Shenzhen Metro

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Shenzhen Metro
BSicon SUBWAY-CHN.svg
Shenzhen Metro Corporation logo.svg  Shenzhen Metro No.3 Line logo.svg  MTR Corporation icon.svg
Overview
Locale Shenzhen
Transit type Rapid transit
Number of lines 6
Number of stations 149[1]
Daily ridership

3,070,000 (2015 Avg.)[2]

4,040,000 (2015 Peak)[3]
Annual ridership 1.122 billion (2015)[2]
Website

SZMC (Shenzhen Metro Group) official website (English)(English)
SZMC (Shenzhen Metro Group) official website (Chinese)(Chinese)


MTR Corporation (Shenzhen) official website (Chinese)(Chinese)
Operation
Began operation 28 December 2004
Operator(s)
Technical
System length 230.6 km (143.3 mi)[4]
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) (Standard Gauge)
System map

Shenzhen Metro Route Map.svg

Shenzhen Metro
Traditional Chinese 深圳地鐵
Simplified Chinese 深圳地铁
Cantonese Jyutping Sam1zan3 Dei6tit3
Cantonese Yale Sàmján Dèihtít
Hanyu Pinyin Shēnzhèn Dìtiě

The Shenzhen Metro(simplified Chinese: 深圳地铁; traditional Chinese: 深圳地鐵; pinyin: Shēnzhèn Dìtiě; Jyutping: Sam1 Zan3 Dei6 Tit3) is the subway or underground system for the city of Shenzhen in Guangdong province, China. The system opened on 28 December 2004, making Shenzhen the sixth city in mainland China to have a subway after Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Wuhan. The Shenzhen Metro currently has 6 lines, 132 stations, and 230 kilometres (140 miles)[4][1] of total trackage in operation. The network underwent rapid expansion prior to the 2011 Summer Universiade, opening 110 km (68 mi) of tracks in June 2011.[5] Currently, there are five lines(Line 5 south extension, Line 6 phase one and south extension, Line 7, Line 9 and its west extension, Line 10) under construction.

Current system[edit]

The current system has six lines and provides a relatively fast and economical way of travelling in the east-central part of Shenzhen, compared to buses and taxis. Line 1 and Line 4 run to the border crossings between the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region at Luohu/Lo Wu and Futian Checkpoint/Lok Ma Chau, where riders can transfer to Hong Kong's MTR East Rail Line for travel onward to Hong Kong.

Line Terminals
(District)
Opened Latest
Extension
Length
/km
Stations Operator
     Line 1 Luohu
(Luohu)
Airport East
(Bao'an)
2004 2011 41.04 30 Shenzhen Metro Corporation logo.svg
     Line 2 Chiwan
(Nanshan)
Xinxiu
(Luohu)
2010 2011 35.78 29 Shenzhen Metro Corporation logo.svg
     Line 3 Yitian
(Futian)
Shuanglong
(Longgang)
2010 2011 41.66 30 Shenzhen Metro No.3 Line logo.svg
     Line 4 Futian Checkpoint
(Futian)
Qinghu
(Longhua)
2004 2011 19.96 15 MTR Corporation icon.svg
     Line 5 Qianhaiwan
(Nanshan)
Huangbeiling
(Luohu)
2011 40.00 27 Shenzhen Metro Corporation logo.svg
     Line 11 Futian
(Futian)
Bitou
(Bao'an)
2016 51.94 18 Shenzhen Metro Corporation logo.svg
Total 230.0 149

Line 1[edit]

Line 1 formerly known as the Luobao Line runs westward from Luohu to Airport East. Trains operate every 2 minutes during peak hours and every 4 minutes at other times. The line is operated by SZMC (Shenzhen Metro Group).

Line 2[edit]

Line 2 formerly known as the Shekou Line runs from Chiwan to Xinxiu. It connects with Line 1 at Window of the World, with Line 4 at Civic Center, with Line 3 at Futian and with Line 1 again at Grand Theater. The line is operated by SZMC (Shenzhen Metro Group).

Line 3[edit]

Line 3 formerly known as the Longgang Line runs from Yitian to Shuanlong in Longgang, in the north-east part of the city. Construction began on 26 December 2005.[8] The line is operated by Shenzhen Metro Line 3 Operations, which has been a subsidiary of SZMC (Shenzhen Metro Group) since 11 April 2011 when an 80% stake was transferred to SZMC.

