|Place of origin||United Kingdom|
|Main ingredients||Mashed potato crust and meat filling|
|Variations||Cumberland pie, Shepherdess pie|
|Media: Shepherd's pie|
The recipe can vary widely. The defining ingredients are minced meat (commonly beef when named cottage pie or lamb when named shepherd's pie), typically cooked in a gravy with onions and sometimes other vegetables, such as peas, celery or carrots, and topped with mashed potato. The pie is sometimes also topped with grated cheese.
The term cottage pie was in use by 1791, when the potato was being introduced as an edible crop affordable for the poor (cf. "cottage" meaning a modest dwelling for rural workers). The term shepherd's pie did not appear until 1854, and was used synonymously with cottage pie, regardless of whether the meat was beef or mutton. In the United Kingdom, the term shepherd's pie is now commonly used when the meat is lamb.
Other mashed-potato-topped pies include:
- The modern Cumberland pie is a version with either beef or lamb, and a layer of breadcrumbs and cheese on top. In medieval times (and modern-day Cumbria) the crust was pastry, and the filling was meat with fruits and spices.
- A St. Stephen's Day pie is made using turkey and ham.
- A fish pie is another British dish of fish and seafood in sauce topped with mashed potato.
- In Quebec, a variation of the dish is called Pâté chinois. It is made with ground beef on the bottom layer, canned corn in the middle, and mashed potato on top.
- The Oxford English Dictionary, Second Edition, Oxford University Press, 1933
- "shepherd's pie". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 2018-04-17.
- "The Chambers Dictionary", Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, 1999
- Concise Oxford English Dictionary, Eleventh Edition (Revised), Oxford University Press, 2006
- "Jewish Cookery by Florence Greenberg", Penguin Books Ltd, 1947–1963
- "Home : Oxford English Dictionary". Retrieved 7 December 2015.
- The Glutton's Glossary: A Dictionary of Food and Drink Terms. Routledge. 1990. Retrieved 20 January 2009.
- Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management by Isabella Beeton, recipe 1427 in 1907 edition. Uses beef or mutton. Recipe not in original 1861 edition.
- Cassell's New Universal Cookery Book by Lizzie Heritage published by Cassell and Company, 1894
- The Constance Spry Cookery Book by Constance Spry and Rosemary Hume, J M Dent & Sons, 1956
- Mrs Beeton’s Everyday Cookery, editor Susan Dixon, published by Ward Lock Limited, London, 1982, page 145, Shepherd’s Pie made with beef
- Chambers Dictionary, Ninth Edition, published by Chambers Harrap Publishing Ltd, 2003
- "Delia Smith: Shepherds Pie with Crusted Leeks". Retrieved 24 January 2009.
- "BBC Food Recipes: Shepherd's Pie". Retrieved 1 October 2011.
- "Shepherds' Pie and Cottage Pie". Retrieved 24 January 2009.
- "What is Cumberland Pie?". Retrieved 6 December 2010.
- "BBC - Food - Recipes : Turkey and ham pie". Retrieved 7 December 2015.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cottage pie.|