Shergar

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Shergar
Shergar in 1981.jpg
Shergar in 1981
Sire Great Nephew
Grandsire Honeyway
Dam Sharmeen
Damsire Val de Loir
Sex Stallion
Foaled 3 March 1978
Country Ireland
Colour Bay
Breeder HH Aga Khan IV
Owner HH Aga Khan IV
Trainer Michael Stoute
Record 8: 6-1-0
Major wins
Guardian Classic Trial (1981)
Chester Vase (1981)
Epsom Derby (1981)
Irish Derby (1981)
King George VI and Queen Elizabeth Stakes (1981)
Awards
Timeform rating: 140
Honours
Shergar Cup on Ascot Racecourse

Shergar (3 March 1978 – c. February 1983) was an Irish-bred, British-trained racehorse, and winner of the 202nd Epsom Derby (1981) by ten lengths – the longest winning margin in the race's history.[1]

Two years later, on 8 February 1983, he was stolen from the Ballymany Stud, near The Curragh in County Kildare, Ireland by masked gunmen[2] and was never seen again. The incident has been the inspiration for several books, documentaries and a film.

Background and early training[edit]

Shergar was a Thoroughbred bay colt with a white blaze, four white socks and a wall (blue) eye.[3] He was foaled on 3 March 1978 at Sheshoon—the private stud of the Aga Khan IV—near the Curragh Racecourse in County Kildare, Ireland.[3][4] Shergar was sired by Great Nephew, a British stallion whose wins included the Prix du Moulin and Prix Dollar in France in 1967.[5] His other progeny included Grundy, Mrs Penny and Tolmi.[6] Shergar's dam was Sharmeen, a seventh-generation descendent of Mumtaz Mahal, a horse that is described by the National Sporting Library as "one of the most important broodmares of the 20th Century".[7]

In 1978 the Aga Khan announced he would send some of his yearlings for training in England. He chose Michael Stoute, who was based at Newmarket. Stoute had a good year in 1978, and had trained the winners of the Oaks, Irish Oaks and Yorkshire Oaks with Fair Salinia, and the Gold Cup with Shangamuzo.[8][9] Shergar was sent into training with Stoute in 1979, as the Aga Khan's second year of sending horses to England.[10]

According to Stoute and Ghislain Drion—the manager of the Aga Khan's Irish studs—Shergar was easy to break, and had a good temperament. He responded very well to training, particularly in September 1980, when the jockey Lester Piggott rode him in the run up to Shergar's debut race.[11]

Racing career[edit]

1980: two-year-old season[edit]

Racing silks of Shergar, those of Aga Khan

On 19 September 1980 Shergar ran his first race, the Kris Plate, with Piggott as his jockey. The race was open to two-year-old colts and geldings over a 1 mile (1.6 km) straight at Newbury. Listed as favourite with odds of 11–8, he kept in behind the leaders before opening up and winning by ​2 12 lengths.[12][13] Richard Baerlein, the racing correspondent for The Observer thought Shergar's run was "the most impressive performance by any two-year-old this season".[14] After the race Stoute said the horse "might have one more run for experience, and then we'll put him away until next season".[13]

Shergar's second race was the 1 mile (1.6 km) William Hill Futurity Stakes at Doncaster, run on 25 October 1980. He was again ridden by Piggott, with odds of 5–2 in a very experienced field of seven.[15] Shergar sat behind the pace-setting leader for much of the race, and when that horse faded, the running was taken up by Beldale Flutter. Shergar challenged for the lead, but Beldale Flutter pulled away and won by ​2 12 lengths; Shergar came in second.[16][17] Following the race, Michael Seely, the racing correspondent of The Times, thought Shergar's run was significant, and that he was "a magnificent stamp of a horse" whose odds of 25–1 for the following year's Derby were worth considering.[18]

1981: three-year-old season[edit]