Line 4[edit]

Line 4 formerly known as the Longhua Line runs northward from Futian Checkpoint to Qinghu. Trains operate every 8 minutes. Stations from Futian Checkpoint to Lianhua North are underground. The line has been operated by MTR Corporation (Shenzhen), a subsidiary of MTR Corporation, since 1 July 2010.

Line 5[edit]

Line 5 formerly known as the Huanzhong Line runs from Qianhaiwan in the west to Huangbeiling in the east. Construction began in May 2009 and the line opened on 22 June 2011.[10] Line 5 required a total investment of 20.6 billion RMB. The line is operated by SZMC (Shenzhen Metro Group).

Line 11[edit]

Line 11 also known as the Airport Express runs from Bitou in the north-east to Futian in the city centre via Shenzhen Bao'an International Airport. Construction began in April 2012 and the line opened on 28 June 2016. Line 11 runs at a higher speed of 120 km/h. The line is operated by SZMC (Shenzhen Metro Group).

Ridership[edit]

Annual Ridership
Year million riders ±% p.a.
2005[11] 58 —    
2006[12] 90 +55.17%
2007[13] 118 +31.11%
2008[14] 136 +15.25%
2009[15] 138 +1.47%
2010[16] 163 +18.12%
2011[17] 460 +182.21%
2012[18] 781 +69.78%
2013[19] 914 +17.03%
2014[20] 1,037 +13.46%
2015[2] 1,122 +8.20%

Since the opening of the first phase in 2004, there has been a steady growth in passenger traffic. In 2009 and 2010, passenger traffic soared with major openings of new phase 2 lines. Since the opening of phase 2 lines there has been a three-fold increase in passenger traffic in 2010.[21] The maximum daily passenger record occurred on May 1, 2014 hit, day traffic of 3,471,800 passengers.[3]

July is the busiest month of the year for the Shenzhen Metro, accounting for 9.3% annual passenger traffic. Subway passenger volume in January is the lowest throughout the year, accounting for only 6.7% of annual passenger traffic. This is caused by Shenzhen's large migrant worker population.[22]

History[edit]

Evolution of the Shenzhen metro

Early planning[edit]

In late 1983, Party Secretary of Shenzhen Mayor Liang Xiang led a team to Singapore to study its mass transit system. Upon returning decided that 30 meters on each side of Shennan Avenue to protected as a green belt, and set aside a 16-meter wide median reserved for a light rail or light metro line.[23] In 1984, the "Shenzhen Special Economic Zone Master Plan (1985–2000)" pointed out that, with the growing population and traffic in Shenzhen, a light metro system will not have sufficient capacity to meet future demand. Instead the report proposed a heavy rail subway line to be built along Shennan Avenue.[24] The project was finally approved by the Central Planning Department in 1992.[25]

In August 1992, during and re-feasibility and rail network planning, The Shenzhen Municipal Government decided to move from building a light metro line to a heavy rail subway line. The rapid growth of Shenzhen City made a lower capacity light metro line impractical.[26] In 1994, Shenzhen organized the preparation of the "Shenzhen urban rail network master plan" to be incorporated into the "Shenzhen City Master Plan (1996–2010)".[27] The city's vision for an urban rail network consists of nine lines. Of the nine transit lines, three of them will be commuter rail lines upgraded from existing national mainline railways. The total length of the proposed network will be about 270 km. The three upgraded commuter rail lines will overlap the Guangzhou–Shenzhen Railway , Pinghu–Nanshan Railway and Pingyan railway.[27] This plan establishes the basic framework for the Shenzhen Metro network.[28]

Construction suspended and restarted[edit]

In December 1995, the State Council issued the "moratorium on approval of urban rapid transit projects" to suspend approval of rail transit projects in all Chinese cities except Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. The Shenzhen Metro project was postponed.[29] In 1996 prior to the handover authorities attempted to restart construction by renaming the project "The Luohu , Huanggang / Lok Ma Chau border crossing passenger rail connection project", stressing that the project is designed to meet the potential growing demand for cross-border passenger traffic after the handover.[27]

In 1997, Shenzhen reapplied its Subway plans to the State Planning Commission, and received approval in May 1998.[26] The project was renamed the "Shenzhen Metro first phase".[30] On July 1998, SZMC (Shenzhen Metro Group). was formally established.[30] By April 1999, the subway project feasibility study report has been approved by the state.

