The family held many high commanding ranks in the Russian military, governorships and eventually the rank of Count of the Russian Empire. Notable members of the family include:
- Yelena Sheremeteva, third wife of Tsarevich Ivan Ivanovich (1554–1581), son of Ivan the Terrible.
- Count Boris Sheremetev (1652–1719) military leader and diplomat during the Great Northern War
- Count Pyotr Borisovich Sheremetev (1713—1788) son of Boris; courtier and noted patron of Russian theater
- Princess Natalia Borisovna Dolgorukova, daughter of Boris and wife of Prince Ivan Dolgorukov
- Count Nikolai Petrovich Sheremetev (1751–1809) son of Pyotr; noted patron of Russian theater
- Praskovia Kovalyova-Zhemchugova, a serf woman belonging to the Sheremetev family, who became an actress in the Sheremetev Serf Theatre and later married Nikolai Sheremetev
- Count Aleksandr Dmitriyevich Sheremetev (1859–1931) grandson of Nikolai and son of Dmitri; conductor, composer and entrepreneur
- Count Pierre Sheremetev, noted patron of the Conservatoire Rachmaninoff in Paris
Russian surnames are gender sensitive, the masculine form of the name being Sheremetev (Шереметев) and the feminine being rendered as Sheremeteva (Шереметева). Two theories as to the origin of the surname obtain, both of which indicate a Tatar and eastern origin for the family. One theory proposes that the name originated with the Turkic Chuvash language word sheremet (шеремет), meaning "poor man," while the other theory suggests that the name originates with the Tatar/Turkic-Persian shir Akhmat, which literally translates to "Tiger Ahmet" and can be read as both "brave Ahmet" and "Pious Ahmet."