Chinese pilot was "not keeping with the kind of military-to-military relationship" the U.S. sought to establish with China. An official complaint was sent to China through regular diplomatic channels. The Pentagon commented further that: "Military activities may be conducted within the Exclusive Economic Zone of another nation as an exercise of the freedoms of navigation and overflight."
In response, the Chinese Ministry of National Defense spokesman Yang Yujun said that the relevant U.S. criticisms were "totally groundless" as the Chinese pilot professionally maintained a safe distance. Furthermore, he blamed the "massive and frequent close-in surveillance" by the U.S. as the root cause, and called for the end of surveillance flights to improve bilateral military ties.
- J-11A (or J-11) – Chinese/Russian assembled Su-27SK from Russian-made kits. 104 were built.
- J-11B – Chinese-developed variant with domestic subsystems. Block 02 powered by Shenyang WS-10 turbofan.
- J-11BS – A twin-seat version of the J-11B. In 2012, the number of J-11B and J-11BS in service was over 120.
- J-11BH – Naval version of the J-11B. It was first sighted in May 2010.
- J-11BSH – Naval version of the J-11BS.
- J-11BG – Variant with light-grey radome; speculated to be equipped with AESA radar.
- J-15 – Carrier-based version based on the J-11B, incorporating structural elements from the Sukhoi Su-33 prototype purchased from Ukraine in 2001. It uses avionics from the J-11B.
- J-11D – Variant possibly equipped with fixed electronically scanned array radar, IRST, and capability to fire heavier imaging/infrared (IIR) air-to-air missiles. The airframe makes greater use of composite materials, especially in the engine intakes for lower radar observability. The wings have three hardpoints each. Unconfirmed reports claim it has a new fly-by-wire control system, glass cockpit, improved EW systems, and an improved version of the WS-10A engine.
- People's Liberation Army Air Force: 100 J-11A, 180 J-11B and 90 J-11BS (as of 2018[update])
- People's Liberation Army Naval Air Force: 40 J-11BH and 32 J-11BSH (as of 2018[update])
- Crew: 1
- Length: 21.9 m (71 ft 10 in)
- Wingspan: 14.7 m (48 ft 3 in)
- Height: 5.92 m (19 ft 5 in)
- Wing area: 52.84 m2 (568.8 sq ft)
- Empty weight: 16,380 kg (36,112 lb) 
- Gross weight: 23,926 kg (52,748 lb)
- Max takeoff weight: 33,000 kg (72,753 lb)
- Fuel capacity: 9,400 kg (20,700 lb) internal fuel
- Powerplant: 2 × Lyulka AL-31F or afterburning turbofan engines 75.22 / 123 kN (16,910 / 27,650 lbf) dry / afterburning
- Maximum speed: 2,500 km/h (1,600 mph, 1,300 kn) at altitude
- Maximum speed: Mach 2.1
- Range: 3,530 km (2,190 mi, 1,910 nmi)
- Combat range: 1,500 km (930 mi, 810 nmi) ~
- Service ceiling: 19,000 m (62,000 ft)
- g limits: +9
- Rate of climb: 300 m/s (59,000 ft/min) 
- Guns: 1× 30 mm (1.18 in) Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-30-1 cannon with 150r
- Hardpoints: 10: 2 under fuselage, 2 under air ducts, 4 under wings, 2 on wingtips with provisions to carry combinations of:
- Rockets: Unguided rocket launcher
- Bombs: Free-fall cluster bombs
- Fire-control radar: NIIP Tikhomirov N001VE Myech coherent pulse Doppler radar, or Type 1474 radar (J-11B)
- OEPS-27 electro-optic system
- NSts-27 helmet-mounted sight (HMS)
- Gardeniya ECM pods
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era
- Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet
- Dassault Rafale
- Eurofighter Typhoon
- Grumman F-14 Tomcat
- McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle
- Sukhoi Su-30
- Sukhoi Su-30MKI
- Sukhoi Su-35
- Bronk, Justin (October 2020). Russian and Chinese Combat Air Trends (PDF) (Report). Whitehall Report. 3–20. Royal United Services Institute for Defence and Security Studies. p. 35. Retrieved 2 February 2021.
- Collins, Jack. "Chinese Fighter Development". China-defence.com. Archived from the original on 2007-01-16. Retrieved 2007-01-16.
- Saunders et al., p. 35
- Saunders et al., p. 36
- Saunders et al., p. 46
- Fisher, Richard D., jr. (11 March 2015). "Images suggest upgrades to China's early series J-11s". IHS Jane's 360. Archived from the original on 2015-12-22. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
- "J-11B fighter". People's Daily Online. 4 November 2009. Retrieved 11 November 2020.
- Saunders et al., p. 37
- Parsons, Ted (10 May 2010). "Chinese naval J-11s spotted in the open". IHS Jane's 360. Archived from the original on 12 May 2010. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2019-03-30. Retrieved 2019-03-30.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Fisher, Richard, Jr. (13 December 2004). "Report on the 5th Airshow China: Zhuhai, PRC, November 1-7, 2004". International Assessment and Strategy Center. Archived from the original on 2005-04-26. Retrieved 2019-07-03.