First phase[edit]

Construction of the first sections of Line 1 and Line 4 began in 1999. The grand opening of the Shenzhen Metro system occurred at 5:00pm on Tuesday, December 28, 2004. Initially the trains operated at 15-minute frequencies and consisted of Line 1 services between Luohu and Shijie Zhi Chuang (now Window of the World) and the Line 4 services between Fumin and Shaonian Gong (now Children's Palace). Initially the English names of the stations were rendered in Hanyu Pinyin, but some of the names were changed to English translation with American spelling in mid-2011.

The Futian Checkpoint station opened on 28 June 2007 using the name Huanggang.[31]

Name changes[edit]

On April 23, 2008, Shenzhen Municipal Planning Bureau announced that it would change the nomenclature of Shenzhen's subway lines. Instead of using numbers as the lines official designation, as typically used in other mainland Chinese metro systems, lines will be given Chinese names more akin to the Hong Kong MTR.[32] On 23 October 2013, SZMC (Shenzhen Metro Group) combined both the number with the name for the current operational lines and the future lines will be in number only.[33] The name changes are as follows:

Original name 2008–2013 name 2013–2016 name Current name
Line 1 Luobao Line Line 1 (Luobao Line) Line 1
Line 2 Shekou Line Line 2 (Shekou Line) Line 2
Line 3 Longgang Line Line 3 (Longgang Line) Line 3
Line 4 Longhua Line Line 4 (Longhua Line) Line 4
Line 5 Huanzhong Line Line 5 (Huanzhong Line) Line 5
Line 6 Guangming Line Line 6 (Guangming Line) Line 6
Line 7 Xili Line Line 7 (Xili Line) Line 7
Line 8 Yantian Line Line 8 (Yantian Line) Line 8
Line 9 Meilin Line Line 9 (Meilin Line) Line 9
Line 11 Airport Line Line 11 (Airport Line) Line 11

Second phase[edit]

From 2004 to 2007, there was a lack of official government interest and attention to expanding the subway after completion of Phase 1 with little or no active projects.[34] Subway construction speed was ridiculed as "earthworm speed".[35] In January 17, 2007 Shenzhen won the right to host the 2011 Universiade. In the bid Shenzhen committed to complete 155 km of subway lines before the games.[34]

Shenzhen Metro increased to over a hundred operating metro stations in June 2011, just before the Shenzhen Universiade games. In the span of two weeks, the network expanded from 64 km to 177 km. This expansion increased rail transit's share of total public transit trips from 6% to 29% in 2014.[20]

Date Opened
Line
Termini
Length
in km
Stations
28 September 2009      Line 1 - section 2 (trial) Window of the World Shenzhen University 3.39 3
28 December 2010      Line 2 - phase 1 Chiwan Window of the World 15.1 12
     Line 3 - phase 1 section 1 Shuanglong Caopu 25.6 16
15 June 2011      Line 1 - section 2 Shenzhen University Airport East 23.6 12
16 June 2011      Line 4 - phase 2 Children's Palace Qinghu 15.9 10
22 June 2011      Line 5 Qianhaiwan Huangbeiling 40.0 27
28 June 2011      Line 2 - east extension Window of the World Xinxiu 20.65 17
     Line 3 - phase 1 section 2 Caopu Hongling 7.72 6
     Line 3 - west extension Hongling Yitian 8.8 8

Expansion plans[edit]

Network Phase 3 and Phase 3 expansion[edit]

Phase 3 formally commenced in May 2011 with an expected cost of 80 billion yuan. The implementation period has been changed from 2011–2020 to 2011–2016.[36] It will cover Lines 6, 7, 8, 9, and 11 and will extend the length of the Shenzhen Metro to 348 kilometres and 10 lines.[37][38] In June 2011, the Shenzhen Urban Planning and Land Resources Commission started gather public input on Phase III station names.[39] Anticipated development and growth in Longgang has prompted officials to fast track the planning and construction of Line 10 (formerly Line 16), from Futian Free Trade Zone to Pinghu via Meilin, to start in 2015 instead of after 2020.[40][41][42] Although Line 10 is not part of the original three projects (Lines 7, 9 and 11) approved by the National Development and Reform Commission, the project was fast tracked in order to ease the pressure on Line 4 and accommodate further growth of the Longgang area.[43][44] According to the original plan, the northern section of Line 10 runs through Fenggang town of the neighboring Dongguan City. Due to legal and government coordination problems, Line 10 will temporarily terminate in Pinghu, with capability to extend further north into Dongguan.[45]

