Shenyang Mandarin

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Shenyang dialect
瀋陽話 / 沈阳话
Shěnyánghuà
Native toChina
RegionShenyang
Language codes
ISO 639-3
cmn-she
Glottologshen1252[1]

Shenyang Mandarin (Chinese: 沈阳话) is a dialect of Northeastern Mandarin used by people in and around Shenyang, the capital of Liaoning province and the largest city in Northeast China. It is very close to Standard Chinese but has some notably distinctive words. Some people think of it as a strong accent rather than a distinct dialect. Because of its similarity to the standard language, pinyin can be used to represent the pronunciation.

However, as schools in Shenyang teach only the standard language, usage of the dialect is dwindling.

Relative pitch changes of the four tones in Standard Chinese. Shenyang diverges the most with tone 1.

The most distinctive aspect of the Shenyang dialect is the much lower pitch of the first tone than in Standard Chinese. It would be positioned at 2, rather than 5, on the chart at right. As a result, it can sound rather like the third tone.

Like Beijing dialect, Shenyang dialect is characterized by erhua (儿化).

Some of the words in Shenyang dialect come from other languages like the Manchu language. One example is 旮旯儿 gālár 'corner'.

Examples of words in various Northeastern dialects (note that these are not specific to Shenyang):

Northeastern Mandarin pinyin Standard Mandarin Meaning
不赶趟兒 bù gǎn tàng r 赶不上 unable to catch up
波楞盖儿 bō lin gàr 膝盖 knee
疙瘩、圪塔[citation needed] gāda 地方 place (noun)
得瑟 dèse 卖弄 to show off
老鼻子(了) lǎobízi(le) 很多 a lot
驲驲地 rírídi (形容速度快) Interjection for increasing speed
埋汰 máitai dirty
嘎哈 gāhā 干什么 、干嘛 What are you doing?
砢碜 kēchen (pronounced kezhen) 不好看 ugly
lǎo very
蚂蛉 mālíng 蜻蜓 dragonfly
嘎赌 gàdu 打赌 to bet

Phonology[edit]

Shenyang dialect has 19 initial consonants, as opposed to 21 in Standard Mandarin. Most notably, retroflex consonants [ʈ͡ʂ], [ʈ͡ʂʰ] and [ʂ] in Standard Chinese are pronounced as [t͡s], [t͡sʰ] and [s], respectively, while [ɻ] is omitted. While lost in Standard Mandarin, Middle Chinese [ɳ] is preserved in Shenyang dialect. [v] exists in Shenyang dialect.[2]

Initial consonants, Shenyang dialect
Labial Alveolar Dental sibilants Palatal Velar
Stops unaspirated p t t͡s t͡ɕ k
aspirated t͡sʰ t͡ɕʰ
Nasals m n ɳ
Fricatives f v s ɕ x
Approximants l

Standard Mandarin diphthongs tend to be pronounced as monophthongs in Shenyang dialect. For example, [ai] becomes [æ], and [au] becomes [ɔ].[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Shenyang Mandarin". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ a b 孟祥宇 (2011). "沈阳方言音系概说". 语文学刊 (1).