Over late 1980 and early 1981 Shergar filled out and was stronger by April 1981. Stoute had decided that Shergar should run in that year’s Derby, and built the season up on that basis. The first race to prepare him was he Guardian Newspaper Classic Trial,[19] run at Sandown on 25 April 1981, where he was ridden by Walter Swinburn. In a 9-horse, ​1 14 mile (2.0 km) race, Shergar raised his pace after a mile and won by 10 lengths.[20] Baerlein had written in his column before the race that at 25–1, the odds for Shergar to win the Derby were excellent. After the win, he noted them shortening to 8–1, where, "the bet is still worth pressing";[21] he continued "If ... [Shergar] wins his next race at Chester or the Ladbroke Lingfield Trial as easily, he will be down to less than 4-1. Surely this is the time to bet like men."[21]

As further training for the Derby, Stoute decided that Shergar needed practice on a left-hand cornered course; he selected Chester, where the Chester Vase was being run on 5 May 1981.[22] After keeping pace with the leaders, with half-a-mile to go, Swinburn asked Shergar to increase speed, and he did, overtaking the leaders and going clear to win by 12 lengths.[23][24]

Shergar on his way to winning the 1981 Epsom Derby

On 3 June 1981 Shergar ran in the Derby. Set over a ​1 12 mile course at the Epsom Downs Racecourse in Surrey, the Derby, is a Group 1 flat race open to three-year-old thoroughbred colts and fillies.[25] After the top of the uphill straight start of the course, Shergar was well-placed and moving through the other runners. At Tattenham Corner—the final bend of the course—Shergar took the front of the race and opened up a lead over the others.[26][27] Commentating on the race, Peter Bromley informed listeners that "there's only one horse in it – you need a telescope to see the rest!"[28] Swinburn eased off the pace with two furlongs to go, and won by ten lengths. It was the largest winning margin of any Epsom Derby.[26][27] John Matthias, the jockey of the second-placed horse Glint of Gold, said that "I thought I'd achieved my life's ambition. Only then did I discover there was another horse on the horizon."[29] In the light of Shergar's run of wins, particularly the Derby, Baerlein wrote that the horse was "the best ... [he] had ever seen", "simply the greatest".[30]

While out on the gallops on 15 June, Shergar threw his rider, ran through a hedge onto the road and trotted along to the local village. He was spotted by a local resident, who followed the horse until it stopped to graze on a hedge, and then led him back to the stables. Shergar was unharmed during the event, and Stoute recalled "it's very lucky nothing happened to him; there's a crossing there, and it's a difficult thing".[31][32]

By the time the Irish Derby was run at the Curragh, on 27 June 1981, Swinburn was suspended following an infringement at Royal Ascot, so Piggott returned to ride Shergar.[33] At the half-way point in the race, Shergar was in third place, but increased his pace to take the lead with three furlongs to go. He slowed during the last furlong, and won by four lengths.[31][34] As the horse approached the line, Michael O'Hehir, the commentator, informed viewers that "He's winning it so easily; it's Shergar first and the rest are nowhere".[35] After the race Piggott told reporters that he had no doubt that Shergar would win as the horse "was going so easily all the way".[36] He also said that Shergar was "one of the best ... [he had] ridden".[37]

Following Shergar's Epsom Derby win, a group of US horse owners had offered $40 million to syndicate the horse. The Aga Khan turned down the offer, and instead decided to syndicate Shergar for £10 million at £250,000 for each of the forty shares—a record price at the time; the Aga Khan kept six shares for himself and the others were sold individually to buyers from nine countries. The shareholders had the option each year of selecting a mare to be covered—or of selling that option on. The stud fees were £60–80,000 per cover, which meant that shareholders could expect to make a profit from stud within four years.[38][39]

Shergar had a break of almost a month until he rode in the King George VI and Queen Elizabeth Diamond Stakes at Ascot on 25 July 1981. The race was slow-paced to start and Shergar was boxed in by other horses, but found a way out by the time the leaders had reached the final straight, and turned on the speed to win by 4 lengths.[40][41] For Baerlein, the race showed that Shergar was the best horse he had ever seen race;[40] Michael Phillips, the racing correspondent for The Times wrote that the win "proved that Shergar is a cut above the average but not exceptional". Phillips continued that Shergar "failed to fill me, and many more besides, with the magic that was in the air after Nijinsky and Mill Reef had won the same race".[41]