Expected Opening
Line
Expected Terminals
Expected Length
in km
Expected Stations
Current Status
28 June 2016      Line 11 Bitou Futian 51.7 18 Opened on 28 June 2016
28 December 2016      Line 7 Xili Lake Tai'an 30.3 28 Construction nearly completed, first train arrived.[46][47][48]
     Line 9 Hongshuwan Wenjin 25.3 22 Construction nearly completed, first train arrived.[46][47]
2017 (structural works only, actual opening time TBC)      Line 9 west extension Hongshuwan Hanghai Road 10.8 8 Under construction[49][50][51]
     Line 5 south extension Qianhaiwan Chiwan 8.6 7 Under construction[52]
2019      Line 6 Shenzhen North Songgang 37.9 20 Under construction[46][53][54][55]
     Line 10 Futian Checkpoint Pinghu Center 28.8 23 Under construction[53][56][57]
2020      Line 8 Yantian Road Kuichong Cultural Plaza 24 12 Under study, monorail preferred, construction may start in 2016[58]
     Line 2 east extension 2 Xinxiu Liantang 3.82 3 Under construction[59][50][51]
     Line 4 north extension Qinghu Niuhu 10.6 8 Approved, construction may start in 2016[50][51]
2020      Line 3 south extension Yitian Baoshuiqu 1.5 1 Under construction[60][50]
     Line 3 east extension Shuanglong Liulian 9.4 6 Approved, construction may start in 2016[50][51]
     Line 6 south extension Shenzhen North Science Museum 11.5 6 Approved, construction may start in 2016[50][51]
A map with Third phase lines.

Network Phase 4 expansion[edit]

With the shortening of the Phase III implementation period,[36] a number of lines (Lines 16 and 12) planned in 2007's Phase III moved into the next phase which could possibly be completed by 2020.[61] By 2016, it was determined that Phase 4 will have an implementation period between 2017 and 2022 and consist of 274 km of new subway.[62]

Expected Opening
Line
Expected Terminals
Expected Length
in km
Expected Stations
Current Status
Before 2022      Line 6 Branch Lilin Sun Yat-sen University TBC TBC Planned
     Line 8 Phase 2 Xiaomeisha Dapeng TBC TBC Planned
     Line 10 East Extension Futian Checkpoint Futian Free Trade Zone TBC TBC Planned
     Line 11 East Extension Futian Huangbeiling Station TBC TBC Planned
     Line 12 Taiziwan New Exhibition Center North 20.7 TBC Planned
     Line 13 Shenzhen Bay Checkpoint Gongming Square 38.6 TBC Planned
     Line 14 Huangmugang Pingdi / Kengzi 67.5 TBC Planned
     Line 15 Dachan Bay Mawan TBC TBC Planned
     Line 16 Universiade Xinqiao Industrial Zone 27.8 TBC Planned
     Line 17 Luohu Pinghu TBC TBC Planned
     Line 20 Airport North Great Airport New Town 11.5 TBC Planned
A map with proposed Shenzhen Metro lines through 2020.

Long-term plan[edit]

In the Shenzhen Metro 2007 masterplan has a further 4 lines (     Line 13     Line 14     Line 15     Line 16) which have a planned completion target of 2030.[63] In 2012, 4 further lines Qiannan (Line 17), Pinghu (Line 18), Pingshan (Line 19) and Fuyong (Line 20) where unveiled. This brings the total planned length of the Shenzhen Metro to 720 km spread out over 20 lines. In addition to metro lines, 5 Pearl River Delta Rapid Transit lines connecting neighboring urban centers in the Pearl River Delta, totalling 146 km, have also been revealed.[64]

Expected opening
Line
Expected terminals
Expected length
in km
Expected stations
Current status
After 2022 Bao'an-Longgang Line Shiyan Buji East TBC TBC Planned
107 Line Hongshuwan South Xitou TBC TBC Planned
Sungang Line Laojie Mawan TBC TBC Planned
Central Axe Line Shangsha Guanlan North TBC TBC Planned
Nanshan - Longgang(Longhua) Line TBC TBC TBC TBC Planned
Map of Shenzhen Metro in 2030 (lines 17–20 not included due to lack of enough available information)

Extended intercity proposal[edit]

Aside from the set masterplan, at the 12th Guangdong Provincial People's Congress in January 2014,[65] it was proposed to extend Line 4 beyond the planned Phase III terminus at the Songyuan Bus Terminal in Guanlan. The proposal wanted to further extend this line to reach the future planned Dongguan Metro Line 4 at Tangxia station. This proposal aims to shorten the distance between the two cities in residents' minds, boost tourism industries in both cities and expand housing options. It would also allow for direct connection between Hong Kong and Dongguan. As the area in the proposed area is less developed, the cost in building the line is expected to be reasonable, with a feasibility study yet to be conducted.

