|Transit type||Rapid transit|
|Number of lines||8: 1,2,3,4,5,11,7,9|
|Number of stations||149|
3.9 million (2016)
|Annual ridership||1.122 billion (2015)|
MTR Corporation (Shenzhen) official website (Chinese)(Chinese)
|Began operation||28 December 2004|
|System length||230.6 km (143.3 mi)|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) (Standard Gauge)|
|Cantonese Jyutping||Sam1zan3 Dei6tit3|
|Cantonese Yale||Sàmján Dèihtít|
|Hanyu Pinyin||Shēnzhèn Dìtiě|
The Shenzhen Metro(simplified Chinese: 深圳地铁; traditional Chinese: 深圳地鐵; pinyin: Shēnzhèn Dìtiě; Jyutping: Sam1 Zan3 Dei6 Tit3) is the subway or underground system for the city of Shenzhen in Guangdong province, China. The system opened on 28 December 2004, making Shenzhen the sixth city in mainland China to have a subway after Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Wuhan. The Shenzhen Metro currently has six lines, 132 stations, and 230 kilometres (140 miles) of total trackage in operation. The network underwent rapid expansion prior to the 2011 Summer Universiade, opening 110 km (68 mi) of tracks in June 2011. Currently, the system is undergoing rapid expansion with several projects underway.
- 1 Current system
- 2 Ridership
- 3 History
- 4 Expansion plans
- 5 Fares and tickets
- 6 Station facilities, amenities and services
- 7 Equipment
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
The current system has six lines and provides a relatively fast and economical way of travelling in the east-central part of Shenzhen, compared to buses and taxis. Line 1 and Line 4 run to the border crossings between the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region at Luohu/Lo Wu and Futian Checkpoint/Lok Ma Chau, where riders can transfer to Hong Kong's MTR East Rail Line for travel onward to Hong Kong.
Line 1 formerly known as the Luobao Line runs westward from Luohu to Airport East. Trains operate every 2 minutes during peak hours and every 4 minutes at other times. The line is operated by SZMC (Shenzhen Metro Group).
- 28 December 2004: Luohu – Window of the World
- 28 September 2009: Window of the World – Shenzhen University
- 15 June 2011: Shenzhen University – Airport East
Line 2 formerly known as the Shekou Line runs from Chiwan to Xinxiu. It connects with Line 1 at Window of the World, with Line 4 at Civic Center, with Line 3 at Futian and with Line 1 again at Grand Theater. The line is operated by SZMC (Shenzhen Metro Group).
Line 3 formerly known as the Longgang Line runs from Yitian to Shuanlong in Longgang, in the north-east part of the city. Construction began on 26 December 2005. The line is operated by Shenzhen Metro Line 3 Operations, which has been a subsidiary of SZMC (Shenzhen Metro Group) since 11 April 2011 when an 80% stake was transferred to SZMC.
Line 4 formerly known as the Longhua Line runs northward from Futian Checkpoint to Qinghu. Trains operate every 2.5 minutes at peak hours and every 6 minutes during off-peak hours. Stations from Futian Checkpoint to Lianhua North are underground. The line has been operated by MTR Corporation (Shenzhen), a subsidiary of MTR Corporation, since 1 July 2010.
- 28 December 2004: Fumin – Children's Palace
- 28 June 2007: Futian Checkpoint – Fumin
- 16 June 2011: Children's Palace – Qinghu
Line 5 formerly known as the Huanzhong Line runs from Qianhaiwan in the west to Huangbeiling in the east. Construction began in May 2009 and the line opened on 22 June 2011. Line 5 required a total investment of 20.6 billion RMB. The line is operated by SZMC (Shenzhen Metro Group).
Line 11 also known as the Airport Express runs from Bitou in the north-east to Futian in the city centre via Shenzhen Bao'an International Airport. Construction began in April 2012 and the line opened on 28 June 2016. Line 11 runs at a higher speed of 120 km/h. The line is operated by SZMC (Shenzhen Metro Group).
|Year||million riders||±% p.a.|
Since the opening of the first phase in 2004, there has been a steady growth in passenger traffic. In 2009 and 2010, passenger traffic soared with major openings of new phase 2 lines. Since the opening of phase 2 lines there has been a three-fold increase in passenger traffic in 2010. The maximum daily passenger record occurred on May 1, 2014 hit, day traffic of 3,471,800 passengers.