The Aga Khan and Stoute considered entering Shergar into the Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe that autumn, but decided that he needed one more race to prepare. They entered him into what would be his final race, the St Leger Stakes at Doncaster on 12 September 1981, with Swinburn as the jockey.[32] Ten days before the race, a story was published in the racing newspaper Sporting Life that Shergar had not be practicing well and had become "mulish"; Stoute stated that the rumours were untrue.[42] Shergar was running well in the race, although the soft ground was not to his liking, but on the final straight, when Swinburn tied to get him to accelerate to the front, the horse would not respond. Shergar came in fourth, ​11 12 lengths behind Cut Above, the winner.[43]

Surprised by the manner of the loss, Stoute and the Aga Khan ran a series of test on Shergar. All showed the horse was in good health, and he worked well in training after the race. Unwilling to risk the horse without knowing what had happened at the St Leger, the Aga Khan did not enter him into the Arc, and instead retired him to the Ballymany Stud, near the Curragh.[44] He later explained to a racing journalist:

He was just an exceptional athlete. All through the spring and summer he completely dominated European racing in a very dramatic manner, and after he had run so uncharacteristically in the St. Leger, we knew something had gone wrong, but we didn't know what it was, so it was an easy decision to retire him before the Arc.[44]

Stud career[edit]

The Aga Khan turned down large offers to put Shergar to stud in the US, and instead chose to stand him at the Ballymany Stud in Ireland. He arrived in October 1981, and was paraded down the main street of Newbridge, County Kildare. Milton Toby, the writer on Thoroughbred racing and equine law, judges Shergar to have been "a national hero in Ireland. ... one of the most recognizable sports personalities—horse or human—in Ireland."[45]

In 1982—his only rutting season—Shergar covered 44 mares, from which 36 foals were produced:[46] 17 colts and 19 fillies. Of these, three won Group races, and the most successful of his progeny was Authaal. When sold as a weanling (between six months and a year) Authaal reached 325,000 guineas.[a] He was sold a year later, where he fetched 3.1 million guineas.[49] In 1986 he won the Irish St. Leger by five lengths.[50] Toby considers that Shergar's progeny were "perhaps not a disappointing first crop, but certainly below expectations for a horse with Shergar's racing prowess."[50]

Shergar's second stud season was about to begin, and he was in high demand, and had a full book of 55 mares to cover. He was expected to earn £1 million for the season.[51][52]

Theft[edit]

Ballymany Stud is located in Ireland
Ballymany Stud
Ballymany Stud
Ballymany Stud, County Kildare, from where Shergar was stolen

On 8 February 1983, at around 8:30 pm, three men—all armed and wearing masks—entered the house of Jim Fitzgerald, the head groom at Ballymany. One of the men said to him "We have come for Shergar. We want £2 million for him."[52] Fitzgerald said the men were not rough, although one of them who carried a pistol was very aggressive.[53][52] Fitzgerald's family were locked into a room while he was taken, at gunpoint, out to Shergar's stable and was told to put the horse in the back of a horsebox.[54]

After the horsebox was driven away Fitzgerald was told to lie on the floor of a van, and his face was covered with a coat. He was driven around for four hours before being released near the village of Kilcock, approximately 20 miles (32 km) from Ballymany. He was told not to contact the Garda Síochána—the Irish police—or he and his family would be killed, but to wait for the gang to contact him. He was given the code phrase "King Neptune", which the gang would use to identify themselves. The men did not say that they were from the IRA, or give any other indication as to who they were,[55][56][57] although one of the men spoke with a Northern Irish accent, and another seemed to be experienced with horses.[58][59]

Fitzgerald walked on to the next village and called his brother to pick him up. On arrival back at Ballymany, he rang Ghislain Drion to inform him of the theft, and urged him not to call the police because of the threats that been given. Drion attempted to reach the Aga Khan in Switzerland to inform him, then rang Stan Cosgrove, Shergar's vet, who was also a shareholder. Cosgrove contacted a retired Irish Army caption, Sean Berry, who was manager of the Irish Thoroughbred Breeders Association. Berry contacted Alan Dukes, a friend of his who was the serving Minister for Finance, who suggested that Berry speak to Michael Noonan, the Minister for Justice. Noonan and Dukes told him to call the Garda. By 4:00 am Drion had managed to contact the Aga Khan, who told him to phone the Garda straight away. The force were then contacted, but it was eight hours after Shergar had been stolen and any possible trail had already gone cold.[60][61]

