Barrier cream

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A barrier cream is a topical formulation used in industrial applications and as a cosmetic to place a physical barrier between the skin and contaminants that may irritate the skin (contact dermatitis or occupational dermatitis).[1] There are many other terms for creams designed to protect skin from harmful substances, including skin protective creams, pre-work creams, antisolvent gels, protective ointments,[2] and shielding lotions.[3] Three classes of barrier creams are used: water repellent creams, water-soluble creams, and creams designed for special applications.[4] Barrier creams may contain substances such as zinc oxide, talc or kaolin to layer over the skin.[5] For hand care they are designed to protect against the harm from detergents and other irritants.[6]

The efficacy of barrier creams is controversial.[5] They have not been demonstrated to be useful in preventing hand eczema.[7] A 2010 Cochrane review concluded that there was insufficient evidence to determine whether barrier cream could prevent occupational contact dermatitis.[1] They are a poor substitute for protective clothing for workers.[8] Gloves provide a greater protection than barrier creams.[9] However they are reasonably effective for the protection of face against some airborne substances.[8]

Some evidence suggests that improper use of barrier cream could cause a harmful rather than a beneficial effect.[6] Skin that has been moisturized by barrier cream may be more susceptible to irritation by sodium lauryl sulfate, which can permeate hydrated skin more easily because of its hydrophilia.[5] Barrier creams that contain petroleum jelly or certain oils may cause rubber or latex gloves to deteriorate.[5]

Medical uses[edit]

Hand care[edit]

For hand care they are designed to protect against the harm from detergents and other irritants.[6] To help prevent the spread of pathogens, health care providers are required to wash their hands frequently.[10] Frequent hand washing can result in chronic damage termed irritant contact dermatitis which includes dryness, irritation, itching, and more seriously, cracking and bleeding.[10] Irritant contact dermatitis is very common among nurses, ranging from 25% to 55%, with as many as 85% relating a history of having skin problems.[10] The World Health Organization has considered the use of barrier creams and has found their efficacy to be "equivocal" and too expensive to be considered in health-care settings where resources are limited.[10]

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found "Two recent randomized, controlled trials that evaluated the skin condition of caregivers demonstrated that barrier creams did not yield better results than did the control lotion or vehicle used. As a result, whether barrier creams are effective in preventing irritant contact dermatitis among health-care workers remains unknown."[11]

Diaper rash[edit]

The Great Ormond Street Hospital Manual of Children's Nursing Practices 2012 book found that "disposable nappies are effective in drawing fluid away from the skin and can be changed less frequently in the absence of stools, making regular application of barrier creams unnecessary in most children."[12]

Work related[edit]

Barrier creams have been used in industry to protect workers' skin from the contaminants encountered in occupations such as nurses, hairdressers, employees in the food processing industry, cleaners, metal workers, printers, bricklayers etc.[1]

A 2010 Cochrane review concluded that there was insufficient evidence to determine whether barrier cream could prevent irritant contact dermatitis in the workplace.[1] Barrier creams can be applied before exposure to potential irritants,[13] but are not typically used as the main protection against hazardous substances.[14] They are a poor substitute for protective clothing for workers;[8] in particular, gloves provide greater protection.[9] However barrier creams are reasonably effective for protection of the face against some airborne substances.[8] Active barrier creams containing silicone, tartaric acid, glycerin, and other ingredients are said to be beneficial for some chromate-sensitive construction workers.[8]

Effectiveness[edit]

The efficacy of barrier creams is controversial.[5] They have not been demonstrated to be useful in preventing hand eczema.[7] According to the National Safety Council, "shielding lotions can keep the skin from drying out."[3]

Safety[edit]

A 2002 review found "some reports indicate that inappropriate BC application might induce a deleterious rather than a beneficial effect."[6] Skin that has been moisturized by barrier cream may be more susceptible to irritation by sodium lauryl sulfate, which can permeate hydrated skin more easily due to its hydrophilia.[5] When handling hazardous molecules such as sodium hydroxide, ingredients in barrier cream could react and induce skin irritation.[5] Barrier creams that contain petroleum jelly or certain oils may cause rubber or latex gloves to deteriorate.[5]

Mechanism of action[edit]