July is the busiest month of the year for the Shenzhen Metro, accounting for 9.3% annual passenger traffic. Subway passenger volume in January is the lowest throughout the year, accounting for only 6.7% of annual passenger traffic. This is caused by Shenzhen's large migrant worker population.
In late 1983, Party Secretary of Shenzhen Mayor Liang Xiang led a team to Singapore to study its mass transit system. Upon returning decided that 30 meters on each side of Shennan Avenue to protected as a green belt, and set aside a 16-meter wide median reserved for a light rail or light metro line. In 1984, the "Shenzhen Special Economic Zone Master Plan (1985–2000)" pointed out that, with the growing population and traffic in Shenzhen, a light metro system will not have sufficient capacity to meet future demand. Instead the report proposed a heavy rail subway line to be built along Shennan Avenue. The project was finally approved by the Central Planning Department in 1992.
In August 1992, during and re-feasibility and rail network planning, The Shenzhen Municipal Government decided to move from building a light metro line to a heavy rail subway line. The rapid growth of Shenzhen City made a lower capacity light metro line impractical. In 1994, Shenzhen organized the preparation of the "Shenzhen urban rail network master plan" to be incorporated into the "Shenzhen City Master Plan (1996–2010)". The city's vision for an urban rail network consists of nine lines. Of the nine transit lines, three of them will be commuter rail lines upgraded from existing national mainline railways. The total length of the proposed network will be about 270 km. The three upgraded commuter rail lines will overlap the Guangzhou–Shenzhen Railway, Pinghu–Nanshan Railway and Pingyan railway. This plan establishes the basic framework for the Shenzhen Metro network.
Construction suspended and restarted
In December 1995, the State Council issued the "moratorium on approval of urban rapid transit projects" to suspend approval of rail transit projects in all Chinese cities except Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. The Shenzhen Metro project was postponed. In 1996 prior to the handover authorities attempted to restart construction by renaming the project "The Luohu , Huanggang / Lok Ma Chau border crossing passenger rail connection project", stressing that the project is designed to meet the potential growing demand for cross-border passenger traffic after the handover.
In 1997, Shenzhen reapplied its Subway plans to the State Planning Commission, and received approval in May 1998. The project was renamed the "Shenzhen Metro first phase". On July 1998, SZMC (Shenzhen Metro Group). was formally established. By April 1999, the subway project feasibility study report has been approved by the state.
Construction of the first sections of Line 1 and Line 4 began in 1999. The grand opening of the Shenzhen Metro system occurred at 5:00pm on Tuesday, December 28, 2004. Initially the trains operated at 15-minute frequencies and consisted of Line 1 services between Luohu and Shijie Zhi Chuang (now Window of the World) and the Line 4 services between Fumin and Shaonian Gong (now Children's Palace). Initially the English names of the stations were rendered in Hanyu Pinyin, but some of the names were changed to English translation with American spelling in mid-2011.
The Futian Checkpoint station opened on 28 June 2007 using the name Huanggang.
On April 23, 2008, Shenzhen Municipal Planning Bureau announced that it would change the nomenclature of Shenzhen's subway lines. Instead of using numbers as the lines official designation, as typically used in other mainland Chinese metro systems, lines will be given Chinese names more akin to the Hong Kong MTR. On 23 October 2013, SZMC (Shenzhen Metro Group) combined both the number with the name for the current operational lines and the future lines will be in number only. The name changes are as follows:
|Original name||2008–2013 name||2013–2016 name||Current name|
|Line 1||Luobao Line||Line 1 (Luobao Line)||Line 1|
|Line 2||Shekou Line||Line 2 (Shekou Line)||Line 2|
|Line 3||Longgang Line||Line 3 (Longgang Line)||Line 3|
|Line 4||Longhua Line||Line 4 (Longhua Line)||Line 4|
|Line 5||Huanzhong Line||Line 5 (Huanzhong Line)||Line 5|
|Line 6||Guangming Line||Line 6 (Guangming Line)||Line 6|
|Line 7||Xili Line||Line 7 (Xili Line)||Line 7|
|Line 8||Yantian Line||Line 8 (Yantian Line)||Line 8|
|Line 9||Meilin Line||Line 9 (Meilin Line)||Line 9|
|Line 11||Airport Line||Line 11 (Airport Line)||Line 11|
From 2004 to 2007, there was a lack of official government interest and attention to expanding the subway after completion of Phase 1 with little or no active projects. Subway construction speed was ridiculed as "earthworm speed". In January 17, 2007 Shenzhen won the right to host the 2011 Universiade. In the bid Shenzhen committed to complete 155 km of subway lines before the games.