- Fisher, Richard D., Jr. (7 October 2003). "New Developments in Russia-China Military Relations: A Report on the August 19-23 2003 Moscow Aerospace Salon (MAKS)". United States-China Economic and Security Review Commission. Archived from the original on 12 January 2005. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
- Pomfret, John (25 December 2010). "Military strength eludes China, which looks overseas for arms". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 31 December 2016. Retrieved 3 September 2017.
- Rupprecht, Andreas (December 2011). "China's 'Flanker' gains momentum. Shenyang J-11 update". Combat Aircraft Monthly. Vol. 12 no. 12. pp. 40–42.
- Fisher, Richard D. Jr. (26 August 2014). "Chinese J-11BH 'aggressive' with USN P-8A, says DoD". Jane's Defence Weekly. Archived from the original on 2014-08-27. Retrieved 2019-07-03.
- Andreas Rupprecht. December 2011. "China's 'Flanker' gains momentum. Shenyang J-11 update". Combat Aircraft Monthly. Vol. 12, No. 12, p. 40–42.
- "Lenta.ru: "Рособоронэкспорт" пообещал разобраться с китайскими копиями Су-27". Archived from the original on 4 February 2015. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
- obsessed. "МАКС 2011". Archived from the original on 4 February 2015. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
- http://www.roe.ru/news/lenty/lenta_10_11_17.html[permanent dead link]
- "Pak Air force conducts joint exercise with China". The Times of India. 19 March 2011. Archived from the original on 1 July 2012. Retrieved 23 May 2011.
- Zambelis, Chris (20 May 2011). ""Shaheen 1" Exercise Signals Expansion of China-Pakistan Alliance". China Brief Volume: 11 Issue: 9. The Jamestown Foundation. Archived from the original on 12 September 2011. Retrieved 23 May 2011.
- Capaccio and Greiling Keane, Tony and Angela (August 22, 2014). "Chinese Jet Barrel-Rolls Over U.S. Plane Bringing Protest". Bloomberg L.P. Archived from the original on January 3, 2017. Retrieved March 11, 2017.
- Keck, Zachary (August 23, 2014). "China's 'Dangerous Intercept' of US Spy Plane". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on November 21, 2014. Retrieved October 30, 2014.
- "Defense.gov Transcript: Department of Defense Press Briefing by Admiral Kirby in the Pentagon Briefing Room". Archived from the original on 30 October 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
- "China urges U.S. to stop close-in surveillance". Xinhua. 23 August 2014. Archived from the original on 23 August 2014. Retrieved 8 March 2015.
- Wong, Kelvin (12 November 2014). "Airshow China 2014: AVIC unveils FC-31 export fighter concept". IHS Jane's 360. Archived from the original on 19 December 2015. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
- Richard D. Fisher, Jr. (2012-03-19). "China Modernizes Air Force On Dual Tracks". Aviation Week & Space Technology. Archived from the original on 2013-05-12. Retrieved 2012-07-10.
- Yeo, Mike (2 November 2015). "PLAN holds snap drills in South China Sea". IHS Jane's 360. Archived from the original on 2015-12-22. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
- "Can China Enforce a South China Sea ADIZ?". usni.org. 18 July 2016. Archived from the original on 22 April 2019. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
- Fulghum, David A. (27 April 2011). "New Chinese Ship-Based Heavy Fighter Readied For Flight Tests". Aviation Week Network. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
- Fisher, Richard D., jr. (5 May 2015). "Images show J-11D variant with possible new radar". IHS Jane's 360. Archived from the original on 20 December 2015. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
- Rupprecht, Andreas. Modern Chinese Warplane: Chinese Air Force - Aircraft and Units. Harpia Publishing. p. 46. ISBN 978-09973092-6-3.
- Sukhoi Su-27SK Archived 2013-09-20 at the Wayback Machine. KNAAPO.
- "Sukhoi Company (JSC) – Airplanes – Military Aircraft – Su-27SК – Aircraft performance". Sukhoi.org. Archived from the original on 2011-07-16. Retrieved 2011-05-12.
- "Sukhoi Su-27 Flanker Specifications". Sinodefence.com. Archived from the original on 2010-01-13. Retrieved 2011-12-22.
- "Sukhoi Company (JSC) – Airplanes – Military Aircraft – Su-27SÊ – Aircraft performance". Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
- "Chinese Aircraft - J-11 [Su-27 FLANKER]". www.globalsecurity.org. Archived from the original on 6 January 2019. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
- "Sukhoi Su-27 Flanker". Fighter-planes.com. Archived from the original on 2011-07-11. Retrieved 2011-05-12.
- Golan, John (2006). "China's Hidden Power: The First Half Century of PLAAF Fighter Aviation". Combat Aircraft. 7.
- International Institute for Strategic Studies (2014). Hacket, James (ed.). The Military Balance 2014. Oxfordshire: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-85743-722-5.
- Saunders, Phillip C.; Wiseman, Joshua K. (December 2011). "Buy, Build, or Steal: China's Quest for Advanced Military Aviation Technologies" (PDF). Chinese Strategic Perspectives. Institute for National Strategic Studies, National Defense University (4). Retrieved 25 May 2015.
- Wei, Bai (2012). "A Flanker by any other name". Air Forces Monthly. 5.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Shenyang J-11.|