Shia Islam in Iraq
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Shia (//; Arabic: شيعة) Muslims make up the majority of the Iraqi population, with 64 to 69% of Iraqis identifying as Shia.  Shia Islam has a long history in Iraq. The 4th caliph of Sunni Islam and the 1st Imam of Shia Islam, Ali ibn Abi Talib, moved the capital of the empire from Medina to Kufa/Najaf only two decades after the death of the Prophet Muhammad.
Iraq is the site of the holy cities of Najaf and Karbala, pilgrimage sites for millions of Shia Muslims. Najaf is the site of Ali's tomb, and Karbala is the site of the tomb of the grandson of Muhammad and Shī‘ah Imām, Husayn ibn Ali. Najaf is also a center of Shia learning and seminaries. Two other holy sites for Twelver Shia in Iraq are the Al-Kadhimiya Mosque in Baghdad, which contains the tombs of the seventh and ninth Shī‘ah Imāms, Mūsā al-Kādhim and Muhammad al-Taqī, and the Al-Askari Mosque in Sāmarrā, Iraq which contains the tombs of the tenth and eleventh Shia Imams, Ali al-Hadi and Hasan al-‘Askarī.
Since 2003 there has been ongoing sectarian violence between Shias and Sunnis in Iraq.
Before the Safavids
After being named caliph in 657 CE, Ali established his capital in Kufa in present-day Iraq.  Thus Ali and six other of the total 12 Imams of the Shias are buried in the Shia areas of Iraq. It was the message and the preacher from Iraq that in time converted Iran and taught them the principle of Shiism when the Shia Safavid dynasty declared Shiism the official religion of Persia in AD 1501. source?
15th and 16th Centuries
Banu Kaab (including its Khazraj section) was converted from Sunnism to Shiism in the mid-18th century.
Note: The Sayyids of Banu Kaab were already Shia before the conversion.
Late 18th century and onwards
From the late 18th century and onwards, there was a massive conversion of the majority of Iraq’s Sunni Arab tribes to Shiism, especially during the 19th century. Throughout the 19th century the Ottoman Empire instituted a policy of settling the nomadic Sunni Arab tribes, in order to create greater centralization in Iraq. The previously nomadic Sunni Arab tribes either settled to sedentary agricultural life in the hinterlands of Najaf and Karbala or traded and increasingly interacted with the people of these two Shia holy places. The centralization and increased interaction facilitated a rapid spread of Shiism.
In addition, some tribes converted as a form of protest to their treatment by the Sunni Ottomans. Shia missionaries from Najaf and Karbala operated with relative autonomy from the Ottoman Empire and were able to proselytize with little official hinderance. 
This massive scope of conversion continued as late as the 20th century. Even in 1917, it was noted by the British that the conversions were still going on vigorously. Therefore, the Shia of Iraq are mostly recent converts (i.e. from the late 18th century and onwards).
The following tribes were converted during this period: Some sections of Zubaid, Banu Lam, al bu Muhammad, large sections of the Rabiah (including al-Dafaf'a, Bani Amir and al-Jaghayfa), Banu Tamim (including their largest section in Iraq –Bani Sa’d), the Shammar Toga, some sections of Dulaim, the Zafir, the Dawwar, the Sawakin, al-Muntafiq confederation, the Bani Hasan (of the Bani Malik), those of the Afak, the Bani Hukayyim, the Shibil (of the Khazal), the al Fatla, the many tribes along the Hindiya canal, and the 5 tribes of Al Diwaniyah (Aqra’, Budayyir, Afak, Jubur and Jilaiha) that relied on the Daghara canal for their water supply.
During the Baathist regime
For many years "Arab nationalism and party politics superseded" Shi'i unity in Iraqi politics, and Shi'i mujtahids (Ayatollahs) were not politically active. Shia tended to be less well off economically and socially and supported leftist parties. In 1963, when the Arab nationalist and socialist Ba'ath Party came to power in a coup, 53% of its membership was Shia. Gradually, however, Shia were shunted aside (by 1968 only 6% of the Ba'ath party was Shia) and turned again to the ulama for leadership.
Throughout the 1970s Shia became increasingly disaffected. al-Dawa ("the Call"), a political party dedicated to the establishment of an Islamic state in Iraq, was formed.
Religious processions during Muharram in the shrine cities turned into political protests. Five members of the Daw'a party were executed after rioting in 1974, and in 1977 eight Shia were executed after worse rioting.
The Islamic Revolution in Iran intensified unrest and repression. In June 1979 Ayatollah Mohammad Baqir al-Sadr was arrested and placed under house arrest. Less than a year later, after an attempt to assassinate Saddam Hussein, Sadr was executed. In 1982 the Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq was formed in Iran by Iraqi cleric Mohammed Baqir al-Hakim as an umbrella group to overthrow the Sunni-dominated Arab nationalist regime in Iraq. In Iran, Hakim attempted to unite and co-ordinate the activities of the Dawa party and other major religious Shi'i groupings (the Paykar group (a guerilla organization similar to the Iranian Mujahidin) and the Jama'at al 'Ulama (groupings of pro-Khomeini ulema).
Meanwhile, the Baath leadership made a determined effort to woo support from Iraqi Shi'is during the Iran–Iraq War (1980–1988), diverting resources to the Shia south and emphasizing in war propaganda Iraqi Arabness in contrast to Iranian Persianness and the historical struggle between the Muslim Arabs and Zoroastrian Persians in the early days of Islam. Iraqi propaganda used symbolic key-words such as Qādisiyya (the battle at which the Muslim Arab armies defeated the Persian Empire, while the Iranian propaganda used Shia key-words such as Karbala. In June 1984, however, the Baath government stick replaced the carrot and some 95 Shi'i ulama, many of them members of the al-Hakim family, were executed.
Following the US led 2003 invasion of Iraq, sectarian violence between Shia and the Sunnis steadily escalated. By 2007, the violence had increased to the point of being described in the United States' National Intelligence Estimate as a "civil war". During the Civil war in Iraq, tens to hundreds of thousands of people have been killed and at least 2.7 million have been internally displaced due to inter-faction violence.
Najaf was also the center from which opposition to British rule was organized. Shia activism from Najaf contributed to opposition to the Communist threat in the 1960s and to the Baath regime, which was dominated by Sunni's, since 1968.
- Malik al-Ashtar
- Habib ibn Madhahir
- Abu al-Aswad al-Du'ali
- Kumait Ibn Zaid
- Abu Hamza al-Thumali
- Al-Shaykh Al-Mufid
- Sharif Razi
- Ayatollah Muhsin al-Hakim
- Ayatollah Abu al-Qasim al-Khoei
- Ayatollah Mohammad Baqir al-Sadr
- Hujjatu'l-Islam Mohammed Baqir al-Hakim
- Muhammad Saeed al-Sahhaf, foreign minister & minister of information in Saddam regime
- Muqtada as-Sadr (born 1973)
- Muhammad Muhammad Sadiq as-Sadr (1943–1999)
- Ahmed Al-Waeli
- Nazik Al-Malaika
- Muhammad Mahdi Al-Jawahiri
- Nouri al-Maliki
- Jafar Dhia Jafar
- Hussain al-Shahristani
- Ali Al-Wardi
- Abd al-Karim Qasim
- Abdul-Wahab Mirjan
- Salih Jabr
- Fuad al-Rikabi
- Hamid Majid Mousa
- Muzaffar Al-Nawab
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