Shenzhen Metro increased to over a hundred operating metro stations in June 2011, just before the Shenzhen Universiade games. In the span of two weeks, the network expanded from 64 km to 177 km. This expansion increased rail transit's share of total public transit trips from 6% to 29% in 2014.
|28 September 2009||Window of the World||Shenzhen University||3.39||3|
|28 December 2010||Chiwan||Window of the World||15.1||12|
|15 June 2011||Shenzhen University||Airport East||23.6||12|
|16 June 2011||Children's Palace||Qinghu||15.9||10|
|22 June 2011||Qianhaiwan||Huangbeiling||40.0||27|
|28 June 2011||Window of the World||Xinxiu||20.65||17|
Network Phase 3 and Phase 3 expansion
Phase 3 formally commenced in May 2011 with an expected cost of 80 billion yuan. The implementation period has been changed from 2011–2020 to 2011–2016. It will cover Lines 6, 7, 8, 9, and 11 and will extend the length of the Shenzhen Metro to 348 kilometres and 10 lines. In June 2011, the Shenzhen Urban Planning and Land Resources Commission started gather public input on Phase III station names. Anticipated development and growth in Longgang has prompted officials to fast track the planning and construction of Line 10 (formerly Line 16), from Futian Free Trade Zone to Pinghu via Meilin, to start in 2015 instead of after 2020. Although Line 10 is not part of the original three projects (Lines 7, 9 and 11) approved by the National Development and Reform Commission, the project was fast tracked in order to ease the pressure on Line 4 and accommodate further growth of the Longgang area. According to the original plan, the northern section of Line 10 runs through Fenggang town of the neighboring Dongguan City. Due to legal and government coordination problems, Line 10 will temporarily terminate in Pinghu, with capability to extend further north into Dongguan.
|28 October 2016||Xili Lake||Tai'an||30.3||28||Construction nearly completed, first train arrived.|
|Hongshuwan||Wenjin||25.3||22||Construction nearly completed, first train arrived.|
|2017 (structural works only, actual opening time TBC)||Qianhaiwan||Chiwan||8.6||7||Under construction|
|2019||Shenzhen North||Songgang||37.9||20||Under construction|
|Futian Checkpoint||Pinghu Center||28.8||23||Under construction|
|Hongshuwan||Hanghai Road||10.8||8||Under construction|
|Shenzhen North||Science Museum||11.5||6||Approved, construction may start in 2016|
|Yantian Road||Kuichong Cultural Plaza||24||12||Under study, monorail preferred, construction may start in 2016|
Network Phase 4 expansion
With the shortening of the Phase III implementation period, a number of lines (Lines 16 and 12) planned in 2007's Phase III moved into the next phase which could possibly be completed by 2020. By 2016, it was determined that Phase 4 will have an implementation period between 2017 and 2022 and consist of 274 km of new subway.
