Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca

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Hussein bin Ali
Sharif and Emir of Mecca
Reign 1908–1924
Predecessor Ali Abdullah Pasha
Successor Ali bin Hussein
King of Hejaz
Reign 10 June 1916 – 3 October 1924
Predecessor none
Successor Ali bin Hussein
Sultan of the Arabs[1]
Reign 1916–1918
Successor none
Issue King Ali of Hejaz
Prince Hasan
King Abdullah I of Jordan
Princess Fatima
King Faisal I of Iraq and Syria
Princess Saleha
Princess Sarra
Prince Zeid
Full name
Sayyid Hussein bin Ali Al-Hashemi
Dynasty Al Hashimi
Father Sharif Ali bin Muhammad
Born 1854
Constantinople, Ottoman Empire
Died June 4, 1931(1931-06-04) (aged 76–77)
Amman, Transjordan
Burial Royal Mausoleum, Adhamiyah
Religion Sunni Islam[2]

Hussein bin Ali, GCB (Arabic: الحسين بن علي الهاشمي‎, al-Ḥusayn ibn ‘Alī al-Hāshimī; 1854 – 4 June 1931) was the Emir and Grand Sharif of Mecca from 1908 until 1917, when he proclaimed himself King of the Hejaz. He initiated the Arab Revolt in 1916 against the increasingly nationalistic Ottoman Empire during the course of the First World War. In 1924, when the Ottoman Caliphate was abolished, he further proclaimed himself Caliph of all Muslims. He ruled Hejaz until 1924, when, defeated by Abdul Aziz al Saud, he abdicated the kingdom and other secular titles to his eldest son Ali.

Early life[edit]

Hussein bin Ali was born in 1854 in Constantinople as the eldest son of Sharif Ali ibn Muhammad. He was the last of the Hashemite rulers over the Hejaz to be appointed by the Ottoman Sultan.[3] As a Hashemite,[4] he was highly respected in the Islamic world. His noble lineage granted him the status he maintained in the Hijaz: as a descendant of Muhammad the British recognised this status.


al-Husayn ibn `Ali ibn Muhammad ibn `Abd al-Mu`in ibn `Awn ibn Muhsin ibn `Abd Allah ibn al-Husayn ibn `Abd Allah ibn al-Hasan ibn Muhammad Abi Numayy II ibn Barakat II ibn Muhammad I ibn Barakat I ibn al-Hasan ibn `Ajlan ibn Rumaythah ibn Muhammad Abi Numayy I ibn Abi Sa`d al-Hasan ibn `Ali al-Akbar ibn Qatadah ibn Idris ibn Muta`in ibn `Abd al-Karim ibn `Isa ibn al-Husayn ibn Sulayman ibn `Ali ibn `Abd Allah al-Akbar ibn Muhammad ath-Tha'ir ibn Musa II ibn `Abd Allah ash-Shaykh as-Salih ibn Musa al-Jawn ibn `Abd Allah al-Mahd ibn al-Hasan al-Muthanna ibn al-Hasan ibn `Ali ibn Abi Talib.[5][6]

Arab Revolt[edit]

Drawing by Khalil Gibran, 1916

Though there is no evidence to suggest that Sharif Hussein bin Ali was inclined to Arab nationalism before 1916, the rise of Turkish nationalism under the Ottoman Empire, culminating in the 1908 Young Turk Revolution, nevertheless displeased the Hashemites and resulted in a rift between them and the Ottoman revolutionaries.[4] During World War I, Hussein initially remained allied with the Ottomans but began secret negotiations with the British on the advice of his son, Abdullah, who had served in the Ottoman parliament up to 1914 and was convinced that it was necessary to separate from the increasingly nationalistic Ottoman administration.[4] The British Secretary of State for War, Lord Kitchener, appealed to him for assistance in the conflict on the side of the Triple Entente. Starting in 1915, as indicated by an exchange of letters with British High Commissioner Henry McMahon, Hussein seized the opportunity and demanded recognition of an Arab nation that included the Hejaz and other adjacent territories as well as approval for the proclamation of an Arab Caliphate of Islam.[4] McMahon accepted and assured him that his assistance would be rewarded by an Arab empire encompassing the entire span between Egypt and Persia, with the exception of British possessions and interests in Kuwait, Aden, and the Syrian coast. But after protracted negotiations, with neither side committing to clear terms, including on key matters such as the fate of Palestine,[4] Hussein became impatient[citation needed] and commenced with what would become known as the Great Arab Revolt against Ottoman control in 1916.