The mechanism of barrier cream varies by product.[5] Three categories of barrier creams are used: water repellent creams, water-soluble creams, and creams designed for special applications.[4] Moisturizing barrier cream acts as a lubricating film on the skin to prevent depletion of water (transepidermal water loss) in the skin's outermost layer, the stratum corneum.[5] This may have a protective effect against irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis, which often result from such depletion.[5] These barrier creams can be classed as occlusives (which prevent loss through a hydrophobic effect), humectants (which absorb water from the dermis and environment due to hygroscopy), or hydrating agents (which both moisturize the skin and maintain its water content).[5] Barrier creams may contain substances such as zinc oxide, talc or kaolin to layer over the skin.[5] Other barrier creams are intended to protect the skin from some external agents, though they are not sufficient to provide a complete barrier.[5]

Society and culture[edit]

In 2005, the Internet marketing agency Expansion Plus began promoting the term shielding lotion in a highly successful campaign that relied on planting information in social media so that it would be picked up and spread virally.[15][16] The basic principle was to place articles on the skinmdnatural.com website that appeared to be reviews, and then distribute links via news sites and press releases, so that the purported reviews would be replicated elsewhere.[17]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Bauer, Andrea; Schmitt, Jochen; Bennett, Cathy; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Elsner, Peter; English, John; Williams, Hywel C. (16 June 2010). "Interventions for preventing occupational irritant hand dermatitis". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (6): CD004414. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004414.pub2. PMID 20556758. 
  2. ^ Wilhelm, Klaus Peter; Zhai, Hongbo; Maibach, Howard I. (2007-11-26). Dermatotoxicology. CRC Press. p. 299. ISBN 9781420009774. BC are also called “skin protective creams” (SPCs) or “protective creams” as well as "protective ointments", "invisible glove", "barrier", "protective", or "prework" creams and gels (lotions), "antisolvent" gels, and so on. Kresken and Klotz (2003) believe that the term “invisible glove” is incorrect and it might mislead the user. Frosch et al. (1993a) consider SPC a more appropriate terminology since most creams do not provide a real barrier, at least not comparable to stratum corneum. We utilize BC here because this term is in general usage in industry. 
  3. ^ a b Safety & Health: SH. 172-173 (Digitized June 1, 2010 ed.). The Council. 2005. 
  4. ^ a b Holt, Allan St John (2008-06-09). Principles of Construction Safety. John Wiley & Sons. p. 177. ISBN 9780470763353. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Corazza M, Minghetti S, Bianchi A, Virgili A, Borghi A (2014). "Barrier creams: facts and controversies". Dermatitis. 25 (6): 327–33. doi:10.1097/DER.0000000000000078. PMID 25384222. 
  6. ^ a b c d Zhai H, Maibach HI (2002). "Barrier creams--skin protectants: can you protect skin?". J Cosmet Dermatol. 1 (1): 20–3. doi:10.1046/j.1473-2130.2001.00006.x. PMID 17134447. 
  7. ^ a b Robert L. Rietschel; Joseph F. Fowler; Alexander A. Fisher (2008). Fisher's Contact Dermatitis. PMPH-USA. pp. 333–. ISBN 978-1-55009-378-0. 
  8. ^ a b c d e Richard J. G. Rycroft (1 January 2001). Textbook of Contact Dermatitis. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 989–. ISBN 978-3-540-66842-8. 
  9. ^ a b Lebwohl, Mark G.; Heymann, Warren R.; Berth-Jones, John; Coulson, Ian, eds. (19 September 2013). Treatment of Skin Disease: Comprehensive Therapeutic Strategies. Elsevier Health Sciences UK. pp. 336–. ISBN 978-0-7020-5236-1. 
  10. ^ a b c d "WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care: First Global Patient Safety Challenge Clean Care Is Safer Care". WHO Press. 2009. Retrieved 2 October 2015. 
  11. ^ John M. Boyce, Didier Pittet (October 25, 2002). "Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-Care Settings". Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 
  12. ^ Susan Macqueen (18 June 2012). The Great Ormond Street Hospital Manual of Children's Nursing Practices. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 181–. ISBN 978-1-4051-0932-1. 
  13. ^ Schliemann S, Elsner P (2014). "Prevention of Hand Eczema: Barrier Creams and Emollients". Textbook of Hand Eczema. Springer. pp. 273–278. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-39546-8_26. 
  14. ^ Kurpiewska J, Liwkowicz J (2014). "[Barrier creams in prevention of hand dermatoses]". Med Pr (in Polish). 65 (2): 297–305. PMID 25090859. 
  15. ^ Bansal, I., & Bansal, S. (2015). "Social Media Marketing – An Overview". Sai Om Journal of Commerce & Management: A Peer Reviewed International Journal. 2: 1–6. 
  16. ^ Lewis, Tanya (31 July 2006). "Online effort establishes new category of skin care". PRWeek. 
  17. ^ "Case Study: SkinMD" (PDF). PRESSfeed Co.