|Before 2022||Lilin||Sun Yat-sen University||TBC||TBC||Planned|
|Futian Checkpoint||Futian Free Trade Zone||TBC||TBC||Planned|
|Taiziwan||New Exhibition Center North||20.7||TBC||Construction starting in 2017|
|Shenzhen Bay Checkpoint||Gongming Square||38.6||TBC||Planned|
|Huangmugang||Pingdi / Kengzi||67.5||TBC||Construction starting in 2017|
|Universiade||Xinqiao Industrial Zone||27.8||TBC||Planned|
|Luohu||Pinghu||28.7||24||Construction starting in 2017|
|Airport North||Great Airport New Town||11.5||4||Construction started on September 28|
In the Shenzhen Metro 2007 masterplan has a further 4 lines (
) which have a planned completion target of 2030. In 2012, 4 further lines Qiannan (Line 17), Pinghu (Line 18), Pingshan (Line 19) and Fuyong (Line 20) where unveiled. This brings the total planned length of the Shenzhen Metro to 720 km spread out over 20 lines. In addition to metro lines, 5 Pearl River Delta Rapid Transit lines connecting neighboring urban centers in the Pearl River Delta, totalling 146 km, have also been revealed.
|After 2022||Bao'an-Longgang Line||Shiyan||Buji East||TBC||TBC||Planned|
|107 Line||Hongshuwan South||Xitou||TBC||TBC||Planned|
|Central Axe Line||Shangsha||Guanlan North||TBC||TBC||Planned|
|Nanshan - Longgang(Longhua) Line||TBC||TBC||TBC||TBC||Planned|
Extended intercity proposal
Aside from the set masterplan, at the 12th Guangdong Provincial People's Congress in January 2014, it was proposed to extend Line 4 beyond the planned Phase III terminus at the Songyuan Bus Terminal in Guanlan. The proposal wanted to further extend this line to reach the future planned Dongguan Metro Line 4 at Tangxia station. This proposal aims to shorten the distance between the two cities in residents' minds, boost tourism industries in both cities and expand housing options. It would also allow for direct connection between Hong Kong and Dongguan. As the area in the proposed area is less developed, the cost in building the line is expected to be reasonable, with a feasibility study yet to be conducted.
Fares and tickets
Metro rides are priced according to distance travelled, and fares vary from 2 RMB to 14 RMB. Since December 2010 fares are based on a usage fee (2 RMB) + a distance fee. The distance fee is 1 RMB for each 4 km from 4 km to 12 km; after that 1 RMB for each 6 km from 12 km to 24 km and finally 1 RMB for every 8 km over 24 km distance. For passengers who wish to ride on business coach in line 11, they have to pay 3 times the amount of price that calculated by the regulations above.
(For business coach only)
|4~12||2+1/per 4 km||6+3/per 4 km|
|12~24||5+1/per 6 km||15+3/per 6 km|
|over 24||7+1/per 8 km||21+3/per 8 km|
Children under the height of 120 cm or aged below 6 may ride for free when accompanied by an adult. The metro also offers free rides to senior citizens over the age of 65, the physically disabled and military personnel. Tickets for children between 120 cm and 150 cm, or aged between 6 and 14 years, or middle school students, are half priced.
Metro fares can be paid for with single-ride tokens, multiple-ride Shenzhen Tong cards or 1- day passes.
When using cash, a RFID token (NXP Mifare Classic) is purchased and used for a single, non-returnable journey. There are two different types of tokens that showing in yellow or green color. Yellow RFID tokens is used for business coach of line 11 only. All ticket vending machines offer both English and Chinese interface. The purchaser touches a station name to calculate the fare. After payment, a green token is dispensed, which must be scanned at the entrance station and deposited at the exit station. A penalty fare applies should a token be lost. Also, people who purchased Green tokens will NOT ALLOWED to take the business coach in line 11 directly. Instead, they must get off at any transfer stations with line 11 and purchase a separate yellow token in order to ride the business coach.
Note that as of 2015 many machines accept only 5 or 10 RMB notes. The token(s) are only valid at the station where issued. Passengers are unable to buy an extra token for return journey prior to departure. Baggage X-Ray machines are located at each station, and may be manned during peak hours.
Shenzhen Tong cards
Shenzhen Tong is similar to the Octopus card system used on the MTR rail lines in Hong Kong. The multiple fare card stores credit purchased at stations. The card can be used by waving it in front of the card reader located at all entrances and exits to the subway system. Riders who pay for metro fare with a card receive a 5% discount. Since March 1, 2008, riders who pay for a bus fare with a card and then a subway fare within 90 minutes receive an additional 0.4 RMB discount on the subway fare. Card users pay a distance based fare.