Fares and tickets[edit]

Metro rides are priced according to distance travelled, and fares vary from 2 RMB to 14 RMB.[66] Since December 2010 fares are based on a usage fee (2 RMB) + a distance fee. The distance fee is 1 RMB for each 4 km from 4 km to 12 km; after that 1 RMB for each 6 km from 12 km to 24 km and finally 1 RMB for every 8 km over 24 km distance.[67]

Children under the height of 120 cm or aged below 6 may ride for free when accompanied by an adult.[68] The metro also offers free rides to senior citizens over the age of 65, the physically disabled and military personnel. Tickets for children between 120 cm and 150 cm, or aged between 6 and 14 years, or middle school students, are half priced.

Metro fares can be paid for with single-ride tokens, multiple-ride Shenzhen Tong cards or weekly passes.[69]

Tokens[edit]

Shenzhen Metro RFID Token

When using cash, a green or a yellow RFID token is purchased and used for the journey. Yellow RFID tokens is used for business class of line 11 only. The fare machines offer English and Chinese options. The purchaser touches a station name to calculate the fare. After payment, a green token is dispensed, which must be scanned at the entrance station and deposited at the exit station. A penalty fare applies should a token be lost. Also, people who purchased Green tokens cannot go to the business class in line 11 directly. Instead, they must get off at any transfer stations with line 11 and purchase a yellow token in order to ride the business class.

Note that as of 2015 many machines accept only 5 or 10 RMB notes. Baggage X-Ray machines are located at each station, and may be manned during peak hours.

Shenzhen Tong cards[edit]

Main article: Shenzhen Tong

Shenzhen Tong is similar to the Octopus card system used on the MTR rail lines in Hong Kong. The multiple fare card stores credit purchased at stations. The card can be used by waving it in front of the card reader located at all entrances and exits to the subway system. Riders who pay for metro fare with a card receive a 5% discount. Since March 1, 2008, riders who pay for a bus fare with a card and then a subway fare within 90 minutes receive an additional 0.4 RMB discount on the subway fare. Card users pay a distance based fare.

Unlike Hong Kong Octopus Cards, Shenzhen Tong cards cannot be sold back to the stations or have faults dealt with by SZMC. Instead, the customer must go to the offices of Shenzhen Tong. Students studying in Shenzhen can use the Shenzhen Tong to receive a 50% discount.

Note that people who wish to ride business class in line 11 cannot enjoy any of these discounts.

Integration of Shenzhen Tong and Hong Kong Octopus Cards[edit]

Since June 30, 2011, cards containing both a Shenzhen Tong and Hong Kong Octopus chip have been available in both Shenzhen and Hong Kong. There are plans to further integrate the two systems, and for a new card which will be accepted all over Guangdong province and China's two SARs.[70][71]

Station facilities, amenities and services[edit]

All stations have toilets (free of charge), and public telephones. SZMC also operates luggage storage facilities in the concourse above Luohu Station. Mobile phone service is available throughout the system provided by China Mobile, China Telecom, and China Unicom.[72]

Like the Hong Kong MTR, Guangzhou, and Foshan metros, station announcements are in Mandarin, Cantonese and English. Some announcements, such as train arrival, are in Mandarin and English only. Cantonese, an important local language, is chosen for the local Cantonese population as well as Cantonese speakers in the Canton (Guangdong) province, Hong Kong and Macau.

Equipment[edit]

Rolling Stock[edit]

Bombardier rolling stock on Line 1

Line 1[edit]

Line 2[edit]

Line 3[edit]

Line 4[edit]

Line 5[edit]

Line 11[edit]

Signalling system[edit]

On Line 1 and Line 4, Siemens Transportation Systems supplied 7 (Phase 1) and 6 (Phase 2) LZB 700 M continuous automatic control systems; 7 (Phase 1) and 6 (Phase 2) electronic Sicas ESTT interlockings; the Vicos OC 501 operations control system with 2 operations control centers, fall-back level with Vicos OC 101 and RTU (FEP), 230 (Phase 1) and 240 (Phase 2) FTG S track vacancy detection units.[73]

Line 2 and Line 5 use Casco CBTC system with 2.4 GHz frequencies, and so the system has suffered frequent problems with interference from consumer Wi-Fi equipment.[74] By the end of November 2012, CASCO solved the problem on Lines 2 and 5 by switching to their standard solution with frequency diversity on 2 different channels.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]