|Place of origin||United Kingdom|
|Variations||Cumberland pie, Shepherdess pie|
|Media: Shepherd's pie|
The dish can vary widely within its basic definition, whether as a home recipe or on a restaurant menu. The defining ingredients are minced meat (beef for cottage pie, lamb for shepherd's pie) cooked in a gravy with onions and sometimes vegetables, such as peas, celery or carrots, and topped with mashed potato. Whilst not traditional, a common addition to either pie is to top the mashed potato with grated cheese.
The term cottage pie was in use by 1791, when the potato was being introduced as an edible crop affordable for the poor (cf. "cottage" meaning a modest dwelling for rural workers). The term shepherd's pie did not appear until 1854, and since then it is sometimes used synonymously with cottage pie, regardless of whether the principal ingredient is beef or mutton. In the United Kingdom, the term shepherd's pie is typically used when the meat is lamb.
Other mashed-potato-topped pies include:
- The Shepherdess pie is a variation made without meat (vegetarian) or without dairy (vegan).
- The modern Cumberland pie is a version with either beef or lamb, and a layer of breadcrumbs and cheese on top. In medieval times (and modern-day Cumbria) the crust was pastry, and the filling was meat with fruits and spices.
- A St. Stephen's Day pie is made using turkey and ham.
- A fish pie is an English dish of fish and seafood in sauce topped with mashed potato.
- The Oxford English Dictionary, Second Edition, Oxford University Press, 1933
- "shepherd's pie". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
- "The Chambers Dictionary", Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, 1999
- Concise Oxford English Dictionary, Eleventh Edition (Revised), Oxford University Press, 2006
- "Jewish Cookery by Florence Greenberg", Penguin Books Ltd, 1947–1963
- "Home : Oxford English Dictionary". Retrieved 7 December 2015.
- The Glutton's Glossary: A Dictionary of Food and Drink Terms. Routledge. 1990. Retrieved 20 January 2009.
- Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management by Isabella Beeton, recipe 1427 in 1907 edition. Uses beef or mutton. Recipe not in original 1861 edition.
- Cassell's New Universal Cookery Book by Lizzie Heritage published by Cassell and Company, 1894
- The Constance Spry Cookery Book by Constance Spry and Rosemary Hume, J M Dent & Sons, 1956
- Chambers Dictionary, Ninth Edition, published by Chambers Harrap Publishing Ltd, 2003
- "Delia Smith: Shepherds Pie with Crusted Leeks". Retrieved 24 January 2009.
- "BBC Food Recipes: Shepherd's Pie". Retrieved 1 October 2011.
- "Shepherds' Pie and Cottage Pie". Retrieved 24 January 2009.
- "What is Cumberland Pie?". Retrieved 6 December 2010.
- "BBC - Food - Recipes : Turkey and ham pie". Retrieved 7 December 2015.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cottage pie.|