Since June 30, 2011, cards containing both a Shenzhen Tong and Hong Kong Octopus chip have been available in both Shenzhen and Hong Kong. There are plans to further integrate the two systems, and for a new card which will be accepted all over Guangdong province and China's two SARs.
Unlike Hong Kong Octopus Cards, Shenzhen Tong cards cannot be sold back to the stations or have faults dealt with by SZMC. Instead, the customer must go to the offices of Shenzhen Tong. Students studying in Shenzhen can use the Shenzhen Tong to receive a 50% discount.
Note that all sorts of discounts will not applicable for people who wish to ride business coach in line 11.
Metro 1-day passes (N/A for business coach)
Metro 1-day pass is a smart card that allowed the card holder have unlimited access of the metro system in 24 continuous hours. Passengers can purchase an 1-day pass for RMB 20 in the service center in any metro station. The pass will be activated and the passenger will have 24 continuous hour for unlimited access after the first entrance. When the pass expired, the pass is no longer available for entering a station but able to exiting a station and finish a journey in 27.5 hours. The 1-day passes are not applicable for business coach in line 11.
Station facilities, amenities and services
Some stations have toilets (free of charge), and public telephones. SZMC also operates luggage storage facilities in the concourse above Luohu Station. Mobile phone service is available throughout the system provided by China Mobile, China Telecom, and China Unicom.
Like the Hong Kong MTR, Guangzhou, and Foshan metros, station announcements are in Mandarin, Cantonese and English. Some announcements, such as train arrival, are in Mandarin and English only. Cantonese, an important local language, is chosen for the local Cantonese population as well as Cantonese speakers in the Canton (Guangdong) province, Hong Kong and Macau.
- 22 Bombardier Transportation Movia 456 6-car sets (101–122)
- 4 Changchun Railway Vehicles Type A 6-car sets, traction units by Bombardier Transportation (123–126)
- 26 Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive Works Type A 6-car sets, traction units by Siemens (127–152)
- 35 Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive Works Type A 6-car sets, traction units by CSR Times Electric. (153-187)
- 35 Changchun Railway Vehicles Type A 6-car sets, traction units by Bombardier Transportation (201–235)
- 20 Changchun Railway Vehicles Type A 6-car sets, traction units by Bombardier Transportation (236-255)
- 43 Changchun Railway Vehicles Type B 6-car sets, traction units by Hyundai Rotem
- 33 Nanjing Puzhen Rolling Stock Works Type B 6-car sets (344-376)
- 28 Nanjing Puzhen Rolling Stock Works Type A 6-car sets (401-428)
- 22 Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive Works Type A 6-car sets, traction units by Siemens (501–522)
- 8 Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive Works Type A 6-car sets, traction units by CSR Times Electric (523–530)
- 20 Changchun Railway Vehicles Type A 6-car sets (531-550)
- 41 Changchun Railway Vehicles Type A 6-car sets (701-741)
- 29 Changchun Railway Vehicles Type A 6-car sets (901-929)
- 33 Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive Works Type A 8-car sets (1101-1133)
On Line 1 and Line 4, Siemens Transportation Systems supplied 7 (Phase 1) and 6 (Phase 2) LZB 700 M continuous automatic control systems; 7 (Phase 1) and 6 (Phase 2) electronic Sicas ESTT interlockings; the Vicos OC 501 operations control system with 2 operations control centers, fall-back level with Vicos OC 101 and RTU (FEP), 230 (Phase 1) and 240 (Phase 2) FTG S track vacancy detection units.
Line 2 and Line 5 use Casco CBTC system with 2.4 GHz frequencies, and so the system has suffered frequent problems with interference from consumer Wi-Fi equipment. By the end of November 2012, CASCO solved the problem on Lines 2 and 5 by switching to their standard solution with frequency diversity on 2 different channels.
- List of Shenzhen Metro stations
- List of rapid transit systems
- Dongguan Rail Transit
- Guangzhou Metro
- Hong Kong MTR
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