Following World War I[edit]

In the aftermath of the war, the Arabs found themselves freed from centuries of Ottoman rule. Hussein's son Faisal was made king of Syria but this kingdom proved short-lived as the Middle East came under mandate rule of France and the United Kingdom. The British government subsequently made Faisal and his brother Abdallah kings of Iraq and Transjordan, respectively.

King of Hejaz[edit]

Sayyid Hussein bin Ali, Sharif and Emir of Mecca, King of Hejaz

When Hussein declared himself King of the Hejaz, he also declared himself King of the Arab lands (malik bilad-al-Arab). This only aggravated his conflict with Abdulaziz ibn Saud, which was already present because of their differences in religious beliefs and with whom he had fought before the First World War, siding with fellow anti-Saudis Ottomans in 1910. Two days after the Turkish Caliphate was abolished by the Turkish Grand National Assembly on 3 March 1924, Hussein declared himself Caliph at his son Abdullah's winter camp in Shunah, Transjordan.[7] The claim to the title had a mixed reception, and Hussein was soon ousted and driven out of Arabia by the Saudis, a rival clan that had no interest in the Caliphate. Abdulaziz ibn Saud defeated Hussein in 1924, but he continued to use the title of Caliph when living in Transjordan.

Exile and abdication[edit]

Although the British had supported Hussein from the start of the Arab Revolt and the Hussein-McMahon Correspondence, they elected not to help him to repel the Saudi attack, which eventually took Mecca, Medina, and Jeddah. Hussein was then forced to flee to Cyprus, before going to live in Amman, Transjordan, where his son Abdullah was king. After his abdication, another of his sons, Ali, briefly assumed the throne of the Hejaz, but then he too had to flee from the encroachment of the Saudi forces. Another of Hussein's sons, Faisal, was briefly King of Syria and later King of Iraq.

Hussein died in Amman in 1931 and was buried in Jerusalem.

Marriage and children[edit]

The funeral of King Hussein in Jerusalem, 1931.

Hussein, who had four wives, fathered five sons and three daughters with three of his wives. With his first wife Abidiya bint Abdullah he had:

With his second wife Madiha he had:

With his third wife Adila Khanmun he had:


National Honours[edit]

Foreign Honours[edit]


In the 1962 film Lawrence of Arabia, Alec Guinness portrayed Prince Faisal, Sharif Hussein's son.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Marshall Cavendish Corporation. History of World War I, Volume 1. Marshall Cavendish Corporation, 2002. Pp. 255
  2. ^ "IRAQ – Resurgence In The Shiite World – Part 8 – Jordan & The Hashemite Factors". APS Diplomat Redrawing the Islamic Map. 2005. 
  3. ^ a b Al-Hashimi Dynasty, GENEALOGY. Royal Ark
  4. ^ a b c d e Avi Shlaim. Lion of Jordan. page 2: Penguin Books, Ltd. ISBN 978-0-141-01728-0. 
  5. ^ "The Hashemite Family Tree". 
  6. ^ "The Hashemite Family Tree". (in Arabic). 
  7. ^ Teitelbaum, 2001, p. 243.

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al-Ḥusayn ibn ‘Alī ibn Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd al-Mu‘īn ibn ‘Awn
Born: 1854 Died: 4 June 1931
Regnal titles
New creation
King of the Arab Lands
October 1916 – 3 October 1924
Recognized by the Allies only as King of Hejaz
Succeeded by
Ali ibn al-Husayn
as King of Hejaz
Preceded by
as Ottoman emir
Sharif and Emir of Mecca
June 1916 – 3 October 1924
Succeeded by
Ali ibn al-Husayn
Political offices
Preceded by
Abd al-Ilah Pasha
Sharif and Emir of Mecca
November 1908 – June 1916
Succeeded by
as independent emir
Succeeded by
Ali Haydar Pasha
Titles in pretence
Preceded by
Abdülmecid II
Caliph of the Muslims
11 March 1924 – 3 October 1924
Reason for succession failure:
Not widely recognized