The Aga Khan had several reasons rationale for non-payment of the ransom, including that he was only one of 35 members, and could not negotiate or pay on behalf of the others. He was unsure of whether Shergar would be returned even if the money was paid, and that if they conceded to the demands, it would mean that every high-value horse in Ireland would have been a target for further thefts.[62] The shareholders were divided on the approach. Brian Sweeney, a veteran of the horseracing industry thought that "if you ask a mother who has had a child that has been kidnapped if a ransom should be paid, I think the answer would be 'yes, and quickly'"; another shareholder, Lord Derby, disagreed and said "if ransom money is paid for this horse, then there is a danger of other horses being kidnapped in the years to come – and that simply cannot be tolerated".[63]

Investigation[edit]

The Gardaí's immediate investigation was hampered by a piece of planning by the gang, which had selected the same day as the biggest horse sales in the country, when horseboxes had passed along every road in Ireland. Leading the investigation into the theft was trilby-wearing Chief Superintendent Jim "Spud" Murphy, who was the subject of much media coverage. His detection techniques were unconventional, and a variety of clairvoyants, psychics and diviners were called in to help. During one interview, Mr Murphy told reporters: "A clue... that is what we haven't got."

Despite numerous reported sightings and rumours of secret negotiations in the days following the theft, there was little new information, and the press began to focus their attention on Mr Murphy. During one press conference, six photographers turned up wearing trilbies, identical to the police chief, after which Mr Murphy was given a much lower public profile.

While the police searched farms in the Republic of Ireland, the gang members set about seeking a ransom. Initially, they requested negotiations with three racing journalists, John Oaksey and Derek Thompson, both working for ITV, and Peter Campling, working for The Sun. The day after the theft, Thompson took a call at 1:15 a.m. from someone claiming to be one of the thieves. He was dispatched to negotiate in the full glare of the media circus that descended on Ireland. He managed to get the press off his tracks and spent his time in the house of racehorse trainer Jeremy Maxwell taking various calls from the criminals. All he got were demands for a payment of £40,000. On Thursday morning, he received a call telling him that the horse "had an accident" and was "dead".[64]

Away from the TV cameras, the real thieves had got in touch with the Aga Khan's Paris office, not realising that he only had a minority share in the horse's ownership. On discovering that Shergar had multiple owners, the gang agreed to provide evidence that he was still alive. Cosgrove was deputised to collect the evidence, which was to be left at a hotel reception. However, a conspicuous Special Branch presence warned off the gang.

The criminals made a further call threatening to kill Shergar and the Aga Khan's negotiators. Eventually, however, a photograph of the horse's face next to a newspaper was sent to the police, but the owners were still not satisfied. What the gang did not know was that the syndicate had no intention of paying because they wanted to deter future thefts. Syndicate member Sir John Astor explained: "We were going to negotiate, but we were not going to pay." Had they paid the money for Shergar's release, they reasoned, every racehorse in the world would have become a target for theft.

Four days after the abduction, the thieves made their last call. The syndicate issued a statement blaming the Provisional IRA for the crime.

Thieves[edit]

IRA theory[edit]

The strongest suspect for the theft is the Provisional Irish Republican Army, whose motive was to raise money for arms.[65] This theory was further supported by Sean O'Callaghan, the IRA supergrass in his book The Informer. He claims that the whole scheme was masterminded by Kevin Mallon and when Shergar panicked, so did the team, resulting in the horse being shot. He also claimed that Shergar was probably shot within hours of being snatched. The thieves, who had no prior experience with the nervous, highly-strung nature of a thoroughbred stallion, were unable to handle him.[66] "One of the gang strongly suggested to me Shergar had been killed within hours. They couldn't cope with him, he went demented in the horsebox, injured his leg and they killed him." Discussing this allegation on the British Channel 4, Fitzgerald said: "I assume he would have got very troublesome. And with them not knowing horses, they would maybe have got a bit scared of him."[67] O'Callaghan said the IRA had demanded a £5 million ransom from the Aga Khan that was never met.

