Shi Xie

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Shi Xie
Official of Han Dynasty
Born 137
Died 226 (aged 89)
Traditional Chinese 士燮
Simplified Chinese 士燮
Pinyin Shì Xiè
Wade–Giles Shih Hsieh
Courtesy name Weiyan (Chinese: 威彥; pinyin: Wēiyàn; Wade–Giles: Wei-yen)
Other names Sĩ Nhiếp (Vietnamese)
This is a Chinese name; the family name is Shi.

Shi Xie (137–226), courtesy name Weiyan, was an official who lived in the late Eastern Han Dynasty. He served as the Administrator of Jiaozhi commandery (present-day northern Vietnam).

Chen Shou's Records of the Three Kingdoms (Sanguozhi) is a major source of Chinese traditions concerning Shi Xie's life.[1] He was a promoter of Buddhism during his life and after his death various legends and worship were attached to him in Vietnam.[2] He is honoured in some temples as King Si (Vietnamese: Sĩ Vương) in Vietnam.


Shi Xie served as state secretary at the Han court, from which he later resigned to return home after his father's death.[3] He was assigned magistrate of Wu District in Sichuan Province. In the 180s he was promoted to be the Administrator of Jiaozhi.[3] Shi Xie was the leader of the elite ruling class of Han Chinese families who immigrated to what would later be modern day Vietnam and played a major role in developing Vietnamese civilization.[4]

Shi Xie pledged his loyalty to the warlord Sun Quan (founder of the state of Eastern Wu in the Three Kingdoms period) after the latter had proclaimed his dynasty and regularly sent generous tribute missions as well as an envoy to meet Sun.[3] Shi Xie then remained in office for the next 40 years. He died at the age of 90 (by East Asian age reckoning) in 226. After Shi Xie's death, Sun Quan thought the region of Jiaozhi was too far away and made it an autonomous province. Lü Dai was named Inspector of Jiaozhi and Chen Shi the new Administrator. In response to this, Shi's son, Shi Hui, took his father's position of Administrator. Shi Hui refused to allow Lü Dai and Chen Shi to enter Jiaozhi. However, Lü Dai had an imperial decree that allowed the execution of Shi Hui. Shi Kuang was sent to persuade Shi Hui to allow Lü Dai to enter. The following day, Shi Hui and his accomplices were murdered. Later, the rest of the Shi family was reduced to the status of commoners.

Shi Xie was a scholar who enjoyed reading the Spring and Autumn Annals.

Worship of "King Sĩ", Sĩ Nhiếp in Vietnam[edit]

Some Chinese heroes were deified in Vietnam after the fall of the Han Dynasty. Among these was Shi Xie who was deified in the 6th century. As one of the officials who ruled northern Vietnam in the 1st century, he was posthumously titled Thiên Cảm Gia Ứng Linh Vũ Đại Vương () by a Trần Dynasty emperor, as recorded in the Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư (), and History of King Si (Kỳ Sĩ Vương).

Shi Xie is still honoured in some temples today as "King Si" (Sĩ Vương).[5] The Vietnamese history Việt Điện U Linh Tập (, c.1400) adds significantly to the traditions of the Chinese records with local Vietnamese traditions.[6]

Family tree[edit]

Shi Ci
Shi Xie
Shi Yi
Shi Zhi
† 226
Shi Hui
† 226
Shi Kuang

See also[edit]



  1. ^ Sources of Vietnamese Tradition ed. Jayne Werner, George Edson Dutton, John K. Whitmore - 2012 "CHEN SHOU - SOUTH AND NORTH (297). Shi Xie (V: Si Nhiep or Si Vuong [King Si]) was a local strongman of Northern descent in Jiaozhou/Jiaozhi (northern Vietnam) at the end of the Han dynasty (206 B.C.E. –220 C.E. )."
  2. ^ Damien Keown A Dictionary of Buddhism 2003 Page 326 "Early records also indicate that the late *Han-dynasty governor of Chiao-chou, Shih Hsieh (Si Nhiep) had a large number of Chinese and central Asian monks in his entourage. Official Chinese court records speak of eminent and accomplished ..."
  3. ^ a b c Taylor, Keith Weller, "The Birth of Vietnam". University of California Press, 1983. p. 70
  4. ^ Taylor (1983), p. 70
  5. ^ Edward Hetzel Schafer The Vermilion Bird 1967 - Page 99 "Other Hua heroes were deified after the fall of imperial Han. An important and early one was Shih Hsieh (Dri Sep; Vietn. Sĩ Nhiếp)"
  6. ^ Olga Dror Cult, Culture, and Authority: Princess Liễu Hạnh in Vietnamese History 2007 -- Page 15 "Let us consider the account of the spirit of Sĩ Nhiếp in the Viet Dien U Linh Tap, which includes a citation from the Bao Cite Truyen that raises a number of ..."


Preceded by
Administrator of Jiaozhi
Thái Thú Giao Châu

Succeeded by
Shi Hui