A pit was allegedly dug in the desolate mountains near Ballinamore, County Leitrim. The body was dragged into it and quickly covered over. No markers were left at the grave. The IRA have never officially claimed responsibility for stealing Shergar.

O’Callaghan alleged the gang was part of the IRA's special operations unit, formed with the aim of raising funds through crime. Shergar was to be its first victim, selected because of the wealth of his assumed owner, and the misapprehension that theft of a horse would cause less public outcry than kidnapping a human.

Whereabouts[edit]

Shergar's remains have never been found and the thieves have never been officially identified. The Sunday Telegraph reported that four days after Shergar was seized, the Army Council realised they would never collect a ransom. They decided to release the horse, but due to heavy surveillance on Mallon and under the eyes of the entire Irish public, the thieves felt it was impossible to move Shergar or free the horse near where he was held. Mallon thought the horse to be injured, and ordered his execution.[68]

The two thieves, inexperienced in handling racehorses and with no prior knowledge of humane euthanization techniques, went to the remote stable where Shergar was being held and opened fire with a machine gun. A former IRA member involved described the scene to The Sunday Telegraph: "Shergar was machine gunned to death. There was blood everywhere and the horse even slipped on his own blood. There was lots of cussin' and swearin' because the horse wouldn't die. It was a very bloody death."

Few gained from the theft of Shergar – the thieves never got their money and most insurers never paid out to the syndicate, claiming that he could still have been alive after the policy had expired. Insurance policies against theft taken out with forerunners of the Aviva insurance group paid out £144,000, according to Aviva's online archive.[69] According to a spokesman for Lloyd's of London, those members of the syndicate who had been insured for theft were paid $10.6 million in compensation.[70]

Legacy[edit]

The Shergar Cup was inaugurated in his honour at Goodwood Racecourse in 1999.[71] The race is now run at Ascot and was a contest between European riders and those from the rest of the world. Now the competition is between four teams, Great Britain and Ireland, Europe, the Rest of the World and, for the first time in 2012, an all-women team.

The disappearance of Shergar was made into a film, Shergar, starring Ian Holm and Mickey Rourke, and directed by Dennis Lewiston.[71]

Racing statistics[edit]

Shergar's career statistics[72][73]
Race Date Age Distance Course Odds Time Field Finish Margin Jockey
Kris Plate 19 September 1980 2 1 mile Newbury 11–8 1:38.71 23 1 2 12 lengths Lester Piggott
William Hill Futurity Stakes 25 October 1980 2 1 mile Doncaster 5–2 1:43.53 7 2 (​2 12 lengths) Lester Piggott
Guardian Newspaper Classic Trial 25 April 1981 3 1 12 miles Sandown Evens 2:09.35 9 1 10 lengths Walter Swinburn
Chester Vase 5 May 1981 3 1 mile, 4 furlongs, 65 yards Chester 4–11 2:40.47 10 1 12 lengths Walter Swinburn
Derby Stakes 3 June 1981 3 1 12 miles Epsom 10–11 2:44.21 18 1 10 lengths Walter Swinburn
Irish Sweeps Derby 27 June 1981 3 1 12 miles The Curragh 1–3 2:32.7 12 1 4 lengths Lester Piggott
King George VI and Queen Elizabeth Diamond Stakes 25 July 1981 3 1 12 miles Ascot 2–5 2:35.4 7 1 4 lengths Walter Swinburn
St Leger Stakes 12 September 1981 3 1 mile, 6 furlongs, 127 yards Doncaster 4–9 3:11.6 7 4 N/A Walter Swinburn
Earnings from races
Year[72] Age Starts Win 
(1st)
Place
(2nd)
Earnings
(£)
1980 2 2 1 1 68,630
1981 3 6 5 371,566
Total 8 6 1 440,196

Pedigree[edit]

Pedigree of Shergar (GB), bay stallion 1978[74][73]
Sire
Great Nephew
Honeyway Fairway Phalaris
Scapa Flow
Honey Buzzard Papyrus
Lady Peregrine
Sybil's Niece Admiral's Walk Hyperion
Tabaris
Sybil's Sister Nearco
Sister Sarah
Dam
Sharmeen
Val de Loir Vieux Manoir Brantôme
Vielle Maison
Vali Sunny Boy
Her Slipper
Nasreen Charlottesville Prince Chevalier
Noorani
Ginetta Tulyar
Diableretta (Family 9-c)

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Horses are traditionally sold in guineas, which are worth £1.05; 325,000 guineas equates to £393,750 in 1984 prices.[47][48]

References[edit]

  1. ^ This victory earned him a spot in The Observer newspaper's 100 Most Memorable Sporting Moments of the Twentieth Century ("100 most memorable sporting moments". The Observer. 2011-02-11. Retrieved 2012-07-19. )
  2. ^ "1983: Police hunt Shergar's kidnappers". BBC News. 1950-02-09. Retrieved 2012-07-19. 
  3. ^ a b Toby 2018, p. 28.
  4. ^ Pickering & Ross 1985, p. 162.
  5. ^ The Bloodstock Breeders' Annual Review.
  6. ^ "Great Nephew (GB) > Stallion Reports". JBBA.
  7. ^ "Mumtaz Mahal". Thoroughbred Heritage.
  8. ^ Baerlein 1984, pp. 77–78.
  9. ^ Toby 2018, p. 27.
  10. ^ Baerlein 1984, p. 78.
  11. ^ Baerlein 1984, pp. 78–79.
  12. ^ Baerlein 1984, p. 79.
  13. ^ a b Seely 1980a, p. 16.
  14. ^ Baerlein 1980a, p. 3.
  15. ^ Baerlein 1984, pp. 80–81.
  16. ^ Baerlein 1980b, p. 17.
  17. ^ "Racing". The Observer.
  18. ^ Seely 1980b, p. 16.
  19. ^ Baerlein 1984, pp. 82–83.
  20. ^ Seely 1981a, p. 7.
  21. ^ a b Baerlein 1981a, p. 17.
  22. ^ Baerlein 1984, p. 83.
  23. ^ Seely 1981b, p. 9.
  24. ^ Baerlein 1981a, p. 21.
  25. ^ Eklund & Rosenkjær.
  26. ^ a b Baerlein 1981b, p. 23.
  27. ^ a b Phillips 1981a, p. 11.
  28. ^ Searching for Shergar. BBC. 7 June 2018, Event occurs at 16:55–17:00.
  29. ^ Cairns.
  30. ^ Baerlein 1981c, p. 23.
  31. ^ a b Baerlein 1984, pp. 99–100.
  32. ^ a b Toby 2018, p. 67.
  33. ^ Toby 2018, pp. 65–66.
  34. ^ "Irish Derby: 1981–1990". The Curragh Racecourse.
  35. ^ Searching for Shergar. BBC. 7 June 2018, Event occurs at 20:40–20:50.
  36. ^ Searching for Shergar. BBC. 7 June 2018, Event occurs at 20:56–21:05.
  37. ^ Baerlein 1981d, p. 21.
  38. ^ "Stud Poker. An extraordinary time at the horses". The Economist, p. 86.
  39. ^ Baerlein 1984, p. 120.
  40. ^ a b Baerlein 1981e, p. 24.
  41. ^ a b Phillips 1981b, p. 13.
  42. ^ Baerlein 1984, pp. 116–117.
  43. ^ Baerlein 1984, p. 118.
  44. ^ a b Toby 2018, p. 70.
  45. ^ Toby 2018, p. 40.
  46. ^ "Stud Poker. An extraordinary time at the horses". The Economist.
  47. ^ "Racehorse Sold for Record-Breaking £5.25m". The Daily Telegraph.
  48. ^ Toby 2018, p. 177.
  49. ^ Montgomery 1998.
  50. ^ a b Toby 2018, p. 178.
  51. ^ "Haughey Placed, FitzGerald Nobbled". The Economist.
  52. ^ a b c Alderson & Byrne 2008.
  53. ^ Slot 2001, p. 12.
  54. ^ David 1986, pp. 18–19.
  55. ^ Turner 1984, p. ii.
  56. ^ Searching for Shergar. BBC. 7 June 2018, Event occurs at 30:50–32:05.
  57. ^ Baerlein 1984, p. 146.
  58. ^ David 1986, p. 18.
  59. ^ Toby 2018, p. 89.
  60. ^ Toby 2018, pp. 91–92.
  61. ^ Baerlein 1984, pp. 146–147.
  62. ^ Toby 2018, p. 92.
  63. ^ Searching for Shergar. BBC. 7 June 2018, Event occurs at 37:00–38:00.
  64. ^ Shergar: The day the wonder horse was stolen BBC News 8 February 2013
  65. ^ "Detailed analysis of most famous IRA abductions: ThePost.ie". Web.archive.org. 2004-06-13. Archived from the original on 29 December 2004. Retrieved 2016-04-28. 
  66. ^ O'Callaghan 1999, pp. 193–194.
  67. ^ "New light on Shergar mystery – Horseracing". The Age. 14 March 2004. Retrieved 2012-07-19. 
  68. ^ A. Alderson, "The truth about Shergar racehorse kidnapping,"The Sunday Telegraph, 28 Jan 2009 [1]
  69. ^ "Aviva plc : Heritage : Did you know? : Landmark events". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on October 23, 2008. Retrieved 2016-04-28. 
  70. ^ Thoroughbred Times, 2008
  71. ^ a b O'Neill, Dab (5 February 2013). "Shergar's gone... but not forgotten". South Wales Echo. Retrieved 24 June 2013. 
  72. ^ a b Baerlein 1984, pp. 175–178.
  73. ^ a b "Shergar". Aga Khan Studs.
  74. ^ "Shergar (GB)". equineline.com.

Sources[edit]

Books[edit]

News articles[edit]

  • Alderson, Andrew; Byrne, Nicola (27 January 2008). "The Truth About Shergar Racehorse Kidnapping". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 24 February 2018. 
  • Baerlein, Richard (21 September 1980a). "The Fastest Milers on Four Legs". The Observer. p. 3. 
  • Baerlein, Richard (27 October 1980b). "Was Beldale Flutter flattered?". The Guardian. p. 17. 
  • Baerlein, Richard (6 May 1981a). "Shergar Wins in Derby Fashion". The Guardian. p. 21. 
  • Baerlein, Richard (4 June 1981b). "Spectacular Shergar by yet Another Ten Lengths". The Guardian. p. 23. 
  • Baerlein, Richard (7 June 1981c). "Shergar, Simply the Greatest". The Guardian. p. 23. 
  • Baerlein, Richard (29 June 1981d). "Shergar, 'One of the Best I've Ridden', Says Piggott". The Guardian. p. 21. 
  • Baerlein, Richard (26 July 1981e). "Shergar Proves he's the Best". The Observer. p. 24. 
  • "Haughey Placed, FitzGerald Nobbled". The Economist. 19 February 1983. pp. 58–59. 
  • Montgomery, Sue (1 October 1998). "Racing: Yearling Colt goes for 2.2m Guineas". The Independent. 
  • Phillips, Michael (4 June 1981a). "Shergar is in a Masterclass of his Own". The Times. p. 11. 
  • Phillips, Michael (27 July 1981b). "Shergar Wins but Magic is Missing". The Times. p. 13. 
  • "Racehorse Sold for Record-Breaking £5.25m". The Daily Telegraph. 10 October 2013. 
  • "Racing". The Observer. 26 October 1980. p. 23. 
  • Seely, Michael (20 September 1980a). "Castle Keep Should Repel Invaders". The Times. p. 16. 
  • Seely, Michael (27 October 1980b). "Shergar is on the Right Lines". The Times. p. 10. 
  • Seely, Michael (27 April 1981a). "No Getting Away From To-Agori-Mou". The Times. p. 7. 
  • Seely, Michael (6 May 1981b). "Emphatic Shergar Win Stakes his Derby Claim". The Times. p. 9. 
  • Slot, Owen (3 June 2001). "'I'll Never Forget That Night the IRA Led Shergar into the Box Without a Problem'". The Sunday Telegraph. p. 12. 
  • "Stud Poker. An extraordinary time at the horses". The Economist. 21 December 1985. pp. 86–88. 

Internet and television media[edit]

External links[edit]